M Garofalo

European Hospital, Roma, Latium, Italy

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Publications (31)26.3 Total impact

  • R. Borioni · F. Tomai · M. Garofalo

    No preview · Article · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The management of abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) has been included as a standard of care in our therapeutic algorithm after diagnosis of acute mesentheric ischemia (AMI), following cardiac surgery. This report is an updated review of our results compared to previous experience. Materials and methods: A retrospective, observational, cohort study on a series of 26 patients (20 males, 6 females, mean age 75.2 years, min 64, max 83) who developed AMI, out of 7.719 patients undergoing cardiac operations (january 2005 - December 2014). The initial treatment consisted of laparotomy with abdominal decompression and temporary abdominal closure, performing visceral resections just in case of gangrenous tracts and providing for a "secondlook" during the variable period of resuscitation and vacuum assisted dressing. Results: A non-occlusive mesentheric ischemia with diffuse visceral underperfusion was confirmed in every case. Temporary abdominal closure was applied to treat ACS in every case, 13 patients required associated resection of gangrenous tracts (50%). Seventeen patients died following first operation as a consequence of multiple organ failure (65.4%). Nine patients survived (34.6%) and underwent re-establishment of intestinal continuity and definitive closure of abdominal wall within 30 DAYS. Discussion and conclusions: AMI occuring after cardiac surgery is associated with an increase of intra-abdominal pressure and subsequent ACS. Basing on this case series, an early ACS treatment using open abdomen techniques may be results in a better outcome of critically injured cardiac patients. These results compared favourably with literature experiences (mortality rate > 85%). Key words: Abdominal compartment syndrome, Acute mesentheric ischemia, Cardiac surgery.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015
  • R Borioni · F Tomai · M Garofalo

    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · European journal of vascular and endovascular surgery: the official journal of the European Society for Vascular Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Current guidelines do not recommend routine coronary evaluation preceding abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) repair in low-risk patients. The purpose of the present study is to report the incidence of coronary lesions in candidates for AAA repair with a Revised Cardiac Risk (Lee) Index (RCRI) < 2, which are usually excluded from preoperative cardiological work-up. Early-term and long-term results of prophylactic myocardial revascularization are also reported. Methods: A retrospective, observational, cohort study collecting clinical data on a series of 149 consecutive patients undergoing preoperative coronary angiography and myocardial revascularization (percutaneous coronary intervention, PCI; coronary artery bypass grafting, CABG) before elective open or endovascular AAA repair (January 2005-December 2012). Results: Severe coronary artery disease (CAD) was revealed in 43 patients (28.9%), who underwent successful myocardial revascularization by means of PCI (n.35) or off-pump CABG (n.8). The incidence of severe CAD in patients resulted at low risk on the basis of risk models was approximately 25%. The incidence of severe CAD in asymptomatic patients was 29.8%. Endovascular (n.52, 35.1%) and open (n.96, 64.9%) AAA repair was performed with low morbidity (0.6%) and mortality (0.6%) in 148 patients. The long-term estimated survival (freedom from fatal cardiovascular events) was 97% at 60 months and 82% at 90 months. Conclusions: The incidence of severe correctable CAD is not negligible in low-risk patients scheduled for AAA repair. Waiting for further recommendations based on large population studies of vascular patients, a more extensive indication to coronary angiography and revascularization should be considered in many candidates for AAA repair.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: This prospective registry was designed to evaluate the early and long-term incidence of clinical events in patients with carotid obstructive disease (COD), after carotid artery revascularisation selected by consensus of a cardiovascular team. Methods and results: 403 consecutive patients with COD scheduled for carotid revascularisation were included: 130 were treated with carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and 273 with carotid artery stenting (CAS). Propensity score matching was performed to assemble a cohort of patients in whom all baseline covariates would be well balanced. The occurrence of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE), including any death, non-fatal myocardial infarction or stroke, was assessed at 30 days and at long-term follow-up. The incidence of MACCE at 30 days was 4.0% (95% confidence interval: 2.1 to 6.0), without any significant difference between the CAS and CEA groups in unmatched and matched populations. The cumulative freedom from MACCE at two-year follow-up was 80.5%±0.94%, with no statistically significant differences between the CAS and CEA groups, both in the total population and in the matched cohort. Conclusions: In this registry of patients undergoing carotid artery revascularisation selected by consensus of a cardiovascular team, the early and long-term incidence of clinical events is up to standard.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · EuroIntervention: journal of EuroPCR in collaboration with the Working Group on Interventional Cardiology of the European Society of Cardiology
