[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Class 1 cytokine receptors regulate essential biological processes through complex intracellular signaling networks. However, the structural platform for understanding their functions is currently incomplete as structure-function studies of the intracellular domains (ICDs) are critically lacking. This study presents the first comprehensive structural characterization of any cytokine receptor ICD and demonstrates that the human prolactin and growth hormone receptor ICDs are intrinsically disordered throughout their entire lengths. We show that they interact specifically with hallmark lipids of the inner plasma membrane leaflet through conserved motifs resembling immuno T-cell receptor activation motifs(ITAMs). However, contrary to the observations made for ITAMs, lipid association of the prolactin and growth hormone receptor ICDs was shown to be unaccompanied by changes in transient secondary structure and independent of tyrosine phosphorylation. The data presented here provides a new structural platform for studying class 1 cytokine receptors and may implicate the membrane as an active component regulating intracellular signaling.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mammalian Na(+)/H(+) exchangers of the SLC9A family are widely expressed and involved in numerous essential physiological processes. Their primary function is to mediate the 1:1 exchange of Na(+) for H(+) across the membrane in which they reside, and they play central roles in regulation of body, cellular, and organellar pH. Their function is tightly regulated through mechanisms involving interactions with multiple protein and lipid-binding partners, phosphorylations, and other posttranslational modifications. Biochemical and mutational analyses indicate that the SLC9As have a short intracellular N-terminus, 12 transmembrane (TM) helices necessary and sufficient for ion transport, and a C-terminal cytoplasmic tail region with essential regulatory roles. No high-resolution structures of the SLC9As exist; however, models based on crystal structures of the bacterial NhaAs support the 12 TM organization and suggest that TMIV and XI may form a central part of the ion-translocation pathway, whereas pH sensing may involve TMII, TMIX, and several intracellular loops. Similar to most ion transporters studied, SLC9As likely exist as coupled dimers in the membrane, and this appears to be important for the well-studied cooperativity of H(+) binding. The aim of this work is to summarize and critically discuss the currently available evidence on the structural dynamics, regulation, and binding partner interactions of SLC9As, focusing in particular on the most widely studied isoform, SLC9A1/NHE1. Further, novel bioinformatic and structural analyses are provided that to some extent challenge the existing paradigm on how ions are transported by mammalian SLC9As.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Current Topics in Membranes
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A unifying feature of solid tumors is a markedly altered pH profile compared to normal tissues. This reflects that solid tumors, despite completely different origins, often share several phenotypic properties with implications for intra- and extracellular pH. These include: a metabolic shift in most cancer cells toward more acid-producing pathways, reflecting both oncogenic signaling and the development of hypoxia in poorly perfused regions of the tumors; the poorly perfused and often highly dense tumor microenvironment, reducing the diffusive flux of acid equivalents compared to that in normal tissues; and the markedly altered regulation of the expression and activity of pH-regulatory transport proteins in cancer cells. While some of these properties of tumors have been well described in recent years, the great majority of the research in this clinically important area has focused on proton transport, in particular via the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1 (SLC9A1, NHE1) and various H(+) ATPases. We have, however, recently demonstrated that at least under some conditions, including in vitro models of HER2 positive breast cancer, and measurements obtained directly in freshly dissected human mammary carcinomas, bicarbonate transporters such as the electroneutral Na(+), HCO(-) 3 cotransporter (SLC4A7, NBCn1), are upregulated and play central roles in pH regulation. In this review, we summarize and discuss the current knowledge regarding the regulation and roles of bicarbonate transporters in cancer. Furthermore, we present new analyses of publicly available expression data demonstrating widely altered expression levels of SLC4- and SLC26 family transporters in breast-, lung-, and colon cancer patients, and we hypothesize that bicarbonate transporter dysregulation may have both diagnostic and therapeutic potential in cancer treatment.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Frontiers in Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:
Though genome-wide association studies recently linked the locus for Na+,HCO3−-cotransporter NBCn1 (SLC4A7) to breast cancer susceptibility, functional insights have been lacking as yet.
