[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a syndrome characterized by gait disturbance, cognitive deterioration and urinary incontinence in elderly individuals. These symptoms can be improved by shunt operation in some but not all patients. Therefore, discovering predictive factors for the surgical outcome is of great clinical importance. We used normalized power variance (NPV) of electroencephalography (EEG) waves, a sensitive measure of the instability of cortical electrical activity, and found significantly higher NPV in beta frequency band at the right fronto-temporo-occipital electrodes (Fp2, T4 and O2) in shunt responders compared to non-responders. By utilizing these differences, we were able to correctly identify responders and non-responders to shunt operation with a positive predictive value of 80% and a negative predictive value of 88%. Our findings indicate that NPV can be useful in noninvasively predicting the clinical outcome of shunt operation in patients with iNPH.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Scientific Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microglia have been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders in rodent and human postmortem studies. However, the dynamic actions of microglia in the living human brain have not been clarified due to a lack of studies dealing with in situ microglia. Herein, we present a novel technique for developing induced microglia-like (iMG) cells from human peripheral blood cells. An optimized cocktail of cytokines, GM-CSF and IL-34, converted human monocytes into iMG cells within 14 days. The iMG cells have microglial characterizations; expressing markers, forming a ramified morphology, and phagocytic activity with various cytokine releases. To confirm clinical utilities, we developed iMG cells from a patient of Nasu-Hakola disease (NHD), which is suggested to be directly caused by microglial dysfunction, and observed that these cells from NHD express delayed but stronger inflammatory responses compared with those from the healthy control. Altogether, the iMG-technique promises to elucidate unresolved aspects of human microglia in various brain disorders.
Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Scientific Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a neuropsychiatric syndrome characterized by gait disturbance, cognitive impairment and urinary incontinence that affect elderly individuals. These symptoms can potentially be reversed by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage or shunt operation. Prior to shunt operation, drainage of a small amount of CSF or "CSF tapping" is usually performed to ascertain the effect of the operation. Unfortunately, conventional neuroimaging methods such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), as well as electroencephalogram (EEG) power analysis seem to have failed to detect the effect of CSF tapping on brain function. In this work, we propose the use of Neuronal Activity Topography (NAT) analysis, which calculates normalized power variance (NPV) of EEG waves, to detect cortical functional changes induced by CSF tapping in iNPH. Based on clinical improvement by CSF tapping and shunt operation, we classified 24 iNPH patients into responders (N = 11) and nonresponders (N = 13), and performed both EEG power analysis and NAT analysis. We also assessed correlations between changes in NPV and changes in functional scores on gait and cognition scales before and after CSF tapping. NAT analysis showed that after CSF tapping there was a significant decrease in alpha NPV at the medial frontal cortex (FC) (Fz) in responders, while nonresponders exhibited an increase in alpha NPV at the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) (F8). Furthermore, we found correlations between cortical functional changes and clinical symptoms. In particular, delta and alpha NPV changes in the left-dorsal FC (F3) correlated with changes in gait status, while alpha and beta NPV changes in the right anterior prefrontal cortex (PFC) (Fp2) and left DLPFC (F7) as well as alpha NPV changes in the medial FC (Fz) correlated with changes in gait velocity. In addition, alpha NPV changes in the right DLPFC (F8) correlated with changes in WMS-R Mental Control scores in iNPH patients. An additional analysis combining the changes in values of alpha NPV over the left-dorsal FC (∆alpha-F3-NPV) and the medial FC (∆alpha-Fz-NPV) induced by CSF tapping (cut-off value of ∆alpha-F3-NPV + ∆alpha-Fz-NPV = 0), could correctly identified "shunt responders" and "shunt nonresponders" with a positive predictive value of 100% (10/10) and a negative predictive value of 66% (2/3). In contrast, EEG power spectral analysis showed no function related changes in cortical activity at the frontal cortex before and after CSF tapping. These results indicate that the clinical changes in gait and response suppression induced by CSF tapping in iNPH patients manifest as NPV changes, particularly in the alpha band, rather than as EEG power changes. Our findings suggest that NAT analysis can detect CSF tapping-induced functional changes in cortical activity, in a way that no other neuroimaging methods have been able to do so far, and can predict clinical response to shunt operation in patients with iNPH.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Clinical neuroimaging
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Brain deformations might prevent clinical symptoms from worsening in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). We investigated the relationship between reversibility of brain morphology after shunt operations and preoperative clinical symptoms in iNPH patients.
