Robert H Cofield

Mayo Clinic - Rochester, Рочестер, Minnesota, United States

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Publications (200)525.58 Total impact


  • No preview · Article · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Polio infection can often lead to orthopedic complications such as arthritis, osteoporosis, muscle weakness, skeletal deformation, and chronic instability of the joints. The purpose of this study was to assess the outcomes and associated complications of arthroplasty in shoulders with sequelae of poliomyelitis. Methods: Seven patients (average age, 70 years) were treated between 1976 and 2013 with shoulder arthroplasty for the sequelae of polio. One patient underwent reverse shoulder arthroplasty, 2 had a hemiarthroplasty, and 4 had total shoulder arthroplasty. Average follow-up was 87 months. Outcome measures included pain, range of motion, and postoperative modified Neer ratings. Results: Overall pain scores improved from 5 to 1.6 points (on a 5-point scale) after shoulder arthroplasty. Six shoulders had no or mild pain at latest follow-up, and 6 shoulders rated the result as much better or better. Mean shoulder elevation improved from 72° to 129°, and external rotation improved from 11° to 56°. Average strength in elevation decreased from 3.9 to 3.4 postoperatively, and external rotation strength decreased from 3.9 to 3.3. This, however, did not reach significance. Evidence of muscle imbalance with radiographic instability was found in 4 shoulders that demonstrated superior subluxation, anterior subluxation, or both. This remained asymptomatic. No shoulder required revision or reoperation. Conclusions: Shoulder arthroplasty provides significant pain relief and improved motion in patients with sequelae of poliomyelitis. Muscle weakness may be responsible for postoperative instability, and careful selection of the patient with good upper extremity muscles must be made.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery / American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons ... [et al.]

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Revue de Chirurgie Orthopédique et Traumatologique

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Revue de Chirurgie Orthopédique et Traumatologique

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Revue de Chirurgie Orthopédique et Traumatologique

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Revue de Chirurgie Orthopédique et Traumatologique

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Revue de Chirurgie Orthopédique et Traumatologique

