[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: B cell–activation factor (BAFF) is critical for B cell maturation. Inhibition of BAFF represents an appealing target for desensitization of sensitized end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. We conducted a Phase 2a, single-arm, open-label exploratory study investigating the effect of tabalumab (BAFF inhibitor) in patients with ESRD and calculated panel reactive antibodies (cPRAs) >50%. The treatment period duration was 24 weeks. Eighteen patients received tabalumab, at doses of 240-mg subcutaneous (SC) at Week 0 followed by 120-mg SC monthly for 5 additional months. Patients were followed for an additional 52 weeks. Immunopharmacologic effects were characterized through analysis of blood for HLA antibodies, BAFF concentrations, immunoglobulins, T and B cell subsets, as well as pre- and posttreatment tonsil and bone marrow biopsies. Significant reductions in cPRAs were observed at Weeks 16 (p = 0.043) and 36 (p = 0.004); however, absolute reductions were small (<5%). Expected pharmacologic changes in B cell subsets and immunoglobulin reductions were observed. Two tabalumab-related serious adverse events occurred (pneumonia, worsening of peripheral neuropathy), while the most common other adverse events were injection-site pain and hypotension. Three patients received matched deceased donor transplants during follow-up. Treatment with a BAFF inhibitor resulted in statistically significant, but not clinically meaningful reduction in the cPRA from baseline (NCT01200290, Clinicaltrials.gov).
Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · American Journal of Transplantation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
We previously reported that selective depletion of B-lymphocytes with rituximab, an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, slowed decline of beta-cell function in recent-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) at one year. Subjects were followed further to determine whether there was persistence of effect.Research Design and Methods
Eighty-seven subjects (ages 8-40) were randomly assigned to, and 81 received, infusions of rituximab or placebo on days 1, 8, 15, and 22. The primary outcome - baseline-adjusted mean 2-hour area under the curve (AUC) serum C-peptide during a mixed meal tolerance test (MMTT) at one year - showed higher C-peptide AUC with rituximab versus placebo. Subjects were further followed with additional MMTTs every 6 months.ResultsThe rate of decline of C-peptide was parallel between groups, but shifted by 8.2 months in rituximab treated subjects. Over 30 months, AUC, insulin dose, and HbA1c were similar for rituximab and placebo. However, in evaluating change in C-peptide over the entire follow-up period, the rituximab group means were significantly larger as compared within assessment times to the placebo group means using a global test (p = 0.03). Odds ratio for loss of C-peptide to < 0.2 nmol/L following rituximab was 0.565 (p= 0.064). B-lymphocytes recovered to baseline values by 18 months. Serum IgG levels were maintained in the normal range but IgM levels were depressed.Conclusions
Like several other immunotherapeutic approaches tested, in recent-onset T1DM, rituximab delays the fall in C-peptide, but does not appear to fundamentally alter the underlying pathophysiology of the disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacterial adherence to the acquired dental pellicle, important in dental caries (caries), is mediated by receptor-adhesins such as salivary agglutinin binding to Streptococcus mutans antigen I/II (I/II). Ten selected I/II epitopes were chosen to determine their reactivity to human salivary IgA. Previous studies suggested that a specific HLA biomarker group (HLA-DRB1*04) may have differential influence of immune responses to I/II. However, it was not known whether secretory IgA (SIgA) responses to the selected epitopes from HLA-DRB1*04 positive subjects were different compared to controls, or across other caries-related factors such as total IgA (TIgA). Thirty-two total subjects were matched accord-ing to HLA type, gender, ethnicity and age. HLA genotyping, oral bacterial, immunoglobulin and antibody analyses were performed. A large observed difference emerged with regard to the natural immune reservoir of TIgA in HLA-DRB1*04 positive subjects, specifically, a 27.6% reduction compared to controls. In contrast to all other epitopes studied, HLA-DRB1*04 positive sub-jects also exhibited reduced reactivity to I/II epitope 834-853. HLA-DRB1*04 positive subjects exhibited lower specific SIgA activity/TIgA to 834-853 and also a lower specific reactivity to 834-853/whole cell S. mutans UA159. Further-more, HLA-DRB1*04 positive subjects exhibited lower responses to I/II in its entirety. The large observed difference in TIgA and the 834-853 re-activity pattern across multiple measures suggest potentially important connections pertaining to the link between HLA-DRB1*04 and caries.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Open Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied the change in the first-phase insulin response (FPIR) during the progression to type 1 diabetes (T1D). Seventy-four oral insulin trial progressors to T1D of the Diabetes Prevention Trial-Type 1 with at least one FPIR measurement after baseline and before diagnosis were studied. The FPIR was examined longitudinally in 26 progressors who had FPIR measurements during each of the 3 years before diagnosis. The association between the change from the baseline FPIR to the last FPIR and time to diagnosis was studied in the remainder (n=48). The 74 progressors had lower baseline FPIR values than non-progressors (n=270) with adjustments for age and BMI. In the longitudinal analysis of the 26 progressors, there was a greater decline in the FPIR from 1.5 to 0.5 years before diagnosis than from 2.5 to 1.5 years before diagnosis. This accelerated decline was also evident in a regression analysis of the 48 remaining progressors in whom the rate of decline became more marked with the approaching diagnosis. The patterns of decline were similar between the longitudinal and regression analyses. There is an acceleration of decline in the FPIR during the progression to T1D which becomes especially marked between 1.5 and 0.5 years before diagnosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The upper age of renal transplant recipients is rising on the transplant wait list. Age-dependent immune responsiveness to new antigens has not been thoroughly studied. This study used a mouse model of alloantibody response to neoalloantigen to study age-related differences.
