Marie Damon

Agrocampus Ouest, Roazhon, Brittany, France

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Publications (46)68.15 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The aim was to describe immune, hormonal and metabolic responses of pigs to a systemic inÀammatorychallenge using blood transcriptome. Male pigs of 4 different gonadal statuses were used (intact, surgicallycastrated, immunized against GnRH, and surgically castrated plus immunized against GnRH, 7-9 pigs pergroup). Blood samples were collected via jugular catheters at 149 d of age, just before (t-1), and 1, 4 and 24hours (t1 to t24) after a lipopolysaccharide administration (Escherichia coli O55:B5 serotype LPS, 15μg/kg, i.v.). Blood lymphocyte/granulocyte (L/G) ratio was measured, and was maximal at t1 (P0.1) and lower than baseline at t24 (P
    No preview · Book · Aug 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Pig production has increased in hot climate countries over recent years but the effect of exposure to high temperatures on the health status of farm animals has not been investigated thoroughly. It is not clear how the ambient temperature (Ta) might influence responses to inflammatory challenge in pigs and the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of high Ta on performance and physiological parameters of growing pigs subjected to repeated administration of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Thirty-seven pigs, each fitted with a jugular catheter, were assigned to one of two Ta conditions: thermo-neutral (TN, 24 °C), or high (HT, 30 °C). After a 14-day adaptation period, and a 7-day measurement period, pigs were administered five repeated injections of LPS at 48 h intervals. Irrespective of Ta, the LPS challenge reduced feed consumption and increased plasma pro-inflammatory cytokines, haptoglobin and cortisol. However, the extent of these responses was greater in pigs at TN than HT. In both groups, plasma thyroxine and triiodothyronine concentrations decreased, following the first LPS injection and thereafter returned to baseline, which occurred faster at HT than at TN. Moreover, the LPS challenge decreased growth and feed efficiency in pigs kept at TN, which was not observed in pigs kept at HT. The results suggest a greater capacity of pigs to limit the physiological and metabolic disturbances caused by inflammatory challenge, when kept at HT, compared to TN.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · The Veterinary Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Meat quality depends on skeletal muscle structure and metabolic properties. While most studies carried on pigs focus on the Longissimus muscle (LM) for fresh meat consumption, Semimembranosus (SM) is also of interest because of its importance for cooked ham production. Even if both muscles are classified as glycolytic muscles, they exhibit dissimilar myofiber composition and metabolic characteristics. The comparison of LM and SM transcriptome profiles undertaken in this study may thus clarify the biological events underlying their phenotypic differences which might influence several meat quality traits. Muscular transcriptome analyses were performed using a custom pig muscle microarray: the 15 K Genmascqchip. A total of 3823 genes were differentially expressed between the two muscles (Benjamini-Hochberg adjusted P value ≤0.05), out of which 1690 and 2133 were overrepresented in LM and SM respectively. The microarray data were validated using the expression level of seven differentially expressed genes quantified by real-time RT-PCR. A set of 1047 differentially expressed genes with a muscle fold change ratio above 1.5 was used for functional characterization. Functional annotation emphasized five main clusters associated to transcriptome muscle differences. These five clusters were related to energy metabolism, cell cycle, gene expression, anatomical structure development and signal transduction/immune response. This study revealed strong transcriptome differences between LM and SM. These results suggest that skeletal muscle discrepancies might arise essentially from different post-natal myogenic activities.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · PLoS ONE
  • Denys Durand · Marie Damon · Mylène Gobert
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    ABSTRACT: In farm animals, as in humans, oxidative stress is caused by many stressful situations of physiological, environmental or nutritional origin. Many biological molecules (lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids) can be “oxidized” by radical species generated during oxidative stress. The body has an arsenal of endogenous or nutritional antioxidant molecules. The total antioxidant capacity of the animal as a whole or of its products can be evaluated by the simultaneous use of several complementary methods. Oxidative stress affects the quality of products but also animal health. Thus, it has been shown that poor breeding conditions such as reduced floor areas or housing on totally slatted floor decreased animal resistance to oxidative stress. Similarly, there are strong correlations between different metabolic diseases or pathologies of infectious or inflammatory type, and antioxidant deficiency.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Cahiers de Nutrition et de Diététique