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Revue de Chirurgie Orthopédique et Traumatologique
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Revision of a shoulder arthroplasty to a reverse shoulder arthroplasty in the presence of glenoid bone loss is especially challenging. The purpose of the present study was to determine the complications and results of glenoid bone-grafting in revision to a reverse shoulder arthroplasty. Methods: Between 2005 and 2010, 143 consecutive reverse shoulder arthroplasties performed as revision procedures were performed at our institution. Glenoid bone-grafting was performed in forty-one shoulders (29%), with 98%(forty) that had follow-up of more than two years (mean, 3.1 years). The 102 patients who did not undergo grafting served as a control group. Results: Seven patients (18%) required another revision surgery because of glenoid loosening (four patients), instability (two patients), or infection (one patient). The two and five-year implant survival rate free of revision for shoulders that had glenoid bone-grafting was 88% and 76%, respectively, which was lower than that for patients who had not required glenoid bone-grafting. The survival rate free of radiographic glenoid loosening at two and five years for the shoulders that had bone-grafting was 92% and 89%, respectively, which was worse than that for those that had not had glenoid bone-grafting. Patients had significant pain relief and improvement in their shoulder range of motion, and they had an increased level of satisfaction compared with the preoperative status. Increased rates of glenoid loosening were seen in patients who had an increased body mass index, an implant with a lateral center of rotation, a previous total shoulder replacement (versus hemiarthroplasty), and in those who were smokers. Conclusions: Although there were relatively high rates of glenoid loosening and reoperation at mid-term follow-up, glenoid reconstruction with bone graft in the revision setting was able to relieve pain and restore shoulder function and stability.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Osteonecrosis (ON) of the humeral head represents <5% of the shoulder arthroplasty population. Depending on the stage of disease, surgeons must decide between hemiarthroplasty (HA) and total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA). To date, the peer-reviewed literature offers minimal insight into the best form of treatment of this population of patients. Methods: Between August 1973 and November 2010, 141 shoulder arthroplasties were performed for operatively confirmed ON of the humeral head; 67 HAs and 71 TSAs were observed for at least 2 years (mean, 9.3 years) or until reoperation. Indications for surgery included imaging-confirmed ON in a patient who had failed to respond to conservative treatment modalities. Results: Shoulder arthroplasty provided significant improvements in pain scores (P < .001), elevation (P < .01), and external rotation (P < .01) for both the HA and TSA populations. Both groups showed similar patient-reported satisfaction (>75%) and excellent/satisfactory Neer ratings (>65%). Eleven percent of HAs had moderate to severe glenoid erosion at follow-up, and 25% of glenoid components were radiographically at risk. Eight HAs and 11 TSAs underwent reoperation. The most common cause for reoperation was painful glenoid arthrosis in the HA group (7) and aseptic loosening (4) in the TSA group. The estimated 20-year survivorship of HA and TSA was 87% and 79%, respectively. Conclusions: In patients with atraumatic ON of the humeral head, both HA and TSA can be expected to provide lasting pain relief and improved range of motion, with HA having longer follow-up. HA should be strongly considered in patients with atraumatic ON of the humeral head and preserved glenoid cartilage.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery / American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons ... [et al.]
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    ABSTRACT: Modularity in total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) has increased over the past 30 years. Our institution previously showed shoulders treated with modular humeral head/stem arthroplasties had similar outcomes to monoblock designs. Presently, we aim to update clinical follow-up of 2nd generation TSAs and assess how increased modularity affects early outcomes and survivorship across three generations of implants. Between 1997 and 2001, 75 second generation modular TSA's were performed for primary osteoarthritis. Shoulders were followed for a minimum of 2 years or until reoperation, mean 7.4 years. Results were compared with first generation monoblock TSAs and third generation TSAs which offered multiple humeral head shape options to more precisely replicate patient anatomy. Second generation TSAs continue to show significant improvements in pain, elevation and external rotation: 90 % of shoulders were subjectively better at follow-up. Survivorship was estimated to be 89.0 % at 10 years. All generations showed similar pain relief, and improved range of motion and Neer ratings. Survivorship among the 3 groups was similar at 5 years but was estimated to be higher in the 1st generation group at 7 years. More glenoids were radiographically at risk in the 2nd and 3rd generation groups than in the 1st; however, this did not reach significance. With extended mid-term follow-up, second generation anatomic TSA continues to provide improvements in pain and range of motion for primary OA. Implant modularity can facilitate surgery, but similar clinical outcomes can be expected regardless of modularity. Level IV, Treatment study.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · International Orthopaedics
