[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: RNase L is an ankyrin repeat domain-containing dual endoribonuclease-pseudokinase that is activated by unusual 2,'5'-oligoadenylate (2-5A) second messengers and which impedes viral infections in higher vertebrates. Despite its importance in interferon-regulated antiviral innate immunity, relatively little is known about its precise mechanism of action. Here we present a functional characterization of 2.5 Å and 3.25 Å X-ray crystal and small-angle X-ray scattering structures of RNase L bound to a natural 2-5A activator with and without ADP or the nonhydrolysable ATP mimetic AMP-PNP. These studies reveal how recognition of 2-5A through interactions with the ankyrin repeat domain and the pseudokinase domain, together with nucleotide binding, imposes a rigid intertwined dimer configuration that is essential for RNase catalytic and antiviral functions. The involvement of the pseudokinase domain of RNase L in 2-5A sensing, nucleotide binding, dimerization, and ribonuclease functions highlights the evolutionary adaptability of the eukaryotic protein kinase fold.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a neurotropic, positive-sense RNA virus of the genus Flavivirus (family Flaviviridae) which can cause a variety of clinical manifestations in humans. Previously the severity and outcome of dengue fever and hepatitis C (diseases caused by viruses from the family Flaviviridae) were associated with the rs4804803 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located in the promoter region of the human CD209 gene. This gene encodes dendritic cell-specific ICAM3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN), a C-type lectin pathogen-recognition receptor expressed on the surface of dendritic cells and some types of macrophages. In the current study, a possible association between two SNPs in the promoter region of the CD209 gene (rs4804803 and rs2287886) and predisposition to severe forms of TBEV-induced disease was investigated. The genotypic, allelic and haplotypic frequencies of these SNPs were analyzed in 136 non-immunized Russian patients with different clinical manifestations of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and in a control group. An increase in the frequency of the rs2287886 SNP AA homozygotes and the A allele was detected among patients with severe central nervous system disease compared with the group of patients with meningitis (P=0.003 and 0.019), or a combined group of patients with mild forms (fever and meningitis) (P=0.003 and 0.026), or the control group (P=0.007 and 0.035). Thus, our results suggest that the CD209 gene promoter region rs2287886 SNP is associated with predisposition to severe forms of TBE in the Russian population.
No preview · Article · Oct 2011 · Antiviral research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: West Nile virus (WNV), a category B pathogen endemic in parts of Africa, Asia and Europe, emerged in North America in 1999, and spread rapidly across the continental U.S. Outcomes of infection with WNV range from asymptomatic to severe neuroinvasive disease manifested as encephalitis, paralysis, and/or death. Neuroinvasive WNV disease occurs in less than one percent of cases, and although host genetic factors are thought to influence risk for symptomatic disease, the identity of these factors remains largely unknown. We tested 360 common haplotype tagging and/or functional SNPs in 86 genes that encode key regulators of immune function in 753 individuals infected with WNV including: 422 symptomatic WNV cases and 331 cases with asymptomatic infections. After applying a Bonferroni correction for multiple tests and controlling for population stratification, SNPs in IRF3 (OR 0.54, p = 0.035) and MX1, (OR 0.19, p = 0.014) were associated with symptomatic WNV infection and a single SNP in OAS1 (OR 9.79, p = 0.003) was associated with increased risk for West Nile encephalitis and paralysis (WNE/P). Together, these results suggest that genetic variation in the interferon response pathway is associated with both risk for symptomatic WNV infection and WNV disease progression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 2′–5′-oligoadenylate synthetase (2′–5′-OAS) family members are interferon-induced antiviral proteins. Twenty-three single
nucleotide polymorphisms located within the OAS1, OAS2, OAS3, and OASL genes were analyzed in 142 patients with Russian tick-borne encephalitis. Statistically significant differences in genotype,
allele, and haplotype frequencies for 3 OAS2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs1293762, rs15895, and rs1732778) and 2 OAS3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs2285932 and rs2072136) were detected between patients with central nervous system disease
and both those with fever and/or meningitis and the control group. The data suggest a possible association between these 5
OAS single nucleotide polymorphisms and the outcome of tick-borne encephalitis virus infection in a Russian population.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · The Journal of Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptors 3, 7, and 8 (TLR3, TLR7, and TLR8) were studied in the genomes of the domestic horse and several other mammals. The messenger RNA sequences and exon/intron structures of these TLR genes were determined. An equine bacterial artificial chromosome clone containing the TLR3 gene was assigned by fluorescent in situ hybridization to the horse chromosomal location ECA27q16-q17 and this map location was confirmed using an equine radiation hybrid panel. Direct sequencing revealed 13 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the coding regions of the equine TLR 3, 7, and 8 genes. Of these polymorphisms, 12 were not previously reported. The allelic frequency was estimated for each single-nucleotide polymorphism from genotyping data obtained for 154 animals from five horse breeds. Some of these frequencies varied significantly among different horse breeds. Domain architecture predictions for the three equine TLR protein sequences revealed several conserved regions within the variable leucine-rich repeats between the corresponding horse and cattle TLR proteins. A phylogenetic analysis did not indicate that any significant exchanges had occurred between paralogous TLR7 and TLR8 genes in 20 vertebrate species analyzed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The live attenuated yellow fever vaccine 17D (YF-17D) is one of the most effective vaccines. Despite its excellent safety record, some cases of viscerotropic adverse events develop, which are sometimes fatal. The mechanisms underlying such events remain a mystery. Here, we present an analysis of the immunologic and genetic factors driving disease in a 64-year-old male who developed viscerotropic symptoms.