Transgenic huCD20-C57BL/6 mice were immunized intraperitoneally with BALB/c splenocytes (2.5 × 10(7)) at baseline and 1 month. Plasma samples were collected at baseline and 1 and 2 months after inoculation, frozen, and tested in a batch run (n = 22). Samples were tested by flow cytometric crossmatch for alloantibody with 2-fold serial dilution from neat to 1:640 using BALB/c splenocytes as targets. The sum of the median fluorescence intensity of the tested sample was calculated after subtracting that of an autologous serum control. Elderly mice (ELD; 42-103 weeks) at inoculation were compared with younger mice (YOU; 11-15 weeks). Statistical analysis was performed with 2-sample t test.
Mean age (weeks) between the groups was significantly different (ELD 69.3 ± 9.6 vs YOU 13.4 ± 1.4; P < .001). There was no difference in alloantibody between groups at baseline (ELD 0.7 ± 3.1 vs YOU 0.6 ± 0.4; P = .93). There was a higher alloantibody response at 1 month for YOU (52.9 ± 31.78) compared with ELD (5.12 ± 8.18). There was a greater difference after the 2 month (YOU 109.38 ± 66.43 vs ELD 21.97 ± 27.14; P < .0024).
There was a difference in response to new alloantigen in this animal model. Older animals had significantly decreased responses to new alloantigen stimulation 1 month after inoculation and even more profound decreases at 2 months compared with young animals. This model may be used to study differences in immune refractoriness to antigen signaling. It may be important to adapt clinical immunosuppression in the aged population to possible decreased responses to immune stimulation.
No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Transplantation Proceedings
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While several studies have examined the general inflammatory responses in relation to cytomegalovirus infection, the identification of the various inflammatory mediators as well as their relative importance is far from clear.
Solid organ recipients enrolled in an international multicenter trial of cytomegalovirus disease treatment (the VICTOR study) were analyzed (n = 289) (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00431353). Plasma markers of inflammation and endothelial cell activation were assessed at baseline by enzyme immunoassays.
THE MAJOR FINDINGS WERE: (i) Plasma levels of the CXC-chemokine interferon-inducible protein-10 (P<0.001) and C-reactive protein (P = 0.046) were independently associated with the presence of cytomegalovirus DNAemia above lower level of quantification. (ii) High levels of CC-chemokine ligand 21 (P = 0.027) and pentraxin 3 (P = 0.033) were independently associated with tissue invasive cytomegalovirus disease as opposed to cytomegalovirus syndrome.