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    ABSTRACT: With the increase in shoulder arthroplasty rates, the number of perioperative complications, such as periprosthetic fractures, continues to be a rise; however, the risk factors and incidence of intraoperative complications, such as fractures, during revision reverse shoulder arthroplasty are not well established. We evaluated patients receiving a reverse shoulder arthroplasty to determine (1) the frequency and characteristics of intraoperative humerus fractures, (2) the risk factors for fracture, (3) the complications associated with treatment of fractures, and (4) clinical and functional outcomes after treatment. Using one institution's total joint registry, we performed a retrospective analysis of medical records of 224 patients (230 shoulders) who underwent revision surgery to reverse shoulder arthroplasty, from 2005 to 2012, for failed total shoulder arthroplasty. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty was used when there was a deficient rotator cuff, prior instability, or deficient glenoid bone stock. Intraoperative periprosthetic humerus fractures occurred in 36 shoulders (16%) (36 patients). The clinical outcome analysis included 29 patients with a minimum 2-year clinical followup (mean followup, 3.1 years; range, 2.0-6.3 years). The control group consisted of 188 patients (194 shoulders), and it was used for risk-factor calculation; whereas only 150 patients (154 shoulders) in the control group had a minimum 2-year followup, and thus only 150 patients (154 shoulders) made up the comparators (controls) for outcome-analysis comparisons. Risk factors were assessed using univariate analysis with odds ratios (OR), whereas implant survival and complications were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Three displaced and 33 nondisplaced fractures occurred during revision reverse total shoulder arthroplasties. Most of the fractures (81%) occurred during component removal of cemented (n = 11) and cementless (n = 25) components. Intraoperative fractures only were treated with stabilization of the prosthetic stem in 28 patients, while adjunctive internal fixation was used in eight patients. Risk of intraoperative periprosthetic fractures was increased by factors including female sex (n =18 women; OR, 2.41; range, 1.11-5.68; p = 0.03); history of instability (n = 27; OR, 2.65; range, 1.18-5.93; p = 0.02); and prior hemiarthroplasty (n = 22; OR, 2.34; range, 1.13-4.84; p = 0.03). There were two postoperative fractures in patients who had an intraoperative fracture and both were treated nonoperatively. Overall, three (8%) revision procedures were performed in patients with intraoperative fractures, with 2- and 5-year survivorship estimates of 94% and 85%, respectively, compared with 89% and 84%, respectively for patients without an intraoperative fracture (p = 0.45). At latest followup, patients experienced good postoperative pain relief, improved shoulder abduction, and good American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeon and Simple Shoulder Test scores. Intraoperative humeral fractures occur in approximately 16% of shoulders undergoing revision surgery. Fractures during revision reverse TSA are not uncommon secondary to the risks of component removal in revision surgery and poor remaining bone stock. The risk seems to be greatest for female patients, patients with instability, and patients who have undergone previous hemiarthroplasties. Intraoperative humeral fractures should be approached in a systematic way to achieve anatomic reduction and stable fixation. When properly stabilized, these fractures appear not to substantially influence overall final outcome. This study provides a foundation for future investigation of methods to reduce the risk for intraoperative humeral fractures attributable to reverse revision TSA. Level III, therapeutic study.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research
  • Bradley Schoch · Cathy Schleck · Robert H. Cofield · John W. Sperling
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    ABSTRACT: Background Little information is available on the long-term outcome of shoulder arthroplasty in young patients. The purpose of this study was to report the results, complications, and revision rate of total shoulder arthroplasties (TSAs) in patients younger than 50 years at a minimum 20-year follow-up. Materials and methods Between 1976 and 1985, a single surgeon performed 78 Neer hemiarthroplasties (HAs) and 36 Neer TSAs in patients < 50 years. Fifty-six HAs and 19 TSAs with a minimum 20-year follow-up, or follow-up until reoperation, were analyzed for clinical, radiographic and survivorship outcomes. Results Both HA and TSA showed significant improvements in pain scores (P < .001), abduction (P < .01), and external rotation (P = .02). Eighty-one percent of shoulders were rated much better or better than preoperatively. Modified Neer ratings were similar between groups (P = .41). Unsatisfactory ratings in HA were due to reoperations in 25 (glenoid arthrosis in 16) and limited motion, pain, or dissatisfaction in 11. Unsatisfactory ratings in TSA were due to reoperations in 6 (component loosening in 4) and limited motion in 5. Estimated 20-year survival was 75.6% (confidence interval, 65.9-86.5) for HAs and 83.2% (confidence interval, 70.5-97.8) for TSAs. Discussion At long-term follow-up, both HA and TSA continue to provide lasting pain relief and improved range of motion. However, there are a large number of unsatisfactory Neer ratings. Whereas both groups have survivorship in excess of 75% at 20 years, surgeons should remain cautious in performing shoulder arthroplasty in the young patient.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Vibro-acoustography is a new imaging technique based on the dynamic radiation force of ultrasound. The purpose of this study was to apply this new imaging technique to the diagnosis of small partial-thickness rotator cuff tears and to determine how small of tears could be detected with this imaging technique. Methods Seven supraspinatus tendons excised from embalmed cadavers were used. Three different sizes of partial-thickness bursal-sided tears (1, 3, and 5 mm3) were created in each specimen. The intersection of two co-focused ultrasound beams of slightly different frequency was swept across the intended imaging area. The acoustic emission data were collected and used to form and display a vibro-acoustography image of the tendon. Vibro-acoustography images were read by two orthopedic surgeons. Results The rotator cuff tear could be detected by vibro-acoustography in all specimens. The diagnostic concordance rate was 90.5 % and the kappa coefficient value was 0.88, which resulted in a high concordance. The diagnostic concordance rate for the 1 mm tear was 71.3 %, which was low concordance (κ = 0.481), whereas that for the 3 and 5 mm tears was 100 %. Conclusions We were able to detect a 3-mm tear by using vibro-acoustography. There is a possibility that this new imaging technique could become a useful imaging tool for the diagnosis of small partial-thickness rotator cuff tears.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Medical Ultrasonics