  • Mylène Gobert · Marie Damon · Denys Durand
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    ABSTRACT: Sensorial and nutritional qualities of animal products could be highly deteriorated by bad practices during the pre-abattage period. Transport, handling or bad feeding strategy could alter the pro- and antioxidant equilibrium of muscle, which could involve a higher susceptibility to lipids and proteins peroxidation. Peroxidation reactions are able to alter the animal products qualities (meat, milk, egg) and particularly the color and the tenderness of meat. Adapted feeding strategy and good preservation of antioxidant status of animals seem to be the best way to preserve the nutritional quality of animal products.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Cahiers de Nutrition et de Diététique
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    ABSTRACT: Longissimus lumborum (LM) and semimembranosus (SM) are used for different meat consumption. Both are classified as glycolytic muscles but have different myofiber composition and metabolic properties. Compare LM and SM transcriptome profiles may clarify the biological events which could explain their phenotypic differences. The 90 pigs used in this study were produced as an inter-cross between 2 commercial sire lines. Muscle samples were collected 20 minutes post-mortem, snap frozen and used for total RNA isolation. Transcriptome analysis was undertaken using a pig muscle microarray: the 15K Genmascqchip. Analyses were performed using R software. Raw data were submitted to quality filtration and normalization. Probes with the smallest expression variability were filtered out. Normalized data were analyzed using a linear model of variance taking into account fixed effects of slaughter date, sex, sire and muscle. Carcass weight was used as a covariate. Genes wh ich were differentially expressed between muscles were clustered according to their semantic similarities. Semantic similarities were computed according to Wang’s method using Gene Ontology (GO) Biological Process (BP) terms. Thus, functional characterizations of genes clusters were performed with WebGestalt using GO BP terms. A total of 3,867 genes were differentially expressed between the 2 muscles, out of which 1,729 and 2,138 were over-represented respectively in LM and in SM. A set of 1,047 differentially expressed genes with a muscle fold change ratio above 1.5 was used for functional characterization. Five clusters related to energy metabolism, cell cycle, gene expression, anatomical structure development and signal transduction/immune response were identified. These results shed light on differential transcriptome profiles between LM and SM. This variability could affect muscle development and hence meat quality.
    No preview · Book · Aug 2013
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    ABSTRACT: Session : Molecular genetics
    No preview · Book · Aug 2013
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    ABSTRACT: Meat quality (MQ) results from complex phenomenon and despite improved knowledge on MQ development, its variability remains high. The identification of biomarkers and the further development of rapid tests would thus be helpful to evaluate MQ in pork industries. Using transcriptomics, the present study aimed at identifying biomarkers of eight pork quality traits: ultimate pH, drip loss, lightness, redness, hue angle, intramuscular fat, shear force and tenderness, based on an experimental design inducing a high variability in MQ. Associations between microarray gene expression and pork traits (n=50 pigs) highlighted numerous potential biomarkers of MQ. Using quantitative RT-PCR, 113 transcript-trait correlations including 40 of these genes were confirmed (P<0.05, |r|≤0.73), out of which 60 were validated (P<0.05, |r|≤0.68) on complementary experimental data (n=50). Multiple regression models including 3 to 5 genes explained up to 59% of MQ trait variability. Moreover, functional analysis of correlated-trait genes provided information on the biological phenomena underlying MQ.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Meat Science
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    ABSTRACT: The development of technological and sensory pork quality traits is a complex phenomenon. Many factors influencing pork quality have been identified so far, but pork quality is still highly variable and difficult to predict. In order to better understand the development of pork quality and identify molecular markers, associations between muscle transcriptome and technological and sensory traits (pH, drip loss, colour, intramuscular fat, shear force, tenderness) were established in an experimental design. This included pigs from contrasted breeds (Basque and Large White, n=50) produced in different systems, which led to great variability in quality. Many correlations between gene expression and meat quality traits were identified by transcriptomic analysis. Using RT‐PCR for the quantification of expression of 40 of these genes, 113 transcript‐trait associations were confirmed (P