Our findings illustrate the complex interaction between cytomegalovirus and the immune system, involving a wide range of inflammatory mediators that could be associated to disease manifestations in cytomegalovirus related disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Rituximab has been successfully used as an experimental therapy in different autoimmune diseases. Recently, a double-blind placebo-controlled phase-2 study in early onset type 1 diabetes showed that rituximab delayed progression of the disease. However, like with any immunosuppressive therapy, there is a concern of opportunistic viral reactivations with the use of rituximab, including herpes and polyomaviruses. OBJECTIVES: To study the incidence of new infections and reactivations with BK, JC, Epstein-Barr and cytomegalovirus (BKV, JCV, EBV and CMV) in T1D participants in the phase-2 rituximab study. STUDY DESIGN: Subjects received 4 weekly doses of rituximab (N=57) or placebo (N=30) during the first month of study. Blood samples obtained at weeks 0, 12, 26, 56 and 78 were assayed for CMV, EBV, BKV and JCV by real-time DNA PCR and serology. RESULTS: EBV reactivations were diagnosed by PCR in 25% of placebo, but none of rituximab recipients (p<0.01). There were no episodes of CMV viremia in either treatment group. BKV viremias were significantly more common in the rituximab recipients (9%) compared with placebo controls (0, p<0.01). No JCV reactivations were detected in this study, but among 6 rituximab and 2 placebo recipients who seroconverted for JCV during the study, only one rituximab recipient had detectable viremia. All infections were asymptomatic. CONCLUSIONS: Four doses of rituximab administered to individuals with early onset T1D decreased the incidence of asymptomatic EBV reactivations, as predicted by the rituximab-mediated elimination of memory B-cells, but increased the frequency of asymptomatic viremias caused by polyomaviruses.
No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Journal of clinical virology: the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polyomavirus BK (BKV)-associated nephropathy causes premature kidney transplant (KT) failure. BKV viruria and viremia are biomarkers of disease progression, but associated risk factors are controversial. A total of 682 KT patients receiving basiliximab, mycophenolic acid (MPA), corticosteroids were randomized 1:1 to cyclosporine (CsA) or tacrolimus (Tac). Risk factors were analyzed in 629 (92.2%) patients having at least 2 BKV measurements until month 12 posttransplant. Univariate analysis associated CsA-MPA with lower rates of viremia than Tac-MPA at month 6 (10.6% vs. 16.3%, p = 0.048) and 12 (4.8% vs. 12.1%, p = 0.004) and lower plasma BKV loads at month 12 (3.9 vs. 5.1 log(10) copies/mL; p = 0.028). In multivariate models, CsA-MPA remained associated with less viremia than Tac-MPA at month 6 (OR 0.60; 95% CI 0.36-0.99) and month 12 (OR 0.33; 95% CI 0.16-0.68). Viremia at month 6 was also independently associated with higher steroid exposure until month 3 (OR 1.19 per 1 g), and with male gender (OR 2.49) and recipient age (OR 1.14 per 10 years) at month 12. The data suggest a dynamic risk factor evolution of BKV viremia consisting of higher corticosteroids until month 3, Tac-MPA compared to CsA-MPA at month 6 and Tac-MPA, older age, male gender at month 12 posttransplant.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · American Journal of Transplantation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Treatment failure or relapse is common in solid organ transplant recipients treated for cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease. Because CMV infections induce a vigorous inflammatory response, we investigated whether pretreatment levels of inflammatory markers were associated with virologic and clinical outcomes.
Solid organ transplant recipients enrolled in an international multicenter trial of CMV disease treatment (the VICTOR study) were studied (n=248). Plasma levels of markers of inflammation and endothelial cell activation were assessed at baseline and during follow-up by enzyme immunoassays.
Baseline values for the chemokine CXCL16 was an independent predictor of clinical outcome (P=0.003) and was a weak independent predictor of suppression of viral load below level of detection (LOD) (P=0.013) at day 21 after initiation of treatment. Baseline levels of the long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) was an independent predictor of suppression of viral load below LOD at day 21 (P=0.002), whereas baseline levels of von Willebrand factor (vWF) was an independent predictor of clinical outcome at day 21 (P=0.008), and vWF levels at day 21 was a weak independent inflammatory predictor of viral recurrence (P=0.018).