  • Shawn Sahota · John W Sperling · Robert H Cofield
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    ABSTRACT: Removal of a humeral component during revision shoulder arthroplasty can be difficult. If the component cannot be extracted from above, an alternative approach may compromise bone integrity. Two potential solutions are a humeral window and a longitudinal split. This review was performed to determine complications and outcomes associated with these osteotomies during revision arthroplasty. We reviewed records of 427 patients undergoing revision shoulder arthroplasty, identifying those requiring a window or longitudinal split. Outcomes were intraoperative and postoperative complications, rate of healing, and security of implant fixation. Twenty-six patients underwent creation of a window. Six intraoperative fractures were documented: 5 in greater tuberosity and 1 in humeral shaft. At radiographic follow-up, 23 of 26 windows healed; 2 patients had limited follow-up, and 1 did not have follow-up at our institution. Nineteen patients underwent longitudinal osteotomy. One had intraoperative fracture in greater tuberosity. At radiographic follow-up, 17 of 19 longitudinal splits healed; 1 had limited radiographic follow-up, and 1 did not have follow-up at our institution. Three patients underwent formation of both window and longitudinal osteotomy. At radiographic follow-up, all shoulders healed, and there were no intraoperative or postoperative fractures or malunions. In both groups, there were no cases of malunion or clinical loosening. These data suggest that windows and longitudinal splits facilitate controlled removal of well-fixed components with high rate of union and low rate of intraoperative or postoperative sequelae.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery / American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons ... [et al.]
  • Christopher J Owens · John W Sperling · Robert H Cofield
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    ABSTRACT: Long-stemmed humeral components are often associated with revision shoulder arthroplasty. However, long-stemmed humeral components will likely prove useful in selected patients with extra large shoulders and in those with bone loss from nonarthroplasty causes and in humeral fractures. This study was developed to examine the frequency of use of longer humeral stems, identify the indications for their use, define the results, and enumerate the complications encountered. Thirty-five primary shoulder arthroplasties were followed up clinically and radiographically for at least 2 years or until revision surgery. The primary indications for use of an intermediate or long stem were a large humeral canal in 18 shoulders and severe preoperative metaphyseal or diaphyseal bone loss in 17. Average clinical follow-up was 6.5 years. Excellent or satisfactory results were achieved in 21 of 35 shoulders. No components met criteria to be considered radiographically at risk for clinical loosening. Intraoperative complications included an unrecognized nondisplaced diaphyseal fracture that later displaced in 1 shoulder. Late complications included deep infection in 1 and fracture nonunion in 1. Intermediate or long-stemmed humeral components proved useful in obtaining a secure distal fit in patients with a large humeral canal or in those with significant proximal bone loss. Worse clinical results were achieved in those with bone loss. Radiographic follow-up shows these components are at a low risk for loosening.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery / American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons ... [et al.]
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The purpose of the present study was to assess thirty and ninety-day reoperation rates after shoulder arthroplasty from 2000 to 2010. Methods: Our institution's joint registry was queried to identify shoulder arthroplasties performed from January 2000 to December 2010. Data regarding patient demographics and the type of procedure were reviewed. Reoperations within thirty and ninety days after the index procedure were analyzed. During the eleven-year study period, 2305 primary arthroplasties (502 hemiarthroplasties, 1440 anatomic total shoulder arthroplasties, and 363 reverse total shoulder arthroplasties) and 518 revision arthroplasties (twenty-one hemiarthroplasties, 356 anatomic total arthroplasties, and 141 reverse arthroplasties) were performed. Fifty-four percent of patients were female; mean age was sixty-eight years (range, eighteen to ninety-seven years) and body mass index was 30.3 kg/m2 (range, 14.7 to 65.9 kg/m2). Results: Reoperation was required within thirty days after fourteen primary arthroplasties (0.6%) and eight revision arthroplasties (1.5%); it was required within ninety days after thirty-two primary arthroplasties (1.4%) and thirteen revision arthroplasties (2.5%). The most frequent causes for reoperation after primary and revision arthroplasty were instability (n = 14 and 6) and infection (n = 13 and 3). The mean number of additional procedures required was 1.3 (range, one to four) for primary arthroplasties and 1.8 (range, one to three) for revision arthroplasties; 20% of patients undergoing reoperation required two or more additional procedures. Reoperations led to readmission in 82% of cases. Conclusions: Short-term reoperation after shoulder arthroplasty was infrequent. Wound complications and shoulder instability were the most frequent causes for reoperation. Reoperation was twice as frequent after revision surgery as after primary shoulder arthroplasty.