  • R Borioni · G De Persio · M Leporace · C Di Capua · U Boggi · M Garofalo
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The present report describes a full endovascular treatment of a multiple anomalous (Splenic artery aneurysms) SAA with combination of coils embolization and proximal occlusion of the splenic artery with the Amplatzer vascular plug. Case report: A 53-year-old Jehovah witness woman presented with multiple aneurysms arising from an anomalous splenic artery. An endovascular treatment was performed by implantation of multiple coils and an Amplatzer Vascular Plug. A CT scan 2 months after the procedure showed complete thrombosis of the aneurysms. Discussion: Aneurysms involving an anomalous or aberrant splenic artery are rarely reported in the literature. Their surgical treatment involves potential difficulties as a consequence of anatomical position and vascular anomalies. A fully endovascular technique can be much more attractive compared to any surgical management, providing an effective and minimally invasive option.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Il Giornale di chirurgia
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    ABSTRACT: To report surgical treatment of a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) associated with spondylodiscitis due to Salmonella in emergency setting. A 69-year-old male with an history of hypertension, presented with a ruptured AAA infected by nontyphoidal Salmonella (type H), associated with spondylodiscitis. Patient underwent an emergency operation consisting in surgical debridment of infected tissue and aortic replacement with a prosthetic Dacron graft impregnated with Gentamycine. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged at day 20 after the index procedure in good clinical condition. antimicrobial therapy was continued for 8 weeks. A CT scan and nuclear medicine studies performed two months later demonstrated minimal sign of residual aortitis. A CT scan 21 months after the procedure showed complete anatomic resolution of the disease. A rare but increasing number of aneurysms as a consequence of Salmonellosis can be observed with a high rate of morbidity and mortality, mainly in patients with a concurrent infection of the spine and paravertebral tissue. Combined antimicrobial therapy and one-stage surgical treatment can be associated with good outcome. KEY WORDS: Abdominal aorta aneurysm, Mycotic aortic aneurysms, Salmonellosis, Spondylodiscitis.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Annali italiani di chirurgia
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    ABSTRACT: Aim. This series reports a 20-year single-center experience in combined carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods. Data on 411 consecutive patients (322 males, 89 females, mean age 69.5 years, range 49-88) undergoing synchronous CEA and CABG over a period of twenty years (1990-2009) were collected to review the cumulative morbidity and mortality rate. Moreover, The results of 261 patients undergoing combined CEA/CABG in the period 1999-2009 were compared with the 150 patients who underwent CEA/CABG during the first ten years of experience. Results. Out of 7617 consecutive CABG, 411 patients (5.3%), underwent combined CEA and CABG procedures. Neurological complications occurred in 5 patients (1.2%). The 30-days mortality was 7% (N.=29). The surgical risk decreased over the time, accounting for a 30-days mortality rate of 4.2% in the period 1999-2009 versus 12% in the period 1990-1998 (P=0.0057). Conclusion. Combined CEA and CABG can be performed with acceptable results. However, the value to add carotid procedures to CABG is still questionable, and further studies have to provide conclusive evidences.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Italian Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: This study reports results of synchronous carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in further support of the hypothesis that carotid and coronary artery revascularization can be safely performed in most patients. The series includes 74 consecutive patients underwent synchronous CEA and off-pump CABG (group A) compared with 50 patients undergoing synchronous CEA and on-pump CABG (group B). Primary endpoint of this study are death, stroke, perioperative myocardial infarction and need for repeated revascularization within 30 days of the procedures. The secondary endpoint includes local and systemic complications. No stroke was observed in group A. Ipsilateral minor stroke occurred in two patients of group B (4%). Two deaths within 30 days were observed in group A (2.7%) compared with 4 deaths in group B (8%). Combined stroke/death rate at 30 days was 2.7% in group A compared with 12% in group B (P< 0.05). No significant differences in myocardial infarction, local and systemic complications were observed. Synchronous CEA and off-pump CABG may reduce the high surgical risk of patients who actually require combined carotid and coronary revascularization. This opinion has to be substantiated by larger studies and randomized trial.