Using head magnetic resonance images with voxel-based morphometry, we measured the cerebrospinal fluid volume in the combined areas of the lateral and third ventricles and Sylvian fissure (the volume of the ventricles and Sylvian fissure (vVS)) and the volume of the subarachnoid space at high convexity and midline areas (vHCM) before and 1 year after lumboperitoneal shunt operations in 12 patients with shunt-responsive iNPH. We used the ratio of normalized vVS to normalized vHCM (nvVS/nvHCM) as an index of the severity of the brain deformation. The degree of reversibility of the brain morphology after the shunt operation was defined as the change ratio of the preoperative nvVS/nvHCM to the postoperative nvVS/nvHCM (CR-nvVS/nvHCM). Higher CR-nvVS/nvHCM values indicated more improvement in the brain deformation. In addition, we rated the severity of the white matter lesions on the preoperative magnetic resonance images based on the Fazekas scale. Dependency in activities of daily living, gait and cognition were evaluated before and 1 year after the shunt operations.
After the shunt operations, the nvVS/nvHCM and nvVS decreased significantly, and nvHCM increased significantly. The CR-nvVS/nvHCM negatively correlated with the preoperative severity of dependency in activities of daily living, gait and cognitive impairments. The CR-nvVS/nvHCM negatively correlated with the Fazekas scale, but not with age, duration of the disease and cerebrospinal fluid pressure.
Reversibility of brain morphology, which varied among iNPH patients, would prevent clinical symptoms from worsening in iNPH patients. The presence of white matter lesions reduced the degree of reversibility of the brain deformations in iNPH patients.
No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Psychogeriatrics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the association between the degree of deformation of the brain before shunt operation and improvement of gait and cognitive impairment after shunt operation in 16 patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). We evaluated gait and cognitive impairment and measured the cerebrospinal fluid volume in the ventricles/sylvian fissure (vVS) and the subarachnoid space at high convexity/midline areas (vHCM) using MR images with voxel-based morphometry before and 3 months after shunt operation. We used the ratio of vVS to vHCM (vVS/vHCM) as an index of the severity of brain deformation. After shunt operation, improvements were observed in gait, as shown by the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test and 10-meter reciprocating walking test (WT), and in cognitive function, as shown by the Mini-Mental State Examination, Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale, Frontal Assessment battery (FAB), and Trail Making test A (TMT-A). The vVS/vHCM ratio was negatively correlated with improvement of the FAB, TMT-A and TUG. Preoperative vVS/vHCM was not significantly correlated with preoperative clinical assessments. The rate of change of vVS/vHCM was positively correlated with improvement in the WT. The improvements of gait and cognitive function were larger in iNPH patients with milder deformation of the brain before shunt operation.
No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives. A meta-analysis of the associations between genetic variants in the AKT1 gene and schizophrenia found that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP5; rs2494732) was associated with schizophrenia in Asian populations. Methods. In this study, we investigated the effects of this SNP on memory and attentional performance and brain structure using magnetic resonance imaging in a Japanese population (117 patients with schizophrenia and 189 healthy subjects). Results. The memory performance, particularly attention/concentration score, measured by the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised in A carriers of SNP5, which was found to be enriched in patients with schizophrenia, was lower than that in individuals with the G/G genotype. We confirmed the association of the SNP with attentional performance using the Continuous Performance Test, which assessed sustained attention and vigilance of attentional function. Patients with A allele demonstrated lower attentional performance than patients with the G/G genotype. Patients with the A allele had smaller gray matter volumes in the right inferior parietal lobule related to attentional processes and in the frontostriatal region related to different SNPs in AKT1 than patients with the G/G genotype. Conclusions. Our results suggest that a genetic variant of AKT1 might be associated with attentional deficits and brain morphological vulnerability in patients with schizophrenia.
No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study we used magnetoencephalography during a modified version of the Sternberg's memory recognition task performed by patients with early Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and by age-matched healthy controls to identify differences in induced oscillatory responses. For analyses, we focused on the retention period of the working memory task. Multiple-source beamformer and Brain Voyager were used for localization of source-power changes across the cortex and for statistic group analyses, respectively. We found significant differences in oscillatory response during the task, specifically in beta and gamma frequency bands: patients with AD showed reduced beta event-related desynchronization (ERD) in the right central area compared to controls, and reduced gamma ERD in the left prefrontal and medial parietal cortex compared to patients with MCI. Our findings suggest that reduced oscillatory responses over certain brain regions in high frequency bands (i.e., beta, gamma), and especially in the beta band that was significantly different between AD patients and healthy subjects, may represent brain electromagnetic changes underlying visual-object working memory dysfunction in early AD, and a neurophysiological indicator of cognitive decline.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuroimaging studies using (18) F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have shown that the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) is the primary and most prominent area of cerebral metabolic and perfusional decrement in early Alzheimer's disease (AD). We carried out the present preliminary study to investigate whether a decline of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the PCC in early to moderate AD was accompanied with that of cerebral protein synthesis (CPS).
