[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by progressive motor impairment attributed to progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) pars compacta. In addition to an accumulation of iron, there is also an increased production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) and inflammatory markers. These observations suggest that iron dyshomeostasis may be playing a key role in neurodegeneration. However, the mechanisms underlying this metal-associated oxidative stress and neuronal damage have not been fully elucidated. To determine peripheral levels of iron, ferritin, and transferrin in PD patients and its possible relation with oxidative/nitrosative parameters, whilst attempting to identify a profile of peripheral biomarkers in this neurological condition. Forty PD patients and 46 controls were recruited to compare serum levels of iron, ferritin, transferrin, oxidative stress markers (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), nitrosative stress marker (NOx), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), non-protein thiols (NPSH), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and vitamin C) as well as inflammatory markers (NTPDases, ecto-5'-nucleotidase, adenosine deaminase (ADA), ischemic-modified albumin (IMA) and myeloperoxidase). Iron levels were lower in PD patients, whereas there was no difference in ferritin and transferrin. Oxidative stress (TBARS and AOPP) and inflammatory markers (NTPDases, IMA, and myeloperoxidase) were significantly higher in PD, while antioxidants FRAP, vitamin C, and non-protein thiols were significantly lower in PD. The enzymes SOD, CAT, and ecto-5'-nucleotidase were not different among the groups, although NOx and ADA levels were significantly higher in the controls. Our data corroborate the idea that ROS/RNS production and neuroinflammation may dysregulate iron homeostasis and collaborate to reduce the periphery levels of this ion, contributing to alterations observed in the pathophysiology of PD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune neurological disorder of unknown etiology. Oxidative stress and alterations in vitamin D levels have been implicated in the pathophysiology of MS. The aim of this study was to investigate δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) activity as well as the levels of vitamin D, lipid peroxidation levels, carbonyl protein content, DNA damage, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, and the vitamin C, vitamin E, and non-protein thiol (NPSH) content in samples from patients with the relapsing-remitting form of MS (RRMS). The study population consisted of 29 RRMS patients and 29 healthy subjects. Twelve milliliters of blood was obtained from each individual and used for biochemical determinations. The results showed that δ-ALA-D and CAT activities were significantly increased, while SOD activity was decreased in the whole blood of RRMS patients compared to the control group (P < 0.05). In addition, we observed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation, carbonyl protein levels in serum and damaged DNA in leucocytes in RRMS patients compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Nonetheless, the levels of vitamin C, vitamin E, NPSH, and vitamin D were significantly decreased in RRMS patients in relation to the healthy individuals (P < 0.05). In conclusion, our results suggested that the increase in δ-ALA-D activity may be related to the inflammatory and immune process in MS in an attempt to maintain the cellular metabolism and reduce oxidative stress. Moreover, the alterations in the oxidant/antioxidant balance and lower vitamin D levels may contribute to the pathophysiology of MS.
No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Neurotoxicity Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Alterations in the activity of ectonucleotidase enzymes have been implicated in cardiovascular diseases, whereas regular exercise training has been shown to prevent these alterations. However, nothing is known about it relating to metabolic syndrome (MetS). We investigated the effect of exercise training on platelet ectonucleotidase enzymes and on the aggregation profile of MetS patients.
We studied 38 MetS patients who performed regular concurrent exercise training for 30weeks. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical profiles, hydrolysis of adenine nucleotides in platelets and platelet aggregation were collected from patients before and after the exercise intervention as well as from individuals of the control group.
An increase in the hydrolysis of adenine nucleotides (ATP, ADP and AMP) and a decrease in adenosine deamination in the platelets of MetS patients before the exercise intervention were observed (P<0.001). However, these alterations were reversed by exercise training (P<0.001). Additionally, an increase in platelet aggregation was observed in the MetS patients (P<0.001) and the exercise training prevented platelet hyperaggregation in addition to decrease the classic cardiovascular risks. Conclusionis. An alteration of ectonucleotidase enzymes occurs during MetS, whereas regular exercise training had a protective effect on these enzymes and on platelet aggregation.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ginger [Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae)] and turmeric [Curcuma longa Linn (Zingiberaceae)] rhizomes have been reportedly used in folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension. However, the prevention of its complication such as male infertility remains unexplored. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate the preventive effects of ginger and turmeric rhizomes on some biomarkers of male reproductive function in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups (. n=. 10): normotensive control rats; induced (L-NAME hypertensive) rats; hypertensive rats treated with atenolol (10. mg/kg/day); normotensive and hypertensive rats treated with 4% supplementation of turmeric or ginger, respectively. After 14 days of pre-treatment, the animals were induced with hypertension by oral administration of L-NAME (40. mg/kg/day). The results revealed significant decrease in serum total testosterone and epididymal sperm progressive motility without affecting sperm viability in hypertensive rats. Moreover, increased oxidative stress in the testes and epididymides of hypertensive rats was evidenced by significant decrease in total and non-protein thiol levels, glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity with concomitant increase in 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (DFCH) oxidation and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) production. Similarly, decreased testicular and epididymal NO level with concomitant elevation in arginase activity was observed in hypertensive rats. However, dietary supplementation with turmeric or ginger efficiently prevented these alterations in biomarkers of reproductive function in hypertensive rats. The inhibition of arginase activity and increase in NO and testosterone levels by both rhizomes could suggest possible mechanism of action for the prevention of male infertility in hypertension. Therefore, both rhizomes could be harnessed as functional foods to prevent hypertension-mediated male reproductive dysfunction.