We studied the expression of NBCn1 and the functional impact of Na+,HCO3−-cotransport in human breast cancer in order to determine whether NBCn1, by transporting HCO3− into cells, may dispose of acid produced during high metabolic activity.
We used pH-sensitive fluorophores to determine the mechanisms of intracellular pH (pHi) control and immunohistochemistry to evaluate transporter expression in a total of 26 breast cancer patients.
The plasmalemmal density of NBCn1 was 20–30% higher in primary breast carcinomas and metastases compared to matched normal breast tissue. The apparent molecular weight for NBCn1 was increased in primary breast carcinomas compared to normal tissue. Na+,HCO3−-cotransport was the predominant mechanism of acid extrusion and was inhibited 34±9% by 200 μM 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) in human primary breast carcinomas. At pHi levels >6.6, CO2/HCO3−-dependent mechanisms accounted for >90% of total net acid extrusion. Furthermore, steady-state pHi was 0.35±0.06 units lower in the absence than in the presence of CO2/HCO3−.
The expression of NBCn1 is upregulated in human primary breast carcinomas and metastases compared to normal breast tissue. Na+,HCO3−-cotransport is a major determinant of pHi in breast cancer and the modest DIDS-sensitivity is consistent with NBCn1 being predominantly responsible. Our results suggest a major pathophysiological role for NBCn1 that may be clinically relevant.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Misregulation of acid-base transport plays central roles in cancer development. We previously demonstrated the strong up-regulation of the Na(+),HCO3(-) cotransporter NBCn1 (SLC4A7) in MCF-7 breast cancer cells by a truncated, constitutively active ErbB2 (HER2) receptor, ΔNErbB2, and showed that NBCn1 expression and activity are increased in breast cancer tissue from patients. Here, we present the first in-depth characterization of an SLC4A7 promoter and identify its minimal ΔNErbB2-sensitive region. Inhibition or siRNA-mediated knockdown of PI3K, Akt1, ERK1/2, or Src decreased the NBCn1 protein level in ΔNErbB2-expressing MCF-7 cells by ∼50, 60, 30 and 35%, respectively. Further, knockdown of the transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) reduced NBCn1 protein expression by ∼40%, and KLF4 overexpression increased NBCn1 expression by 50-80%. In contrast, knockdown of the closely related transcription factor specificity protein 1 (Sp1) or transfection with dominant-negative Sp1 increased NBCn1 expression by ∼35 and ∼50%, respectively. NBCn1 expression was also increased by stimulation of full-length ErbB1, -2, and -3 receptors in SKBr3 cells (1.5- and 2-fold by NRG1 or EGF, respectively) or after their exogenous expression in MCF-7 cells. Finally, stimulation with NRG1 or EGF more than doubled acid extrusion capacity in SKBr3 cells. In conclusion, NBCn1 is strongly upregulated by ErbB receptor signaling in a manner involving opposite effects of KLF4 and Sp1, transcription factors with central roles in cancer development. ErbB-induced up-regulation of NBCn1-mediated acid extrusion may play important physiological and pathophysiological roles in the breast epithelium and other tissues with high ErbB receptor levels.-Gorbatenko, A., Olesen, C. W., Mørup, N., Thiel, G., Kallunki, T., Valen, E., Pedersen, S. F. ErbB2 upregulates the Na(+),HCO3(-)-cotransporter NBCn1/SLC4A7 in human breast cancer cells via Akt, ERK, Src, and Krüppel-like factor 4.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · The FASEB Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The physiological function of epithelia is transport of ions, nutrients, and fluid either in secretory or absorptive direction. All of these processes are closely related to cell volume changes, which are thus an integrated part of epithelial function. Transepithelial transport and cell volume regulation both rely on the spatially and temporally coordinated function of ion channels and transporters. In healthy epithelia, specific ion channels/transporters localize to the luminal and basolateral membranes, contributing to functional epithelial polarity. In pathophysiological processes such as cancer, transepithelial and cell volume regulatory ion transport are dys-regulated. Furthermore, epithelial architecture and coordinated ion transport function are lost, cell survival/death balance is altered, and new interactions with the stroma arise, all contributing to drug resistance. Since altered expression of ion transporters and channels is now recognized as one of the hallmarks of cancer, it is timely to consider this especially for epithelia. Epithelial cells are highly proliferative and epithelial cancers, carcinomas, account for about 90% of all cancers. In this review we will focus on ion transporters and channels with key physiological functions in epithelia and known roles in the development of cancer in these tissues. Their roles in cell survival, cell cycle progression, and development of drug resistance in epithelial cancers will be discussed.