We obtained clinical, serologic, virologic, immunologic and genetic data on this case patient.
Viral RNA was detected in the blood 33 days after vaccination, in contrast to the expected clearance of virus by day 7 after vaccination in healthy vaccinees. Vaccination induced robust antigen-specific T and B cell responses, which suggested that persistent virus was not due to adaptive immunity of suboptimal magnitude. The genes encoding OAS1, OAS2, TLR3, and DC-SIGN, which mediate antiviral innate immunity, were wild type. However, there were heterozygous genetic polymorphisms in chemokine receptor CCR5, and its ligand RANTES, which influence the migration of effector T cells and CD14+CD16bright monocytes to tissues. Consistent with this, there was a 200-fold increase in the number of CD14+CD16bright monocytes in the blood during viremia and even several months after virus clearance.
In this patient, viscerotropic disease was not due to the impaired magnitude of adaptive immunity but instead to anomalies in the innate immune system and a possible disruption of the CCR5-RANTES axis.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2008 · The Journal of Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemokine receptors (CCRs) play an essential role in the initiation of an innate immune host response. Several of these receptors
have been shown to modulate the outcome of viral infections. The recent availability of complete genome sequences from a number
of species provides a unique opportunity to analyze the evolution of the CCR genes. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that the CCR2 gene evolved in concert with the paralogous CCR5 gene, but not with another paralogous gene, CCR3, in the opossum, platypus, rabbit, guinea pig, cat, and rodent lineages. In addition, evidence of concerted evolution of
the CCR2 and CCR5 genes was observed in chicken and lizard genomes. A unique CCR5/2 gene that originated by unequal crossing over between the CCR2 and CCR5 genes was detected in the domestic horse. The CCR2, CCR5, and CCR5/2 genes were mapped to ECA16q21 using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified
in the equine CCR5 gene and characterized within 5 horse breeds provide haplotype markers for future case/control studies investigating the
genetic bases of horse susceptibility to infectious diseases.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2008 · The Journal of heredity
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) is a rare complication of yellow fever (YF) vaccination. A previously healthy 22-year-old female died following YF vaccination despite aggressive measures. Serial viral load titers, cytokine levels and host genetic factors were evaluated in an attempt to understand this unusual and lethal outcome. The patient's high-titer vaccine viremia and possibly related minor genetic anomalies provide clues to exploring the etiology of YEL-AVD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inheritance patterns in mice suggested that resistance to flavivirus-induced disease was conferred by a single autosomal dominant allele (Flv(r)). A positional cloning strategy followed by comparison of Flv interval gene sequences from congenic resistant C3H.PRI-Flv(r) and susceptible C3H/He mouse strains identified the 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1b (Oas1b) gene as Flv. However, since these mouse strains differ by a 31 cM region, the possible involvement of differences in other linked genes in the resistant phenotype could not be absolutely ruled out. Knock-in of the Oas1b resistance allele into a susceptible mouse strain produced mice with the flavivirus resistance phenotype, confirming that this phenotype is mediated by a single gene.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mammalian OAS/RNASEL pathway plays an important role in antiviral host defense. A premature stop-codon within the murine Oas1b gene results in the increased susceptibility of mice to a number of flaviviruses, including West Nile virus (WNV). Mutations in either the OAS1 or RNASEL genes may also modulate the outcome of WNV-induced disease or other viral infections in horses. Polymorphisms in the human OAS gene cluster have been previously utilized for case-control analysis of virus-induced disease in humans. No polymorphisms have yet been identified in either the equine OAS1 or RNASEL genes for use in similar case-control studies.