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Toxicology Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in total blood and liver tissue; butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in serum and liver tissue; adenosine deaminase (ADA) in serum and liver tissue; and pyruvate kinase (PK) in liver tissue of rats experimentally infected by Fasciola hepatica. Animals were divided into two groups with 12 animals each, as follows: group A (uninfected) and group B (infected). Samples were collected at 20 (A1 and B1;n=6 each) and 150 (A2 and B2; n=6 each) days post-infection (PI). Infected animals showed an increase in AChE activity in whole blood and a decrease in AChE activity in liver homogenates (P<0.05) at 20 and 150 days PI. BChE and PK activities were decreased (P<0.05) in serum and liver homogenates of infected animals at 150 days PI. ADA activity was decreased in serum at 20 and 150 days PI, while in liver homogenates it was only decreased at 150 days PI (P<0.05). Aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities in serum were increased (P<0.05), while concentrations of total protein and albumin were decreased (P<0.05) when compared to control. The histological analysis revealed fibrous perihepatitis and necrosis. Therefore, we conclude that the liver fluke is associated with cholinergic and purinergic dysfunctions, which in turn may influence the pathogenesis of the disease.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Pathology - Research and Practice
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, we investigated the efficiency of rosmarinic acid (RA) in preventing the alteration of oxidative parameters in the liver and kidney of diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin (STZ). The animals were divided into six groups (n = 8): control, ethanol, RA 10 mg/kg, diabetic, diabetic/ethanol, and diabetic/RA 10 mg/kg. After 3 weeks of treatment, we found that TBARS levels in liver and kidney were significantly increased in the diabetic/saline group and the administration of RA prevented this increase in the liver and kidney (P < 0.05). Diabetes caused a significant decrease in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the diabetes/saline group (P < 0.05). However, the treatment with 10 mg/kg RA (antioxidant) prevented this alteration in SOD and CAT activity in the diabetic RA group (P < 0.05). In addition, RA reverses the decrease in ascorbic acid and non-protein-thiol (NPSH) levels in diabetic rats. The treatment with RA also prevented the decrease in the Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) activity in the liver and kidney of diabetic rats. Furthermore, RA did not have any effect on glycemic levels. These results indicate that RA effectively reduced the oxidative stress induced by STZ, suggesting that RA is a potential candidate for the prevention and treatment of pathological conditions in diabetic models.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of physiology and biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) as a marker of inflammation and liver injury in the acute and subclinical phases of canine ehrlichiosis. Forty-two serum samples of dogs naturally infected with Ehrlichia canis were used, of which 24 were from animals with the acute phase of the disease and 18 with subclinical disease. In addition, sera from 17 healthy dogs were used as negative controls. The hematocrit, BChE activity, hepatic injury (alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)), nitric oxide, and cytokines levels were evaluated. The BChE activity was significantly elevated (P<0.05) in dogs with the acute phase of the disease when compared to healthy animals. However, there was a reduction on BChE activity on dogs with subclinical disease compared to the other two groups. AST and ALT levels were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the acute phase, as well as the inflammatory mediators (NOx, TNF-α, INF-γ, IL-4, IL-6) when compared to the control group. On the other hand, IL-10 levels were lower in the acute phase. Based on these results, we are able to conclude that the acute infection caused by E. canis in dogs leads to an increase on seric BChE activity and some inflammatory mediators. Therefore, this enzyme might be used as a marker of acute inflammatory response in dogs naturally infected by this bacterium.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dogs are the main host of Leishmania infantum, and the clinical presentation may range from asymptomatic to systemic manifestations. The immune mechanisms in infected, but clinically healthy dogs, prevails Th1 response mediated by cytokines. In this sense, adenosine deaminase (ADA) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) are considered as key enzymes in several physiological processes, including the modulation of inflammatory process. Considering the variable immune response against Leishmania and the known participation of ADA and BChE, the aim of this study was to assess the relation between these two enzymes with the inflammatory response as well as hepatic function in dogs naturally infected with L. infantum. For this purpose, the activity of ADA and BChE was assessed in sera of 24 dogs naturally infected with L. infantum, plus 17 healthy dogs. The naturally infected dogs had clinical signs compatible with leishmaniasis and sera activities of ADA (P<0.01) and BChE (P<0.05) decreased, when compared to the healthy group. The reduction of ADA activity probably represented an effect on inflammatory response, especially due to the decreased hydrolysis of extracellular adenosine, might in order to protect against tissue damage and, also, setting a down-regulation on pro-inflammatory cytokines. BChE enzyme had no effect on modulating the immune response in leishmaniasis, but it decreased, a fact may related to deficiency of synthesis in the liver. Therefore, ADA and BChE activities reduced probably in order to protect against extra tissue damage and due failure in synthesis, respectively.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hydrolysis of adenine nucleotide linked to the membrane of the platelets is changed in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) probably due to a greater arterial blockage and cell damage in patients with ST elevation (STEMI) than in those without ST segment elevation (NSTEM).