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Frontiers in Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inversin is a ciliary protein that critically regulates developmental processes and tissue homeostasis in vertebrates, partly through the degradation of Dishevelled (Dvl) proteins to coordinate Wnt signaling in planar cell polarity (PCP). Here, we investigated the role of Inversin in coordinating cell migration, which highly depends on polarity processes at the single-cell level, including the spatial and temporal organization of the cytoskeleton as well as expression and cellular localization of proteins in leading edge formation of migrating cells. Using cultures of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from inv(-/-) and inv(+/+) animals, we confirmed that both inv(-/-) and inv(+/+) MEFs form primary cilia, and that Inversin localizes to the primary cilium in inv(+/+) MEFs. In wound healing assays, inv(-/-) MEFs were severely compromised in their migratory ability and exhibited cytoskeletal rearrangements, including distorted lamellipodia formation and cilia orientation. Transcriptome analysis revealed dysregulation of Wnt signaling and of pathways regulating actin organization and focal adhesions in inv(-/-) MEFs as compared to inv(+/+) MEFs. Further, Dvl-1 and Dvl-3 localized to MEF primary cilia, and β-catenin/Wnt signaling was elevated in inv(-/-) MEFs, which moreover showed reduced ciliary localization of Dvl-3. Finally, inv(-/-) MEFs displayed dramatically altered activity and localization of RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42 GTPases, and aberrant expression and targeting of the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger NHE1 and ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) proteins to the edge of cells facing the wound. Phosphorylation of β-catenin at the ciliary base and formation of well-defined lamellipodia with localization and activation of ERM to the leading edge of migrating cells were restored in inv(-/-) MEFs expressing Inv-GFP. Collectively, our findings point to the significance of Inversin in controlling cell migration processes, at least in part through transcriptional regulation of genes involved in Wnt signaling and pathways that control cytoskeletal organization and ion transport.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies recently linked the locus for Na(+) ,HCO(3) (-) -cotransporter NBCn1 (SLC4A7) to breast cancer susceptibility, yet functional insights have been lacking. To determine whether NBCn1, by transporting HCO(3) (-) into cells, may dispose of acid produced during high metabolic activity, we studied the expression of NBCn1 and the functional impact of Na(+) ,HCO(3) (-) -cotransport in human breast cancer. We found that the plasmalemmal density of NBCn1 was 20-30% higher in primary breast carcinomas and metastases compared to matched normal breast tissue. The increase in NBCn1 density was similar in magnitude to that observed for Na(+) /H(+) -exchanger NHE1 (SLC9A1), a transporter previously implicated in cell migration, proliferation and malignancy. In primary breast carcinomas, the apparent molecular weight for NBCn1 was increased compared to normal tissue. Using pH-sensitive fluorophores, we showed that Na(+) ,HCO(3) (-) -cotransport is the predominant mechanism of acid extrusion and is inhibited 34 ± 9% by 200 μM 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid in human primary breast carcinomas. At intracellular pH (pH(i) ) levels >6.6, CO(2) /HCO(3) (-) -dependent mechanisms accounted for >90% of total net acid extrusion. Na(+) /H(+) -exchange activity was prominent only at lower pH(i) -values. Furthermore, steady-state pH(i) was 0.35 ± 0.06 units lower in the absence than in the presence of CO(2) /HCO(3) (-) . In conclusion, expression of NBCn1 is upregulated in human primary breast carcinomas and metastases compared to normal breast tissue. Na(+) ,HCO(3) (-) -cotransport is a major determinant of pH(i) in breast cancer and the modest DIDS-sensitivity is consistent with NBCn1 being predominantly responsible. Hence, our results suggest a major pathophysiological role for NBCn1 that may be clinically relevant.