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · The Journal of cardiovascular surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Hospitals without percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) capabilities are used to transfer patients who need coronary angiography and/or PCI to other centers. In order to optimize economic resources and hospital bed management, PCIs might be performed with an in-service organization, with re-transfer to the community hospital immediately after the procedure. The aim of our study was to evaluate the safety of a consecutive, unselected series of in-service PCIs compared to PCIs performed in patients admitted to hospitals with cath-lab capabilities. During 2008, 1030 PCI procedures were performed at the European Hospital and Aurelia Hospital: 905 in patients admitted to a hospital with PCI capabilities (Group I) and 125 (12%) with an in-service strategy (Group II) referring from the Città di Roma Hospital. All treatment protocols were preventively uniformed and standardized. The two groups were statistically comparable in terms of baseline clinical characteristics and/or procedural findings, with the exception for older age (66 +/- 10 vs 70 +/- 10 years, p = 0.004) and a higher prevalence of acute coronary syndromes (56 vs 88%, p < 0.001) and femoral vascular access (94 vs 98%, p = 0.03) in Group II. The rate of left ventricular ejection fraction < or = 35% (20 vs 13%, p = 0.06), multivessel PCI (23 vs 19%, p = 0.4), and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor use (15 vs 13%, p = 0.5) was similar between the two groups. Among patients treated with an in-service strategy, 2 (1.6%) were not transferred to the community hospital, because of hemodynamic instability. The in-hospital rate of major clinical events (death for cardiovascular causes, cerebrovascular events, urgent revascularization, stent thrombosis) was 0.75% and 0.8% (p = 0.8), 1.8% and 1% (p = 0.4) for periprocedural myocardial infarction, 1.7% and 1.9% (p = 0.5) for major bleeding, 1.1% and 1.6% (p = 0.6) for vascular complications, in Group I and II, respectively. Left ventricular dysfunction was the only independent predictor of major clinical events (p = 0.003). A strategy of in-service organization for PCI presents a similar rate of in-hospital clinical events and complications compared to an overnight stay into a hospital with PCI capabilities. Such a strategy may be utilized in order to optimize economic resources and hospital bed management.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Giornale italiano di cardiologia (2006)
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    R Borioni · R De Paulis · F Tomai · M Garofalo

    Preview · Article · Feb 2010 · European journal of vascular and endovascular surgery: the official journal of the European Society for Vascular Surgery
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    R Borioni · L De Luca · F Maspes · F Sciuto · M Garofalo
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this report is to describe the endovascular exclusion of an internal iliac artery (IIA) aneurysm in emergency setting, long after abdominal aortic aneurysm surgical repair. An 85-year-old male presented with a contained rupture of a huge IIA aneurysm, ten years after aortoiliac bifurcated grafting. Because of poor clinical conditions an emergency endovascular treatment was planned. A stent-graft was positioned from the proximal right branch of the bifurcated surgical prosthesis to the distal external iliac artery, covering the hypogastric aneurysm neck. One month after the procedure, CT scan demonstrated the complete exclusion of the aneurysm. Endovascular treatment of IIA aneurysms is an excellent option to reduce perioperative morbidity and mortality in high risk patients, particularly in an emergency setting.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2009 · VASA.: Zeitschrift für Gefässkrankheiten. Journal for vascular diseases
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    ABSTRACT: To report a clinical experience about surgical treatment of iatrogenic peripheral artery pseudoaneurysms (FPA). This is a retrospective review of 90 consecutive patients (46 males, 44 females, mean age 66.2 years, range 33-86) with FPA complicating coronary angiography or angioplasty, observed between October 1990 through June 2006. A 3 cm pseudoaneurysm or larger was confirmed by duplex ultrasound scanning in 90 out of 21 454 cardiac patients (0.42%), occurring more frequently in interventional (59/3 983) rather than diagnostic (31/17 471) procedures (1.48% vs 0.17%). The surgical treatment consisted in direct closure with polypropilene suture and occasionally, patch angioplasty or bypass. No limb loss occurred. There were 4 wound complications (4.4%), one pulmonary embolism (1.1%), 3 deaths (3.3%). Classical results reported in literature demonstrate that the surgical repair of femoral pseudoaneurysms following cardiac catheterization is safe, effective and durable. In these series, although low major morbidity (1.1%) and no cases of limb loss were reported, the authors observed 3 death (4.4%), resulting from the severity of cardiac disease in 2 cases and from the vascular repair itself in one case (femoral endoarteritis). These results substantiate the common observation that patients who actually require invasive coronary diagnosis and treatment are often affected by advanced cardiovascular disease and suffer the occurrence of complications, having a high risk of death. Therefore, any surgical treatment should be performed with strict adherence to sound vascular surgical principles.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2008 · Minerva chirurgica