This study aimed to compare the extracellular hydrolysis of adenine nucleotides on the platelet surface of STEMI and NSTEMI patients. This study was carried out with 50 patients with AMI (STEMI and NSTEMI). The extracellular hydrolysis of adenine nucleotides and nucleoside adenosine as well as the expression of NTPDase were verified in platelets.
The results demonstrated that STEMI patients had significantly higher extracellular hydrolysis of adenine nucleotides (p < 0.001), ADA (adenosine deaminase) activity (p < 0.05), as well as troponin levels (p < 0.0001) when compared to NSTEMI patients.
Findings suggest that the extracellular hydrolysis of adenine nucleotides and increase in the ADA activity are higher in patients with STEMI than in those with NSTEMI probably because there was a blockage in this major arterial with a large area of damaged tissue.
No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Clinical laboratory
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a serious condition associated to severe immune dysfunction and immunodeficiency. Mechanisms involved in HIV-associated immune activation, inflammation and loss of CD4+ T cells have been extensively studied, including those concerning purinergic signaling pathways. Purinergic signaling components are involved in viral entry and replication and disease progression. Research involving the participation of purinergic signaling in HIV infection has been not only important to elucidate disease mechanisms but also to introduce new approaches to therapy. The involvement of purinergic signaling in the pathogenesis of HIV infection and its implications in the control of the HIV infection are reviewed in this paper.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon canis have been reported infecting a variety of Carnivora species worldwide, including domestic dogs and wild canids. Since both diseases can follow their course while the infected animals remain asymptomatic, assessments of different parameters that may help toward reaching a more accurate diagnosis are welcome. In this regard, the aim of the present study was to assess the activity of adenosine deaminase (ADA) in serum from naturally infected dogs. Forty-nine samples from dogs were used in our study: 15 positive for E. canis (8 asymptomatic and 7 symptomatic animals); 8 positive for H. canis; 14 with mixed infection; and 12 uninfected (used with control). Our results showed that the ADA activity was lower (P < 0.001) in serum from dogs with both infections singly and with mixed infection, in comparison with the uninfected animals (P < 0.001). The symptomatic dogs for E. canis had lower ADA activity when compared with asymptomatic dogs by H. canis (P < 0.01). Therefore, ADA activity reduces in positive dogs for E. canis and H. canis, which can be related to an inflammatory response against infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of resveratrol (RSV) in its free or complexed (cyclodextrin) forms in association with diminazene aceturate (DA), as an attempt to reduce the toxic effects of this standard chemotherapy on renal and hepatic samples of mice experimentally infected with T. evansi. In this sense, this experiment was designed in order to test the ability of RSV, in its free or complexed forms, on reducing the damage on lipid membrane and protein oxidation, effects usually observed by using DA. Both forms of RSV were used at 100 mg kg−1, during seven consecutive days. As a result, it was observed that, on renal and hepatic samples, RSV in its free form, when combined with DA, was able to inhibit the increase of thiobarbituric acid reactive species levels. DA caused a decrease in the hepatic levels of advanced oxidation protein products, suggesting changes in protein synthesis; however, when it was combined with RSV, this deleterious effect was not observed. It demonstrates that RSV was able to provide some grade of protection against protein oxidation. Therefore, RSV may represent an alternative in reducing the toxic effect caused by chemotherapy in treating of T. evansi infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ginger rhizomes and its varieties are used in folk medicine for the treatment of several cerebrovascular diseases with limited scientific basis for their action. Hence, in this study, we investigate the effects of two ginger varieties (red and white) on ectonucleotidases (NTPDase and 5′-nucleotidase), adenosine deaminase (ADA) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in synaptosomes of cerebral cortex from l-NAME induced hypertensive rats. The animals were divided into seven groups (n = 10): normotensive control rats; hypertensive rats; hypertensive rats treated with atenolol; normotensive and hypertensive rats treated with 4% supplementation of red or white ginger, respectively. After 14 days of pre-treatment with both ginger rhizomes the animals were induced with hypertension by oral administration of l-NAME. The results revealed an increase of ATP and AMP hydrolysis as well as ADA and AChE activities of cerebral cortex synaptosomes in induced rats when compared with the control. The supplementation of both gingers prevented these alterations by decreasing ATP and AMP hydrolysis and ADA and AChE activities in cerebral cortex. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that both gingers interfere with the purinergic and cholinergic neurotransmission in cerebral cortex of hypertensive rats. Therefore, we can suggest that both gingers exert neuroprotective potential under hypertensive state.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of applied biomedicine