No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · International Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ion channels and ion fluxes control many aspects of tissue homeostasis. During oncogenic transformation, critical ion channel functions may be perturbed but conserved tumor specific ion fluxes remain to be defined. Here we used the tumoricidal protein-lipid complex HAMLET as a probe to identify ion fluxes involved in tumor cell death. We show that HAMLET activates a non-selective cation current, which reached a magnitude of 2.74±0.88 nA within 1.43±0.13 min from HAMLET application. Rapid ion fluxes were essential for HAMLET-induced carcinoma cell death as inhibitors (amiloride, BaCl2), preventing the changes in free cellular Na(+) and K(+) concentrations also prevented essential steps accompanying carcinoma cell death, including changes in morphology, uptake, global transcription, and MAP kinase activation. Through global transcriptional analysis and phosphorylation arrays, a strong ion flux dependent p38 MAPK response was detected and inhibition of p38 signaling delayed HAMLET-induced death. Healthy, differentiated cells were resistant to HAMLET challenge, which was accompanied by innate immunity rather than p38-activation. The results suggest, for the first time, a unifying mechanism for the initiation of HAMLET's broad and rapid lethal effect on tumor cells. These findings are particularly significant in view of HAMLET's documented therapeutic efficacy in human studies and animal models. The results also suggest that HAMLET offers a two-tiered therapeutic approach, killing cancer cells while stimulating an innate immune response in surrounding healthy tissues.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over the last 15 years it has become increasingly clear that dysregulated expression, splicing, and/or functioning of ion channels and transporters (ICTs) occur in all cancers. Being linked to the widely accepted hallmarks of cancer, ICTs represent novel therapeutic, diagnostic and prognostic targets. To discuss the current status of the field a colloquium on "Ion Transport and Cancer" was held, covering the roles of ion channels and transporters in cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, motility and invasion and in both the generation of, and the interaction of the cancer cells with, the tumor environment. Additional sessions dealt with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and transport protein-based therapeutic and diagnostic concepts. There was overall consensus that essential contributions of ICT dysregulation to the cancer process have been demonstrated. Future research should be directed towards further elucidating the mechanisms and developing therapeutic applications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In fibroblasts, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha (PDGFRα) is upregulated during growth arrest and compartmentalized to the primary cilium. PDGF-AA activation of the dimerized ciliary receptor produces a phosphorylation cascade through the PI3K-AKT and MEK1/2-ERK1/2 pathways leading to the activation of the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger, NHE1, cytoplasmic alkalinization and actin nucleation at the lamellipodium that supports directional cell migration. We here show that AKT and MEK1/2-ERK1/2-p90(RSK) inhibition reduced PDGF-AA-induced cell migration by distinct mechanisms: AKT inhibition reduced NHE1 activity by blocking the translocation of NHE1 to the cell membrane. MEK1/2 inhibition did not affect NHE1 activity but influenced NHE1 localization, causing NHE1 to localize discontinuously in patches along the plasma membrane, rather than preferentially at the lamellipodium. We also provide direct evidence of NHE1 translocation through the cytoplasm to the leading edge. In conclusion, signals initiated at the primary cilium through the PDGFRαα cascade reorganize the cytoskeleton to regulate cell migration differentially through the AKT and the MEK1/2-ERK1/2-p90(RSK) pathways, with the AKT pathway necessary for initiation of NHE1 translocation, presumably in vesicles, to and activation at the leading edge. In contrast, the MEK1/2-ERK1/2-p90(RSK) pathway controls the spatial organization of NHE1 translocation and incorporation and therefore specifies the direction in which the leading edge forms.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Journal of Cell Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperosmotic stress initiates several adaptive responses, including the remodeling of the cytoskeleton. Besides maintaining structural integrity, the cytoskeleton has emerged as an important regulator of gene transcription. Myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF), an actin-regulated co-activator of serum response factor is a major link between the actin skeleton and transcriptional control. We therefore investigated whether MRTF is regulated by hyperosmotic stress. Here we show that hypertonicity induces robust, rapid and transient translocation of MRTF from the cytosol to the nucleus in kidney tubular cells. We found that the hyperosmolarity-triggered MRTF translocation is mediated by the RhoA/Rho kinase (ROK) pathway. Moreover, the Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor GEF-H1 is activated by hyperosmotic stress, and it is a key contributor to the ensuing RhoA activation and MRTF translocation, since