We carried out both N-isopropyl-p-[123I] iodoamphetamine SPECT (IMP-SPECT) and L-[methyl-11C] methionine positron emission tomography (MET-PET) in eight AD patients with apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 allele in the early to moderate stage. We also carried out IMP-SPECT in eight healthy controls (HC). We located 32 regions of interest (ROI), and values of regional MET or IMP uptakes were averaged in five regions; the frontal lobe (FL), the parietal lobe (PL), the medial temporal lobe (MTL), PCC and the occipital lobe. Furthermore, the values in the FL, PL, MTL and PCC were divided by values in the occipital areas, and normalized values of regional CBF (rCBF) and CPS (rCPS) were calculated. Then, the rCBF in the FL, PL, MTL and PCC were compared between AD and HC. In addition, the rCBF and rCPS were compared in the FL, PL, MTL and PCC of AD.
The rCBF in the PCC, but not in the other three regions, was significantly lower in AD than in HC. The rCBF was significantly lower than rCPS in the PCC, but rCBF and rCPS were comparable in the other three regions in AD.
The CBF reduction in the PCC in AD was partly caused by neuronal loss in the PCC and partly supported the hypothesis that CBF reduction in the PCC was a result of functional deafferentation by neural degeneration in areas other than the PCC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We compared indices of the revised version of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-R) and scaled scores of the five subtests of the revised version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-R) in 30 elderly schizophrenia (ES) patients and 25 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients in the amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) stage (AD-aMCI). In the WMS-R, attention/concentration was rated lower and delayed recall was rated higher in ES than in AD-aMCI, although general memory was comparable in the two groups. In WAIS-R, digit symbol substitution, similarity, picture completion, and block design scores were significantly lower in ES than in AD-aMCI, but the information scores were comparable between the two groups. Delayed recall and forgetfulness were less impaired, and attention, working memory and executive function were more impaired in ES than in AD-aMCI. These results should help clinicians to distinguish ES combined with AD-aMCI from ES alone.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied the memory disturbance induced by direct electrical stimulations (ES) of the left medial temporal lobe (MTL) . Stimulations were performed in 3 patients with drug-resistant epilepsy during stereoelectroencephalographic recordings in the setting of presurgical evaluation. All patients had electrodes that sampled the perirhinal (PC) and entorhinal (EC) cortices. Verbal memory was evaluated by three words memory test, in which the subjects were asked to repeat three common words which were aurally presented them (memorizing and immediate recall (MIR) condition) . After the distraction tasks for one minute, the subjects were asked to select the three words which were presented before the distraction tasks from six words (delayed recognition (DR) condition) . The ES during MIR condition did not induce immediate recall disturbance, but the ES during MIR and DR condition, especially the ES in the PC during DR, produced DR disturbance. There were some pairs of electrodes on which the ES during both MIR and DR conditions produced DR disturbance in this study, indicating some regions in the PC and EC play important roles in both memorizing and retrieving memory. False recognitions were induced only when the ES were performed on the electrodes in the PC during DR condition. False recognitions were induced not only during the application of ES, but also after the ES were stopped. The findings of this study indicated that the dysfunction in the PC and EC, without dysfunction in the hippocampus, could induce DR impairment and that dysfunction in the PC during retrieval induced false recognitions.
Preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Higher Brain Function Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH), ventriculomegaly and narrowed subarachnoid spaces at the high convexity appear in magnetic resonance (MR) images before the occurrence of objective symptoms. In addition, quantitative regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) has been reported to be reduced in iNPH patients with objective symptoms. To determine whether reduced rCBF is responsible for the appearance of symptoms, we compared rCBF in patients with suspected iNPH with no objective triad symptoms (NOS), iNPH patients with apparent objective triad symptoms (AOS) and normal control subjects (NC). Regional CBF was quantified in 35 Regions-of-interest (ROIs) by 123I-IMP single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using the autoradiography (ARG) method. Multiple comparisons showed that, in all brain regions examined except for in the frontal white matter, rCBF in the NOS group was significantly lower than that in the NC group, but in all brain regions, not significantly different from that of the AOS group. These results suggest that factors other than rCBF in the resting state are responsible for the occurrence of objective symptoms of iNPH.