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013
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    ABSTRACT: Session : Bases biologiques de la qualité et génétique/génomique
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012
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    Marie Damon · Katy Denieul · Bénédicte Lebret
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    ABSTRACT: Session : Bases biologiques de la qualité et génétique/génomique
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012
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    ABSTRACT: The molecular mechanisms underlying the genetic control of fat development in humans and livestock species still require characterization. To gain insights on gene expression patterns associated with genetic propensity for adiposity, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) transcriptomics profiles from two contrasted pig breeds for body fatness were compared. Samples were obtained from Large White (LW; lean phenotype) and Basque pigs (B; low growth and high fat content) at 35 kg (n = 5 per breed) or 145 kg body weight (n = 10 per breed). Using a custom adipose tissue microarray, 271 genes were found to be differentially expressed between the two breeds at both stages, out of which 123 were highly expressed in LW pigs and 148 genes were highly expressed in B pigs. Functional enrichment analysis based on gene ontology (GO) terms highlighted gene groups corresponding to the mitochondrial energy metabolism in LW pigs, whereas immune response was found significantly enriched in B pigs. Genes associated with lipid metabolism, such as ELOVL6, a parameter involved in fatty acid elongation, had a lower expression in B compared with LW pigs. Furthermore, despite enlarged adipocyte diameters and higher plasma leptin concentration, B pigs displayed reduced lipogenic enzyme activities compared with LW pigs at 145 kg. Altogether, our results suggest that the development of adiposity was associated with a progressive worsening of the metabolic status leading to a low-grade inflammatory state, and may thus be of significant interest for both livestock production and human health.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · Physiological Genomics
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    ABSTRACT: Since decades, production traits such as growth rate, feed efficiency or body composition have been drastically increased in pigs by genetic selection. Whether this selection impacted animal robustness is still unclear. In this study, we compared Large White (LW) pigs, a breed submitted to intense genetic selection for production traits, and Basque (B) pigs, a local rustic breed, reared in two different housing environments (conventional v. enriched). Adaptation to housing conditions among each breed was evaluated at the level of endocrine and immune traits. These are known to be impacted by housing conditions and breed; however, the interaction effects between genotype and environment are less described. Animals (20 per breed and housing environment) entered the experiment at 35 kg of live weight. Levels of cortisol, acute-phase inflammatory proteins, immunoglobulins and hydrogen peroxide, blood formula, lymphocyte proliferation and in-vitro cytokine expression were measured at ∼115 kg of live weight. Animals were checked for skin injuries during the growing period. At slaughter, at the average live weight of 145 kg, carcasses were examined for pathological conditions of the respiratory tract. The major result was that the two breeds exhibited differences in response to the housing environment. Among the 24 sanitary, endocrine or immune traits investigated, the housing conditions affected eight variables in both breeds (salivary cortisol at 0700 and 1900 h, severity of pneumonia at slaughter) or only in B pigs (severe skin lesions) or LW pigs (salivary cortisol at 1500 h, granulocyte numbers and lymphocyte/granulocyte ratio and lymphocyte proliferation). These observations strengthen the hypothesis that selection for high meat production level might be associated with an increased susceptibility of animals to environmental stressors.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · animal