siRNA-mediated GEF-H1 downregulation suppresses these responses. While the osmotically induced RhoA activation promotes nuclear MRTF accumulation, the concomitant activation of p38 MAP kinase mitigates this effect. Moderate hyperosmotic stress (600 mosM) drives MRTF-dependent transcription through the cis-element CArG box. Silencing or pharmacological inhibition of MRTF prevents the osmotic stimulation of CArG-dependent transcription, and renders the cells susceptible to osmotic shock-induced structural damage. Interestingly, strong hyperosmolarity promotes proteasomal degradation of MRTF, concomitant with apoptosis. Thus, MRTF is an osmosensitive and osmoprotective transcription factor, whose intracellular distribution is regulated by the GEF-H1/RhoA/ROK and p38 pathways. However, strong osmotic stress destabilizes MRTF, concomitant with apoptosis, implying that hyperosmotically induced cell death takes precedence over epithelial-myofibroblast transition, a potential consequence of MRTF-mediated phenotypic reprogramming.
Preview · Article · Oct 2012 · AJP Cell Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Na(+) -coupled HCO(3) (-) transporters (NBCs) mediate the transport of bicarbonate ions across cell membranes and are thus ubiquitous regulators of intracellular pH. NBC dysregulation is associated with a range of diseases; for instance, NBCn1 is strongly up-regulated in a model of ErbB2-dependent breast cancer, a malignant and widespread cancer with no targeted treatment options, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms in NBCn1 genetically link to breast cancer development and hypertension. The N-cyanosulfonamide S0859 has been shown to selectively inhibit NBCs, and its availability on the gram scale is therefore of significant interest to the scientific community. Herein we describe a short and efficient synthesis of S0859 with an overall yield of 45 % from commercially available starting materials. The inhibitory effect of S0859 on recovery of intracellular pH after an acid load was verified in human and murine cancer cell lines in Ringer solutions. However, S0859 binds very strongly to components in plasma, and accordingly, measurements on isolated murine tissues showed no effect of S0859 at concentrations up to 50 μM.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ca(+) signaling plays a crucial role in control of cell cycle progression, but the understanding of the dynamics of Ca(2+) influx and release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores during the cell cycle is far from complete. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the free extracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](o)) in cell proliferation, the pattern of changes in the free intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) during cell cycle progression, and the role of the transient receptor potential (TRP)C1 in these changes as well as in cell cycle progression and cell volume regulation. In Ehrlich Lettré Ascites (ELA) cells, [Ca(2+)](i) decreased significantly, and the thapsigargin-releasable Ca(2+) pool in the intracellular stores increased in G(1) as compared with G(0). Store-depletion-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) and TRPC1 protein expression level were both higher in G(1) than in G(0) and S phase, in parallel with a more effective volume regulation after swelling [regulatory volume decrease (RVD)] in G(1) as compared with S phase. Furthermore, reduction of [Ca(2+)](o), as well as two unspecific SOCE inhibitors, 2-APB (2-aminoethyldiphenyl borinate) and SKF96365 (1-(β-[3-(4-methoxy-phenyl)propoxyl-4-methoxyphenethyl)1H-imidazole-hydrochloride), inhibited ELA cell proliferation. Finally, Madin-Darby canine kidney cells in which TRPC1 was stably silenced [TRPC1 knockdown (TRPC1-KD) MDCK] exhibited reduced SOCE, slower RVD, and reduced cell proliferation compared with mock controls. In conclusion, in ELA cells, SOCE and TRPC1 both seem to be upregulated in G(1) as compared with S phase, concomitant with an increased rate of RVD. Furthermore, TRPC1-KD MDCK cells exhibit decreased SOCE, decreased RVD, and decreased proliferation, suggesting that, at least in certain cell types, TRPC1 is regulated during cell cycle progression and is involved in SOCE, RVD, and cell proliferation.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · AJP Cell Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Na⁺/H⁺-exchanger 1, NHE1 (SLC9A1) and the electroneutral Na⁺,HCO₃⁻ cotransporter NBCn1 (SLC4A7) are coexpressed in a wide range of tissues. Under normal physiological conditions these transporters play an ostensibly similar role, namely that of net acid extrusion after cellular acidification. In addition, they have been implicated in multiple other cellular processes, including regulation of transepithelial transport, cell volume, cell death/survival balance, and cell motility. In spite of their apparent functional similarity, the two transporters also serve distinctly different functions and are differentially regulated. Here, we provide an update on the basic structure, function, regulation, physiology and pharmacology of NHE1 and NBCn1, with particular focus on the factors responsible for their functional similarities and differences. Finally, we highlight recent findings implicating these transporters in cancer development, and discuss issues relating to NHE1 and NBCn1 as potential targets in cancer treatment.