No preview · Article · Nov 2010 · Journal of the neurological sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Papassotiropoulos et al. (Science 314: p 475) discovered that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the KIBRA gene (rs17070145) was associated with delayed recall performance in Caucasians. KIBRA is highly expressed in the brain and kidneys, and is reported to be involved in synaptic plasticity. Therefore, we first tried to replicate the association between the SNP and memory performance in a Japanese subjects.
We examined the association between the SNP and memory performance measured by the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) in 187 healthy Japanese people.
The T allele carriers had significantly better verbal memory, attention/concentration and delayed recall performance than the C/C carriers (corrected P = 0.044, 0.047 and 0.0084, respectively). Furthermore, the C/T carriers and the T/T carriers had better delayed recall performance than the C/C carriers (post hoc P = 0.0017 and 0.0096).
This data suggest that the C/C genotype might have an impact on memory performance in Asian populations as well as in Caucasian populations. Further investigation to clarify the association of the KIBRA gene with memory in other ethnic groups is warranted.
No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the KIBRA gene, rs17070145, was reported to be significantly associated with episodic memory in cognitively normal cohorts. This observation has expanded genetic studies on KIBRA to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Importantly, the association between KIBRA and episodic memory in AD has never been addressed. In this study, we investigated whether the KIBRA rs17070145 SNP influences AD episodic memory and the disease in a Japanese cohort.
Blood samples from 346 AD patients and 375 normal cognitive controls were collected and genotyped for rs17070145. Episodic memory was measured in 32 AD patients, diagnosed for the first time, by use of the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT).
We found that KIBRA C allele carriers scored significantly lower than KIBRA non-C carriers on both RBMT total profile score (p = 0.042, effect size = 0.84) and RBMT total screening score (p < 0.001, effect size = 1.42). The KIBRA gene did not show association with AD in our Japanese cohort.
Our results evidence a strong association between the KIBRA gene and episodic memory impairment in AD, but show no influence on AD in our Japanese cohort. We propose that KIBRA might have an effect similar to cognitive reserve.
No preview · Article · Sep 2010 · Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the rare case of a 59-year-old man with motor neuron disease and semantic dementia (SD-MND); SD-MND was in a very early stage, and its clinical progression, especially with regard to language impairment, and abnormalities on neuroimages were evaluated for 3 years. The patient complained only of difficulties in recalling names of acquaintances and in writing kanji characters. After 1 year, he experienced difficulty in describing common objects. He developed two-way anomia only in some words, which varied from day to day. His anomia was not category-specific and was noted even with respect to words that describe color. In addition to experiencing difficulty in writing kanji characters, he experienced difficulty in writing kana characters. Muscle atrophy was observed, and he experienced weakness in his limbs, especially in the right upper limb; however, bulbar symptoms were not observed. At this point, he fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for MND. In the next year, semantic memory impairment became apparent, and he was subsequently diagnosed with SD. Deterioration in his ability to name objects in all categories, except body parts, was noted. Further, the ability of writing both kana and kanji characters was increasingly impaired. He developed bulbar symptoms and experienced increased muscle weakness. The characteristics of this patient differed from those of SD patients without MND with regard to the difficulty in writing kana characters and naming colors even though the SD-MND was in the early stage. Further, the pattern of brain hypoperfusion was different from that observed for SD patients without MND. In the case of this patient, brain hypoperfusion was found not only in the left anterior temporal lobe but also in the frontal lobe. The characteristics of his language symptoms might be related to the specific pattern of brain hypoperfusion, which might be commonly observed in patients with dementia and MND.