Genomic sequence for equine OAS1 was obtained from a contig assembly generated from a shotgun subclone library of CHORI-241 BAC 100I10. Specific amplification of regions of the OAS1 gene from 13 horses of various breeds identified 33 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and two microsatellites. RNASEL cDNA sequences were determined for 8 mammals and utilized in a phylogenetic analysis. The chromosomal location of the RNASEL gene was assigned by FISH to ECA5p17-p16 using two selected CHORI-241 BAC clones. The horse genomic RNASEL sequence was assembled. Specific amplification of regions of the RNASEL gene from 13 horses identified 31 SNPs.
In this report, two dinucleotide microsatellites and 64 single nucleotide polymorphisms within the equine OAS1 and RNASEL genes were identified. These polymorphisms are the first to be reported for these genes and will facilitate future case-control studies of horse susceptibility to infectious diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple 2'-5' oligoadenylate (2-5A) synthetases are important components of innate immunity in mammals. Gene families encoding these proteins have previously been studied mainly in humans and mice. To reconstruct the evolution of this gene family in mammals, a search for additional 2-5A synthetase genes was performed in rat, cattle, pig, and dog. Twelve 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase (Oas) genes were identified in the rat genome, including eight Oas1 genes, two Oas1 pseudogenes, single copies of Oas2 and Oas3, and two Oas-like genes, Oasl1 and Oasl2. Four OAS genes were detected in the pig genome and five OAS genes were found in both the cattle and dog genomes. An OAS3 gene was not found in either the cattle or the pig genome. While two tandemly duplicated OAS-like (OASL) genes were identified in the dog genome, only a single OASL orthologue was found in both the cattle and the pig genomes. The bovine and porcine OASL genes contain premature stop codons and encode truncated proteins, which lack the typical C-terminal double ubiquitin domains. The cDNA sequences of the rat, cattle, pig, and dog OAS genes were amplified, sequenced and compared with each other and with those in the human, mouse, horse, and chicken genomes. Evidence of concerted evolution of paralogous 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase 1 genes was obtained in rodents (Rodentia) and even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla). Calculations using the nonparametric Kolmogorov-Smirnov test suggested that the homogenization of paralogous OAS1 sequences was due to gene conversion rather than stabilizing selection.
No preview · Article · Nov 2006 · Journal of Molecular Evolution
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The structures of the canine, rabbit, bovine and equine EIF2AK2 genes were determined. Each of these genes has a 5' non-coding exon as well as 15 coding exons. All of the canine, bovine and equine EIF2AK2 introns have consensus donor and acceptor splice sites. In the equine EIF2AK2 gene, a unique single nucleotide polymorphism that encoded a Tyr329Cys substitution was detected. Regulatory elements predicted in the promoter region were conserved in ungulates, primates, rodents, Afrotheria (elephant) and Insectifora (shrew). Western clawed frog and fugu EIF2AK2 gene sequences were detected in the USCS Genome Browser and compared to those of other vertebrate EIF2AK2 genes. A comparison of EIF2AK2 protein domains in vertebrates indicates that the kinase catalytic domains were evolutionarily more conserved than the nucleic acid-binding motifs. Nucleotide substitution rates were uniform among the vertebrate sequences with the exception of the zebrafish and goldfish EIF2AK2 genes, which showed substitution rates about 20% higher than those of other vertebrates. FISH was used to physically assign the horse and cattle genes to chromosome locations, ECA15q24-q25 and BTA11q12-15, respectively. Comparative mapping data confirmed conservation of synteny between ungulates, humans and rodents.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: False-discovery rates are usually very high for genome-wide searches. Although only statistically significant SNPs (with a p < 0.05 for frequency distribution) are reported, frequently these findings are not reproducible because the computed p-values are not adjusted for multiple testing. The standard Bonferroni adjustment is overly pessimistic; therefore, we adjusted for multiple testing by using a more accurate randomization method. Formally, the computational problem is as follows. Given a population of disease and nondisease n genotypes or haplotypes with values of m SNPs, find all multi-SNP combinations with multiple-testing adjusted to p < 0.05 for the frequency distribution. We show that this problem is computationally feasible using the proposed novel searching techniques.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mammalian 2'-5' oligoadenylate (2-5A) synthetases are important mediators of the antiviral activity of interferons. Both human and mouse 2-5A synthetase gene families encode four forms of enzymes: small, medium, large and ubiquitin-like. In this study, the structures of four equine OAS genes were determined using DNA sequences derived from fifteen cDNA and four BAC clones. Composition of the equine OAS gene family is more similar to that of the human OAS family than the mouse Oas family. Two OAS-containing bovine BAC clones were identified in GenBank. Both equine and bovine BAC clones were physically assigned by FISH to horse and cattle chromosomes, ECA8p15-->p14 and BTA17q24--> q25, respectively. The comparative mapping data confirm conservation of synteny between ungulates, humans and rodents.