The present study shows that the plasma levels of CXCL16, PTX3 and vWF at the start of treatment are independently associated with virologic and clinical treatment failure during anti-CMV therapy in solid organ transplant recipients. These findings suggest a link between CMV infection and inflammation that also may influence the outcome of anti-CMV therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This prospective pharmacoepidemiological study examined treatment and outcomes in patients converted to sirolimus (SRL) after renal transplantation. 484 subjects in 36 centres in 7 countries were followed for up to 5 years. Principal reasons for conversion were declining graft function (146/484, 30%) and side effects of prior therapy (144/484, 30%) and the major treatment combinations after conversion were SRL ± MMF (62%), SRL + TAC (21.5%), SRL + CSA (16.5%). The cumulative probability of biopsy-confirmed acute rejection (BCAR) was 5% (n = 22), death-censored graft loss 12% (n = 56) and death 6% (n = 22), and there was no significant relationship to the treatment combination employed. Median calculated creatinine clearance was 48.4 (29.3, 64.5) mL/min at conversion, rising to 54.1 (41.2, 69.0) mL/min at month 1, 55.7 (39.0, 73.0) mL/min at month 12, 58.6 (39.7, 75.2) mL/min at two years and 60.9 (36.0, 77.0) mL/min at three years post-conversion. The most common adverse events were hypertension (47%), hyperlipidemia (26%), urinary tract infections (25%), anaemia (24%) and diarrhea (14%), and cardiac events, hyperlipemia and CMV infection were more common in patients converted during the first year. SRL was most frequently combined with MMF after conversion, but principal clinical outcomes were not significantly influenced by the treatment combination employed in normal practice.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Journal of Transplantation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interpretation of clinical trials to alter the decline in β-cell function after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes depends on a robust understanding of the natural history of disease. Combining data from the Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet studies, we describe the natural history of β-cell function from shortly after diagnosis through 2 years post study randomization, assess the degree of variability between patients, and investigate factors that may be related to C-peptide preservation or loss. We found that 93% of individuals have detectable C-peptide 2 years from diagnosis. In 11% of subjects, there was no significant fall from baseline by 2 years. There was a biphasic decline in C-peptide; the C-peptide slope was -0.0245 pmol/mL/month (95% CI -0.0271 to -0.0215) through the first 12 months and -0.0079 (-0.0113 to -0.0050) from 12 to 24 months (P < 0.001). This pattern of fall in C-peptide over time has implications for understanding trial results in which effects of therapy are most pronounced early and raises the possibility that there are time-dependent differences in pathophysiology. The robust data on the C-peptide obtained under clinical trial conditions should be used in planning and interpretation of clinical trials.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We assessed diabetes risk associated with zinc transporter-8 antibodies (ZnT8A), islet cell antibodies (ICA), and HLA type and age in relatives of people with type 1 diabetes with the standard biochemical autoantibodies (BAA) to insulin (IAA), GAD65 (GAD65A), and/or insulinoma-associated protein 2 antigen (IA-2A).
For this analysis, 2,256 relatives positive for at least one BAA, of whom 142 developed diabetes, were tested for ZnT8A, ICA, and HLA genotype followed by biannual oral glucose tolerance tests. ZnT8A were also tested in 911 randomly chosen antibody-negative relatives.
ZnT8A were associated with the other BAA (548 of 2,256 [24.3%] BAA(+) vs. 8 of 911 [0.8%] BAA(-), P < 0.001) and BAA number (177 of 1,683 [10.5%] single-, 221 of 384 [57.6%] double-, and 150 of 189 [79.4%] triple-BAA positivity, P < 0.001). The 4-year diabetes risk was higher in single BAA(+) relatives with ZnT8A than ZnT8A(-) relatives (31 vs. 7%, P < 0.001). In multivariable analysis, age ≤ 20 years (hazard ratio 2.13, P = 0.03), IA-2A (2.15, P = 0.005), IAA (1.73, P = 0.01), ICA (2.37, P = 0.002), and ZnT8A (1.87, P = 0.03) independently predicted diabetes, whereas HLA type (high and moderate vs. low risk) and GAD65A did not (P = 0.81 and 0.86, respectively).
In relatives with one standard BAA, ZnT8A identified a subset at higher diabetes risk. ZnT8A predicted diabetes independently of ICA, the standard BAA, age, and HLA type. ZnT8A should be included in type 1 diabetes prediction and prevention studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The impact of different cytomegalovirus (HCMV) glycoprotein B (gB) genotypes on pathogenesis remains controversial.
To investigate the effect of gB genotypes either as single infections or as part of multiple infections on the early kinetics of response to ganciclovir therapy.
Patients (n=239) enrolled in a study of intravenous ganciclovir or valganciclovir for the treatment of HCMV disease were analysed by a gB genotype specific PCR to quantify the amount of each gB genotype present at initiation of therapy (baseline, day 0) and at days 3, 7, 14 and 21 post therapy.