No preview · Article · Jun 2010 · Brain and nerve = Shinkei kenkyū no shinpo
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle reflex (ASR) is the most common psychophysiological index of sensorimotor gating. Several studies have investigated the relationship of PPI of ASR to schizotypy in Caucasians. However, little has been reported on this relationship in Asians. We investigated a possible relationship between PPI of ASR and schizotypy in 79 healthy Japanese subjects. Schizotypy was assessed by the Schizotypal personality Questionnaire (SPQ). PPI was evaluated at signal-to-noise ratios (SnRs: difference between background noise intensity and prepulse intensity) of +12, +16, and +20 dB. The total SPQ score, cognitive/perceptual score, and interpersonal score correlated negatively with PPI at SnR of +16 and +20 dB. We conclude that PPI is associated with the trait of schizotypy in healthy Asian subjects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) gene acts as a cellular survival factor in response to several environmental and psychosocial stresses. The expression level of CHI3L1 was increased in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex regions of patients with schizophrenia. Genetic variants of the CHI3L1 gene have been significantly associated with schizophrenia in two distinct ethnic groups, the Chinese and Irish populations. The aims of this study are to confirm the association between the CHI3L1 gene and schizophrenia in a Japanese population using the largest sample size to date (1463 cases and 1795 controls) and perform a meta-analysis of the combined samples (3005 cases, 3825 controls and 601 trios). We found significant associations between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 4/rs4950928 (p=0.009), which is located in the promoter region of the CHI3L1 gene, and haplotypes including this SNP and schizophrenia (the most significant global p<0.001). As the meta-analysis of the combined samples showed significant heterogeneity among studies of SNP3/rs10399805 (p=0.026) and SNP4 (p<0.001), we performed meta-analyses separately in the Japanese (2033 cases and 2365 controls) and Chinese populations (412 cases, 464 controls and 601 trios), the major groups analyzed in association studies of the CHI3L1 gene. The meta-analysis in Japanese populations showed stronger evidence for the association of schizophrenia with SNP4 (p=0.003), while the meta-analysis in Chinese populations showed an association with a different variant (SNP3) (p=0.003). We conclude that the genetic variants in the CHI3L1 gene have ethnic heterogeneity and confer a susceptibility to schizophrenia in Asian populations.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2010 · Schizophrenia Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cancer pain often makes patient's performance status worsen and is one of the difficulties in anti-cancer therapy. We report a case of unresectable advanced pancreatic cancer with cancer pain, which was treated by matrix-type transdermal fentanyl following slow-releasing oxycodone, which caused severe constipation. Rotation to matrix-type transdermal fentanyl (Durotep MT 2.1 mg) releaved severe constipation as well as cancer pain. The patient could take gemcitabine-based chemotherapy. Low-dose matrix-type transdermal fentanyl (Durotep MT 2.1 mg) is useful for opioid rotation from low-dose morphine or oxycodone with uncontrolled side effects, and it contributes to continuation of anti-cancer therapy.
No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Charles Bonnet Syndrome (CBS) is characterized by complex formed and recurrent visual hallucinations in psychologically normal people, and is often associated with eye pathology. Many psychiatrists have taken an interest in CBS because this syndrome could provide clues to the mechanisms underlying visual hallucinations. In the present paper, we review previous neuroimaging studies in patients with CBS and summarize the results of these studies. There could be a fundamental dysfunction in the primary and secondary visual cortices in some patients with CBS, and transient cortical activation occurs in the inferior lateral temporal cortex during the appearance of visual hallucinations in CBS patients. External visual stimuli are perceived in the retina and are transmitted to the primary visual cortex (Brodmann area (BA) 17). The stimuli are transmitted from BA 17 to the secondary visual cortex (BA 18) and then to the visual association cortices (BA 19 and BA 37). In general, our perception of external visual stimuli normally has an inhibitory effect on the endogenous activation of the visual cortex. Visual loss due to certain conditions, of which eye pathology is the most commonly postulated in CBS patients, produces a state of sensory deprivation that releases the visual cortex from regulation by external stimuli, resulting in visual hallucinations (cortical release phenomenon). The results of previous neuroimaging studies suggest that the cortical release phenomenon hypothesis for the occurrence of visual hallucinations in patients with CBS is plausible. In addition, the results indicate that not only eye pathology, but also dysfunction in the primary and secondary visual cortices could result in deprivation of external visual stimuli.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: G72 is one of the most widely tested genes for association with schizophrenia. As G72 activates the D-amino acid oxidase (DAO), G72 is termed D-amino acid oxidase activator (DAOA). The aim of this study is to investigate the association between G72 and schizophrenia in a Japanese population, using the largest sample size to date (1774 patients with schizophrenia and 2092 healthy controls). We examined eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which had been associated with schizophrenia in previous studies. We found nominal evidence for association of alleles, M22/rs778293, M23/rs3918342 and M24/rs1421292, and the genotype of M22/rs778293 with schizophrenia, although there was no association of allele or genotype in the other five SNPs. We also found nominal haplotypic association, including M15/rs2391191 and M19/rs778294 with schizophrenia. However, these associations were no longer positive after correction for multiple testing. We conclude that G72 might not play a major role in the risk for schizophrenia in the Japanese population.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2009 · Schizophrenia Research