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    ABSTRACT: Meat quality depends on physiological processes taking place in muscle tissue, which could involve a large pattern of genes associated with both muscle structural and metabolic features. Understanding the biological phenomena underlying muscle phenotype at slaughter is necessary to uncover meat quality development. Therefore, a muscle transcriptome analysis was undertaken to compare gene expression profiles between two highly contrasted pig breeds, Large White (LW) and Basque (B), reared in two different housing systems themselves influencing meat quality. LW is the most predominant breed used in pig industry, which exhibits standard meat quality attributes. B is an indigenous breed with low lean meat and high fat contents, high meat quality characteristics, and is genetically distant from other European pig breeds. Transcriptome analysis undertaken using a custom 15 K microarray, highlighted 1233 genes differentially expressed between breeds (multiple-test adjusted P-value<0.05), out of which 635 were highly expressed in the B and 598 highly expressed in the LW pigs. No difference in gene expression was found between housing systems. Besides, expression level of 12 differentially expressed genes quantified by real-time RT-PCR validated microarray data. Functional annotation clustering emphasized four main clusters associated to transcriptome breed differences: metabolic processes, skeletal muscle structure and organization, extracellular matrix, lysosome, and proteolysis, thereby highlighting many genes involved in muscle physiology and meat quality development. Altogether, these results will contribute to a better understanding of muscle physiology and of the biological and molecular processes underlying meat quality. Besides, this study is a first step towards the identification of molecular markers of pork quality and the subsequent development of control tools.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: A family structured population of 325 pigs (females and barrows) was produced as an intercross between 2 commercial sire lines and was subjected to a systematic transcriptome analysis of LM samples obtained shortly after slaughter. Additionally, measurements of meat quality traits of fresh and cooked loin were gathered from the same animals. The transcriptome analysis was achieved by microarray hybridization, using a custom repertoire of 15,000 6mer DNA probes targeting transcripts expressed in growing pig skeletal muscle. These data allowed us to estimate the heritability of expression abundance for each of the quantified RNA species. The abundance of 9,765 RNA was estimated as heritable with a false discovery rate of 5%, from which 1,174 were deemed as highly heritable (h(2) > 0.50). We also observed a large number of transcripts whose LM expression abundance is genetically correlated with 4 meat quality traits: the loin pH measured at 45 min postmortem (pH45), 253 transcripts; the loin cooking loss (CL), 134 transcripts; the cooked loin shear force (SFc), 184 transcripts; and the loin color redness (a*) value, 190 transcripts. Heritable and meat quality genetically correlated transcripts showed an over-representation of biological processes involved in the induction of apoptosis (genetically correlated with CL), complement activation (genetically correlated with SFc), glucose metabolism (genetically correlated with a*), and cation channel activity (genetically correlated with pH45). Overall, the biological functions highlighted in the highly heritable transcripts and the lack of transcript that would be genetically correlated with LM glycolytic potential suggest that the genetic variability of the LM postmortem transcriptome is focused on muscle tissue response to postmortem ischemia and reflects more distantly the antemortem muscle physiology. Because of the contrasting distributions of the genetic correlations between LM RNA concentrations and the different meat quality traits studied, indirect selection strategies of meat quality traits based on measurements of selected LM RNA species could be only proposed for a subset of the analyzed meat characteristics (pH45, SFc, a*, CL). A substantial improvement in the efficiency of selection for these meat quality traits could result from measuring muscle RNA concentrations on selection candidates, if the same genetic parameters can be verified using in vivo-sampled muscles.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Journal of Animal Science

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2012
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    ABSTRACT: Detection of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting meat quality traits in pigs is crucial for the design of efficient marker-assisted selection programs and to initiate efforts toward the identification of underlying polymorphisms. The RYR1 and PRKAG3 causative mutations, originally identified from major effects on meat characteristics, can be used both as controls for an overall QTL detection strategy for diversely affected traits and as a scale for detected QTL effects. We report on a microsatellite-based QTL detection scan including all autosomes for pig meat quality and carcass composition traits in an F2 population of 1,000 females and barrows resulting from an intercross between a Pietrain and a Large White-Hampshire-Duroc synthetic sire line. Our QTL detection design allowed side-by-side comparison of the RYR1 and PRKAG3 mutation effects seen as QTLs when segregating at low frequencies (0.03-0.08), with independent QTL effects detected from most of the same population, excluding any carrier of these mutations. Large QTL effects were detected in the absence of the RYR1 and PRKGA3 mutations, accounting for 