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    ABSTRACT: The presence of significant carotid artery disease in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting has been reported to be as high as 17%. The optimal management of patients with significant coronary and carotid artery disease remains controversial. In this study, we analyze our recent experience with patients who underwent synchronous carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and coronary artery bypass grafting. We reviewed the early outcome of 68 patients (56 males, 12 females, mean age 71.1 years, range 53-88 years) who underwent simultaneous CEA and coronary artery revascularization between January 2005 and June 2007. The frequency of unstable or ulcerated plaques was determined in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Death for myocardial infarction occurred in 3 patients (4.4%). Stroke was found in 1 patient (1.4%). Combined 30-day stroke/mortality rate was 5.8%. The frequency of unstable or ulcerated plaques was 60.3% (41/68). An unstable stenosis was present in 23 out of 42 asymptomatic patients (54.7%). Patients suffering from a concomitant coronary and carotid artery occlusive disease represent a high-risk population whose management is still controversial. A modern approach to combined CEA and coronary artery bypass grafting may be safe. The high frequency of unstable carotid lesions in asymptomatic patients suggests to treat every stenosis > 75% in candidates to coronary artery bypass grafting. Carotid artery stenting should be avoided in the majority of cases, considering the possibility of unstable carotid stenosis and the atherosclerotic involvement of aortic arch.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2008 · Giornale italiano di cardiologia (2006)
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    ABSTRACT: The laparoscopic approach has represented a major step forward in general and emergency surgery. Its application in the emergency setting still raises a number of concerns that limit its more widespread use. To assess the true scope of laparoscopic surgery in the acute abdominal setting, we retrospectively evaluated our experience. From February 2003 to June 2007, 314 patients underwent an emergency laparoscopic operation, for low abdominal pain (193 patients), acute cholecystitis (78 patients), bowel obstruction (18 patients), diffuse peritonitis (16 patients), blunt abdominal trauma (6 patients), and acute pancreatitis (3 patients). Laparoscopy yielded a good diagnostic definition in all cases. The conversion rate was 16.6% (52 patients). Mean operative time was 63 +/- 29 minutes. The general major morbidity rate was 1.5% (4 patients) and the mortality rate was 0.4% (1 pt.). The laparoscopic approach in patients with abdominal emergencies is a useful tool that yields a reliable diagnostic definition in uncertain cases and allows minimal access treatment of the causative disease in the majority of cases.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2008 · Chirurgia italiana
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to report our clinical experience with the surgical treatment of iatrogenic pseudoaneurysms of the peripheral arteries. The study is a retrospective review of 101 consecutive patients (52 males, 49 females, mean age 66.2 years, range 33-86), with iatrogenic pseudoaneurysms of the peripheral arteries, surgically treated in a vascular unit from October 1990 to June 2006. Duplex ultrasound scanning was employed to support the clinical findings. The surgical treatment consisted in direct closure with polypropylene sutures and, occasionally, patch angioplasty or bypass. Ultrasound compression was effective in one of 4 small aneurysms (< 2.5). No limb loss occurred. There were 4 wound complications (3.9%), one pulmonary embolism (0.99%), and 3 deaths (2.9%), 2 of which not related to vascular repair and one secondary to femoral endoarteritis and septic shock, unrelated to previous implantation of a percutaneous femoral closure device. Although iatrogenic pseudoaneurysms of the peripheral arteries are rarely observed in clinical practice, a significant number of peripheral artery complications may occur after cardiac catheterisation and coronary angioplasty. Failure of conservative treatment requires a traditional surgical repair. The results of our series included a significant mortality rate (2.9%), resulting from the severity of cardiac disease in 2 cases and from the vascular repair itself in one case (femoral endoarteritis). These results substantiate the common observation that patients who require surgery for an iatrogenic pseudoaneurysm are often affected by advanced cardiovascular disease and are liable to suffer the occurrence of complications, with a high risk of death. Therefore, any surgical treatment should be performed with strict adherence to sound vascular surgical principles.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2008 · Chirurgia italiana