No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · Current pharmaceutical design
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Caveolae have been implicated in sensing of cell volume perturbations, yet evidence is still limited and findings contradictory. Here, we investigated the possible role of caveolae in cell volume regulation and volume sensitive signaling in an adipocyte system with high (3T3-L1 adipocytes); intermediate (3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes); and low (cholesterol-depleted 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes) caveolae levels. Using large-angle light scattering, we show that compared to pre-adipocytes, differentiated adipocytes exhibit several-fold increased rates of volume restoration following osmotic cell swelling (RVD) and osmotic cell shrinkage (RVI), accompanied by increased swelling-activated taurine efflux. However, caveolin-1 distribution was not detectably altered after osmotic swelling or shrinkage, and caveolae integrity, as studied by cholesterol depletion or expression of dominant negative Cav-1, was not required for either RVD or RVI in pre-adipocytes. The insulin receptor (InsR) localizes to caveolae and its expression dramatically increases upon adipocyte differentiation. In pre-adipocytes, InsR and its effectors focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK1/2) localized to focal adhesions and were activated by a 5 min exposure to insulin (100 nM). Osmotic shrinkage transiently inhibited InsR Y(146)-phosphorylation, followed by an increase at t=15 min; a similar pattern was seen for ERK1/2 and FAK, in a manner unaffected by cholesterol depletion. In contrast, cell swelling had no detectable effect on InsR, yet increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation. In conclusion, differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes exhibit greatly accelerated RVD and RVI responses and increased swelling-activated taurine efflux compared to pre-adipocytes. Furthermore, in pre-adipocytes, Cav-1/caveolae integrity is not required for volume regulation. Given the relationship between hyperosmotic stress and insulin signaling, the finding that cell volume regulation is dramatically altered upon adipocyte differentiation may be relevant for the understanding of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome.
No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The microtubule (MT) plus-end-tracking protein EB1 is required for assembly of primary cilia in mouse fibroblasts, but the mechanisms involved and the roles of the related proteins EB2 and EB3 in ciliogenesis are unknown. Using protein depletion experiments and expression of dominant-negative constructs we show here that EB1 and EB3, but not EB2, are required for assembly of primary cilia in cultured cells. Electron microscopy and live imaging showed that cells lacking EB1 or EB3 are defective in MT minus-end anchoring at the centrosome and/or basal body, and possess abnormally short cilia stumps surrounded by vesicles. Further, GST pull-down assays, mass spectrometry and immunoprecipitation indicated that EB1 and EB3 interact with proteins implicated in MT minus-end anchoring or vesicular trafficking to the cilia base, suggesting that EB1 and EB3 promote ciliogenesis by facilitating such trafficking. In addition, we show that EB3 is localized to the tip of motile cilia in bronchial epithelial cells and affects the formation of centriole-associated rootlet filaments. Collectively, our findings indicate that EBs affect biogenesis of cilia by several centrosome-related mechanisms and support the idea that different EB1-EB3 dimer species have distinct functions within cells.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · Journal of Cell Science