12.7% of phenotypic variation in loin colour redness CIE-a* on SSC6 and 15% of phenotypic variation in glycolytic potential on SSC1. We detected 8 significant QTLs with effects on meat quality traits and 20 significant QTLs for carcass composition and growth traits under these conditions. In control analyses including mutation carriers, RYR1 and PRKAG3 mutations were detected as QTLs, from highly significant to suggestive, and explained 53% to 5% of the phenotypic variance according to the trait. Our results suggest that part of muscle development and backfat thickness effects commonly attributed to the RYR1 mutation may be a consequence of linkage with independent QTLs affecting those traits. The proportion of variation explained by the most significant QTLs detected in this work is close to the influence of major-effect mutations on the least affected traits, but is one order of magnitude lower than effect on variance of traits primarily affected by these causative mutations. This suggests that uncovering physiological traits directly affected by genetic polymorphisms would be an appropriate approach for further characterization of QTLs.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · BMC Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Pork quality is highly variable and availability of relevant predictors of fresh meat quality at slaughter is critical to optimize carcass use and improve its valuation. High throughput gene expression studies have been widely used to describe biological mechanisms underlying variation of several traits but data are scarce regarding their use as tools for development of biomarkers. The GENMASCQ (GENomics enabled Marker Assisted Selection and Certification of Quality in Pork products ) research program was set up to select, using high-throughput gene expression screening, markers of the biological variation mostly appropriate to describe, and ultimately forecast, the sensory quality of an important meat product, accounting for nearly 40 % of meat protein sources in human food. This report describes the characterization of a porcine skeletal muscle microarray, the GenmascqChip 15K, as a new tool to study pig meat quality. This microarray is annotated at nearly 90 % and permits to explore a list of 9169 unique genes.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Nature Precedings
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    Full-text · Article · Feb 2011
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    ABSTRACT: Residual feed intake (RFI) is defined as the difference between the observed feed intake and that expected based on requirements for maintenance and production. A divergent selection was conducted during 4 generations in Large White male pigs to produce low and high RFI lines. The present study aims at determining the influence of this selection on biochemical and histological traits of skeletal muscle, and relating these changes to correlated effects on growth, carcass composition, and meat quality traits. At 8 d preslaughter, biopsies from the LM were taken in the fed state on 14 females from each RFI line fed ad libitum. Animals were slaughtered at 107.8 ± 8.0 kg of BW without any previous fasting. Samples of LM, semimembranosus (SM), biceps femoris (BFM), and rhomboideus muscles were taken at both 30 min and 24 h postmortem. Myofiber typing was only assessed in LM. Low RFI pigs ("efficient") had leaner carcasses with greater muscle content (P < 0.001), less backfat thickness (P < 0.001), and less intramuscular fat content in all 4 muscles (P < 0.01 to P = 0.04). Their greater muscle content was associated with hypertrophy of all fast-twitch fibers. Glycogen content in all glycolytic muscles (i.e., LM, SM and BFM), was greater in low than high RFI pigs. The greater accumulation of glycogen in LM of low RFI pigs was specifically located in the fast-twitch glycolytic IIBW fibers, which correspond to fibers containing IIb, IIb + IIx, or IIx myosin heavy chains. The difference in muscle glycogen content between RFI line pigs was more significant in the living animals (P = 0.0003) than at 30 min postmortem (P = 0.08). This was associated with a decreased ultimate pH (P = 0.001), and greater lightness of color (P = 0.002) and drip loss (P = 0.04) in LM of low than high RFI line pigs, suggesting that selection for reduced RFI may impair some meat quality traits, such as water-holding capacity. Pigs from the low RFI line exhibited a greater (P = 0.02) percentage of IIBW fibers in LM and tended (P < 0.10) to have less lipid β-oxidative capacity in LM, SM, and BFM. In contrast, no difference (P > 0.10) between lines was found for citrate synthase and lactate dehydrogenase activities, mitochondrial activity, and expression of genes coding for uncoupling proteins 2 and 3. Differences between RFI pigs in plasma leptin, cortisol, and thyroid hormone concentrations are presented and discussed. In conclusion, selection for low RFI influenced muscle properties in a way favoring muscle mass, but likely impairing meat quality.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2010 · Journal of Animal Science