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2005 · Cytogenetic and Genome Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resistance to flavivirus-induced disease in mice was first discovered in the 1920s and was subsequently shown to be controlled by the resistant allele of a single dominant autosomal gene. While the majority of current laboratory mouse stains have a homozygous-susceptible phenotype, the resistant allele has been found to segregate in wild mouse populations in many different parts of the world. Resistance is flavivirus specific and extends to both mosquito- and tick-borne flaviviruses. Resistant animals are infected productively by flaviviruses but produce lower virus titers, especially in their brains, as compared to susceptible mice. Decreased virus production is observed in resistant animals even during a lethal infection and the times of disease onset and death are also delayed as compared to susceptible mice. An intact immune response is required to clear flaviviruses from resistant mice. The resistant phenotype is expressed constitutively and does not require interferon induction. The Flv gene was discovered using a positional cloning approach and identified as Oas1b. Susceptible mice produce a truncated Oas1b protein. A C820T transition in the fourth exon of the gene introduced a premature stop codon and was found in all susceptible mouse strains tested. Possible mechanisms by which the product of the resistant allele could confer the resistant phenotype are discussed.
Preview · Article · Feb 2003 · Advances in Virus Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The polymeric ubiquitin (poly-u) genes are composed of tandem 228-bp repeats with no spacer sequences between individual monomer units. Ubiquitin is one of the most conserved proteins known to date, and the individual units within a number of poly-u genes are significantly more similar to each other than would be expected if each unit evolved independently. It has been proposed that the rather striking similarity among poly-u monomers in some lineages is caused by a series of homogenization events. Here we report the sequences of the polyubiquitin-C (Ubc) genes in two mouse strains. Analysis of these sequences, as well as those of the previously reported Chinese hamster and rat poly-u genes, supports the assertion that the homogenization of the ubiquitin-C gene in rodents is due to unequal crossing-over events. The sequence divergence of noncoding DNA was used to estimate the frequency of unequal crossing-over events (6.3 x 10(-5) events per generation) in the Ubc gene, as well as to provide evidence of apparent selection in the poly-u gene.
No preview · Article · Sep 2002 · Journal of Molecular Evolution
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inbred mouse strains exhibit significant differences in their susceptibility to viruses in the genus Flavivirus, which includes human pathogens such as yellow fever, Dengue, and West Nile virus. A single gene, designated Flv, confers this differential susceptibility and was mapped previously to a region of mouse chromosome 5. A positional cloning strategy was used to identify 22 genes from the Flv gene interval including 10 members of the 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase gene family. One 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase gene, Oas1b, was identified as Flv by correlation between genotype and phenotype in nine mouse strains. Susceptible mouse strains produce a protein lacking 30% of the C-terminal sequence as compared with the resistant counterpart because of the presence of a premature stop codon. The Oas1b gene differs from all the other murine Oas genes by a unique four-amino acid deletion in the P-loop located within the conserved RNA binding domain. Expression of the resistant allele of Oas1b in susceptible embryo fibroblasts resulted in partial inhibition of the replication of a flavivirus but not of an alpha togavirus.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2002 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: West Nile (WN) virus is the most widespread among flaviviruses, but until recently it was not known on the American continent. We describe here design of a subgenomic replicon, as well as a full-length infectious clone of the lineage II WN strain, which appeared surprisingly stable compared to other flavivirus infectious clones. This infectious clone was used to investigate effects of 5'- and 3'-nonrelated sequences on virus replication and infectivity of synthetic RNA. While a long nonrelated sequence at the 3'-end delayed but did not prevent establishment of the productive infectious cycle, a much shorter extra sequence at the 5'-end completely abrogated virus replication. Replacement of the conserved 5'-adenosine residue substantially delayed, but did not prevent, establishment of virus infection. In all cases, the recovered virus had restored its authentic 5'- and 3'-end genome sequences. However, the presence of extensive nonrelated sequences at both 5'- and 3'-ends could not be repaired.