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Chronic locked shoulder dislocations account for 2% to 5% of all shoulder dislocations. There is little information regarding the mid-term to long-term results of anatomic shoulder arthroplasty for treatment of this problem. Methods: Thirty-two shoulder arthroplasties were performed in thirty-two patients who had chronic locked posterior dislocation of the shoulder. Eighteen patients were treated with a hemiarthroplasty and fourteen, with a total shoulder arthroplasty. Inclusion criteria included moderate or severe pain and functional limitations. Structural indications included an impression fracture involving ≥45% of the humeral head, fibrosis of the articular cartilage, and/or severe osteopenia of the humeral head. When one-third or more of the glenoid was devoid of articular cartilage, a glenoid component was placed. All patients were followed for a minimum of two years (mean, 8.2 years) or until a reoperation. Results: The operations led to pain relief, with the median pain score decreasing from 4 (on a 5-point scale) preoperatively to 3 postoperatively (p < 0.01), and improvement in shoulder external rotation, from a preoperative median of -15° to a postoperative median of 50° (p < 0.001). Instability recurred in three patients in the early postoperative period. Nine patients underwent a reoperation for various reasons. According to a modified Neer rating system, there were four excellent, fifteen satisfactory, and thirteen unsatisfactory outcomes. Conclusions: Although shoulder arthroplasty for locked posterior dislocation can provide pain relief, improved shoulder external rotation, and a low risk of recurrent instability, the overall rate of satisfaction is inferior to that following anatomic arthroplasty for treatment of glenohumeral osteoarthritis.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: We assessed the clinical results, radiographic outcomes and complications of patients undergoing total shoulder replacement (TSR) for osteoarthritis with concurrent repair of a full-thickness rotator cuff tear. Between 1996 and 2010, 45 of 932 patients (4.8%) undergoing TSR for osteoarthritis underwent rotator cuff repair. The final study group comprised 33 patients with a mean follow-up of 4.7 years (3 months to 13 years). Tears were classified into small (10), medium (14), large (9) or massive (0). On a scale of 1 to 5, pain decreased from a mean of 4.7 to 1.7 (p = < 0.0001), the mean forward elevation improved from 99° to 139° (p = < 0.0001), and the mean external rotation improved from 20° (0° to 75°) to 49° (20° to 80°) (p = < 0.0001). The improvement in elevation was greater in those with a small tear (p = 0.03). Radiographic evidence of instability developed in six patients with medium or large tears, indicating lack of rotator cuff healing. In all, six glenoid components, including one with instability, were radiologically at risk of loosening. Complications were noted in five patients, all with medium or large tears; four of these had symptomatic instability and one sustained a late peri-prosthetic fracture. Four patients (12%) required further surgery, three with instability and one with a peri-prosthetic humeral fracture. Consideration should be given to performing rotator cuff repair for stable shoulders during anatomical TSR, but reverse replacement should be considered for older, less active patients with larger tears. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:224-8.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Bone and Joint Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Malunion of proximal humeral fractures complicated by damage to the glenohumeral cartilage and injury to the joint capsule and rotator cuff can include treatment requiring anatomic shoulder arthroplasty. This study defines results and complications of this procedure and identifies factors associated with success or failure. From 1976 to 2007, 109 patients underwent shoulder arthroplasty for proximal humerus malunions. Ninety-five met the criteria for analysis with a mean follow-up period of 9.2 years. Fracture types according to the Neer classification were two part in 20, three part in 37, four part in 31, and head splitting in 2, with 16 fracture-dislocations. Hemiarthroplasty was performed in 45 patients, with 50 undergoing total arthroplasty. Pain scores improved from 7.8 to 3.1 (P < .001). The mean active elevation and external rotation improved from 69° to 109° and from 8° and 39°, respectively (P = .001). Of 31 patients with available radiographs, 20 had healed tuberosity osteotomies. Sixteen complications required 10 reoperations, including 6 of 9 patients with severe postoperative instability. There were 57 excellent or satisfactory results by use of the Neer rating. No patient, injury pattern, previous treatment, surgical, or radiologic variation was significantly associated with an increased risk of an unsatisfactory result, except for severe postoperative instability. Kaplan-Meier survivorship for reoperation, in 109 shoulders, was 94.8% (95% confidence interval, 90.5%-99.4%) at 5 years and 90.1% (95% confidence interval, 83.6%-97.1%) at 10 and 15 years. Anatomic shoulder arthroplasty improves pain and motion. Surgery is complex. Tuberosity osteotomies often heal. Postoperative instability is the most common complication leading to reoperation and is usually associated with rotator cuff and shoulder capsule injury.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery / American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons ... [et al.]

Publication Stats

7k Citations
525.58 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1984-2015
    • Mayo Clinic - Rochester
      • • Division of Orthopaedic Surgery
      • • Department of Orthopedics
      Рочестер, Minnesota, United States
  • 2002
    • Hospital Vital Álvarez Buylla
      Asturias, Spain
    • Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
      • Department of Orthopaedic Surgery
      Scottsdale, AZ, United States
  • 1999-2000
    • Mayo Clinic - Scottsdale
      Scottsdale, Arizona, United States
    • Tulane University
      New Orleans, Louisiana, United States