In all gB groups (individual gB genotype infections and mixed genotype infections) there was a biphasic decline in viral load after therapy. The first phase half life (days 0-3) was ≤1 day and was followed over the next 18 days by a slower second phase decline with half lives ranging from 3.4 to 4.4 days. The 1st phase rapid decline in viral load was dependent upon gB genotype whereas the ultimate viral load reduction at day 21 was relatively insensitive to gB genotype. A strong correlation between 1st phase decline and extent of viral load reduction at day 21 was observed (r=0.37; p=0.002). These data imply that early reductions in HCMV load after therapy may be useful in predicting the duration of drug therapy needed to control HCMV replication.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Journal of clinical virology: the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Water-soluble polymers poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) were used to study cryopreservation of porcine islets. DMSO was used as control. The effects of polymer purity, molecular weight (MW) and concentration on islet viability were inves-tigated. The results show that both PVP and PEG are good cyroprotectant candidates for islet cryopreser-vation. The effects of polymer purity and concentra-tion were significant. Increasing concentration sig-nificantly increased the islet viability. However, after the concentration reached a certain level, there was no significant difference in viability probably due to increased viscosity of the polymer solution. The effect of polymer MW was not significant. It is concluded that polymers can be a suitable cryoprotectant for porcine islet cryopreservation. The islet viability is polymer concentration-dependent. It seems that PVP is a better cryoprotectant candidate as compared to PEG because the former showed a fast dissolution rate in culture medium and lower viscosity. The polymer concentration at 30% appears to be the op-timal for cryopreservation from the viewpoint of islet viability and medium viscosity.
Preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preservation of β-cell function as measured by stimulated C-peptide has recently been accepted as a therapeutic target for subjects with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. In recently completed studies conducted by the Type 1 Diabetes Trial Network (TrialNet), repeated 2-hour Mixed Meal Tolerance Tests (MMTT) were obtained for up to 24 months from 156 subjects with up to 3 months duration of type 1 diabetes at the time of study enrollment. These data provide the information needed to more accurately determine the sample size needed for future studies of the effects of new agents on the 2-hour area under the curve (AUC) of the C-peptide values. The natural log(x), log(x+1) and square-root (√x) transformations of the AUC were assessed. In general, a transformation of the data is needed to better satisfy the normality assumptions for commonly used statistical tests. Statistical analysis of the raw and transformed data are provided to estimate the mean levels over time and the residual variation in untreated subjects that allow sample size calculations for future studies at either 12 or 24 months of follow-up and among children 8-12 years of age, adolescents (13-17 years) and adults (18+ years). The sample size needed to detect a given relative (percentage) difference with treatment versus control is greater at 24 months than at 12 months of follow-up, and differs among age categories. Owing to greater residual variation among those 13-17 years of age, a larger sample size is required for this age group. Methods are also described for assessment of sample size for mixtures of subjects among the age categories. Statistical expressions are presented for the presentation of analyses of log(x+1) and √x transformed values in terms of the original units of measurement (pmol/ml). Analyses using different transformations are described for the TrialNet study of masked anti-CD20 (rituximab) versus masked placebo. These results provide the information needed to accurately evaluate the sample size for studies of new agents to preserve C-peptide levels in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) displays genetic polymorphisms in multiple genes, which may result in important virulence differences. Glycoprotein N (gN) and immediate early 1 (IE1) are key viral genes and immune targets. We aimed to characterize the molecular epidemiology of gN and IE1 genotypes in organ transplant patients with CMV disease in the context of clinical and virologic endpoints.
A total of 240 patients with CMV disease had genotyping analysis by nested polymerase chain reaction assays and sequencing using blood samples obtained at disease onset. Results were correlated with viral clearance kinetics and recurrence.
Complex patterns of gN and IE1 genotypes were present with no clear genetic linkages. No single genotype of IE1 or gN was associated with poorer outcome. For example, different gN or IE1 genotypes had comparable baseline viral load, clearance half-lives, time to clearance, and rates of virologic recurrence. Mixed infection was present at IE1 in 15.8% and gN in 21.9%, but analysis of a single gene was insufficient to detect all mixed infections. Infections caused by multiple strains, as opposed to single strains, were associated with higher baseline viral loads (P = 0.011), delayed viral clearance (P = 0.033), and higher rates of virologic recurrence (P = 0.008).
Genetic diversity in CMV is complex. Specific gN or IE subtypes do not seem to affect in vivo viral virulence patterns in single-strain infections. Mixed infections demonstrate associations with virologic outcomes that single-strain infections do not.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2011 · Transplant Infectious Disease