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    ABSTRACT: Background. The presence of significant carotid artery disease in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting has been reported to be as high as 17%. The optimal management of patients with significant coronary and carotid artery disease remains controversial. In this study, we analyze our recent experience with patients who underwent synchronous carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and coronary artery bypass grafting. Methods. We reviewed the early outcome of 68 patients (56 males, 12 females, mean age 71.1 years, range 53-88 years) who underwent simultaneous CEA and coronary artery revascularization be- tween January 2005 and June 2007. The frequency of unstable or ulcerated plaques was determined in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Results. Death for myocardial infarction occurred in 3 patients (4.4%). Stroke was found in 1 pa- tient (1.4%). Combined 30-day stroke/mortality rate was 5.8%. The frequency of unstable or ulcer- ated plaques was 60.3% (41/68). An unstable stenosis was present in 23 out of 42 asymptomatic pa- tients (54.7%). Conclusions. Patients suffering from a concomitant coronary and carotid artery occlusive disease represent a high-risk population whose management is still controversial. A modern approach to combined CEA and coronary artery bypass grafting may be safe. The high frequency of unstable carotid lesions in asymptomatic patients suggests to treat every stenosis >75% in candidates to coro- nary artery bypass grafting. Carotid artery stenting should be avoided in the majority of cases, con- sidering the possibility of unstable carotid stenosis and the atherosclerotic involvement of aortic arch.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2008
  • Raoul Borioni · Mariano Garofalo · Federico Maspes · Paolo Albano
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    ABSTRACT: Surgical repair of popliteal artery aneurysms is usually performed by vascular exclusion and femoro-popliteal bypass grafting via a medial route. The vascular exclusion of a popliteal artery aneurysm may, however, prove ineffective long-term. We report on a patient with a large popliteal artery aneurysm observed twelve years after conventional surgical treatment and discuss alternative surgical options to be considered for long-lasting effective popliteal artery aneurysm treatment.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2005 · Chirurgia italiana
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    ABSTRACT: Complications due to undetectable coronary artery disease are the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the surgical treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The aim of our study was to evaluate the importance of significant coronary artery disease identification and the impact of coronary revascularization on early and late outcomes after surgical repair of AAA. Between January 1994 and July 2004, 210 patients (204 males and 6 females, mean age 68 +/- 12 years) were candidates to elective surgical repair of AAA. Coronary angiography was performed in 122 patients (58%) in presence of angina symptoms, previous myocardial infarction, echocardiographic or scinti-scan evidence of myocardial ischemia. Coronary revascularization was performed in 83 patients (39.5%). The population was divided into two groups: coronary artery bypass graft/coronary angioplasty (CABG/PTCA) + AAA group (83 patients submitted to CABG surgery [n = 61], or PTCA [n = 22], for significant coronary artery disease before surgical repair of AAA), AAA group (127 patients without significant coronary artery disease, operated for AAA). Follow-up (90% complete) had a mean duration of 42 +/- 23 months. CABG/PTCA + AAA group compared to AAA group presented major symptoms of angina (p = 0.001), higher incidence of previous myocardial infarction (67 vs 10%, p < 0.0001), lower mean value of left ventricular ejection fraction (50 vs 54%, p = 0.01). Operative mortality was 0.95%, and was not related to any cardiac morbidity: operative mortality was observed in the AAA group (2 patients died of anossic cerebral damage and respiratory failure) and was absent in the CABG/PTCA + AAA group (p = 0.8). The overall 8-year survival in the AAA group and in the CABG/PTCA + AAA group was 80 +/- 11 vs 95 +/- 2.8%, respectively (p = 0.7). Freedom from cardiac late death and freedom from cardiac events (recurrence of angina, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure) were high in both groups (93 +/- 6.4 vs 97 +/- 2.3%, p = 0.6; and 91 +/- 6.6 vs 89 +/- 6.7%, p = 0.5, respectively). In the CABG/PTCA + AAA group symptoms for angina (p = 0.0002) and dyspnea (p < 0.0001) significantly improved during the follow-up. Significant coronary artery disease was not negligible (39.5%) in patients candidates to surgical repair of AAA. Identification and correction of coronary artery disease prior to AAA surgery is the most important strategy to reduce the risk of vascular procedure. The beneficial impact of coronary revascularization on early and late outcomes is evident, in terms of satisfactory survival and freedom from cardiac adverse events. Therefore, coronary angiography is strongly suggested to optimize early and long-term results.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2005 · Italian heart journal. Supplement: official journal of the Italian Federation of Cardiology
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    ABSTRACT: Isolated abdominal aortic dissections are rare events. Their anatomic and clinical features are different from those of atherosclerotic aneurysms. We report 4 cases of isolated abdominal aortic dissection that were successfully treated with surgical or endovascular intervention. The anatomic and clinical features and a review of the literature are also presented.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2005 · Texas Heart Institute journal / from the Texas Heart Institute of St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital, Texas Children's Hospital