William D. Kerns

University of Pennsylvania, Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States

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Publications (11)26.7 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Tetra-iso-propyl 2-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl-1,1-diphosphonate (CAS 126411-13-0, SR-9223i) is a member of a new class of compounds with multiple antiatherosclerotic activities. This report not only describes the cholesterol-lowering properties in four species of animals fed normocholesterolaemic diets but also reductions in lipid deposition in the arteries of cholesterol-fed New Zealand white rabbits following the administration of SR-9223i. Plasma cholesterol concentrations were reduced in mice by 27% (200 mg/kg/day administered in the diet for 10 days), in hamsters by 33% (200 mg/kg/day administered in the diet for 8 days), in dogs by 16% (25 mg/kg/day p.o. for 28 days) and 23% (75 mg/kg/day p.o. for 28 days) and in monkeys by 22% (25 mg/kg/day p.o. for 28 days). Further, the deposition of cholesterol, especially in the esterified form, in the aortae of cholesterol-fed New Zealand white rabbits was inhibited by SR-9223i (50 and 100 mg/kg/day p.o.). At the higher dose, the cholesteryl ester content of the aorta was half that of control animals. SR-9223i, at both doses, also inhibited the accumulation of cholesterol in the liver. SR-9223i has been shown to suppress HMG CoA reductase activity, inhibit ACAT activity and prevent lipid oxidation. These activities, demonstrated in vitro, have now been shown to translate into lipid lowering and antiatherosclerotic activities in vivo.
    No preview · Article · May 2000 · Arzneimittel-Forschung
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    ABSTRACT: SR-12813 inhibits cholesterol biosynthesis in Hep G2 cells via an enhanced degradation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase. Here we also show that SR-12813 inhibits cholesterol biosynthesis in vivo. A sterol balance study was performed in normolipemic beagle dogs. The dogs were given SR-12813 orally at dosages of 10 and 25 mg/kg/day for a period of 9 days. After 7 days plasma cholesterol was decreased by 15% in the 10 mg/kg/day group and by 19% in the 25 mg/kg/day group. Using a dual isotope technique no effects on intestinal cholesterol absorption were observed. The sterol balance indicated that endogenous synthesis of cholesterol was reduced by 23% in the 10 mg/kg/day group and by 37% in the 25 mg/kg/day group. Plasma lathosterol–cholesterol levels in dogs treated with 25 mg/kg/day SR-12813 were reduced by 56%, confirming a reduction of the cholesterol biosynthesis. Treatment with SR-12813 or the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor lovastatin resulted in a large decrease in low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. It is concluded that SR-12813 reduces cholesterol biosynthesis in the dog model which results in a decrease of bile acid excretion, cholesterol excretion and plasma cholesterol level. The in vivo profile of SR-12813 is very similar to that of direct HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, although the mode of action of the compound is unique.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 1997 · Atherosclerosis
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    ABSTRACT: The immunotoxicologic effects of drugs on host defense have been studied widely using various animal models of infection. Here we describe a new approach to testing host defense by using a single organism (Candida albicans) in CBA/J mice. The model is configured to test 3 effector systems via different routes of inoculation to stimulate different effector arms of the immune response. Nonspecific immunity was evaluated by C. albicans colony-forming unit (CFU) count from the spleen at 2 hr (uptake) and > or = 22 hr (clearance) following intravenous inoculation. Cell-mediated immunity was assessed by CFU count from an intramuscular injection site 6 days postinoculation. Humoral immunity was assessed by anti-Candida antibody titer, following multiple subcutaneous immunizations with C. albicans. Finally, overall immunity was evaluated following intravenous injection using survival as the endpoint. Histopathological, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic evaluation of selected tissues revealed the involvement of the expected cell types in the different effector systems. Several immunomodulatory drugs--dexamethasone, cyclosporine, liposomal muramyltripeptide phosphatidylethanolamine, and SK&F 105685--were evaluated in the C. albicans model. Dexamethasone impaired host defense against C. albicans by suppressing all endpoints measured. Similarly, cyclosporine showed broad immunosuppressive activity, with the exception of yeast uptake from the spleen. In contrast, muramyl tripeptide-phosphatidylethanolamine enhanced all but cell-mediated immunity to C. albicans. SK&F 105685 displayed both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on immune responses to the infection. Our studies demonstrate that a single organism-based approach can be a useful method for evaluating the immunological hazards of drugs on host resistance to infection.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 1997 · Toxicologic Pathology
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    ABSTRACT: We introduce here a new fluorescence microscopy technique for en face analysis of the atherosclerotic fatty streaks (FS). This technique is semiquantitative and has the sensitivity and resolution to map lipids to individual cells in FS less than 100 microns in diameter. New Zealand White rabbits were fed an atherogenic diet for up to 26 weeks. Aortas were fixed in formalin and stained en bloc with the fluorescent dyes Nile red and filipin. Fluorescent staining was validated by correlating microfluorimetric and biochemical measurements of the lipid content in FS. To determine the cell types associated with the different staining patterns, FS were also evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and immunohistochemistry (IH). Correlation of microfluorimetry, TEM, IH, and biochemical data indicated that regions rich in non-esterified cholesterol stained with filipin and fluoresced blue owing to accumulations of lipid vesicles and/or cholesterol crystals. Regions rich in neutral and polar lipids stained with Nile red and fluoresced yellow or orange, respectively, owing to accumulations of lipids in both macrophages and smooth muscle cells (SMC). Digital overlays of the filipin and Nile red images revealed that larger lesions (> 0.5 mm diameter) had a "nested" distribution of lipids, with a blue (filipin) fringe surrounding an orange (Nile red) fringe surrounding a yellow (Nile red) center.
    Preview · Article · May 1997 · Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry
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    A.M. Klinkner · C.R. Waites · W.D. Kerns · P J Bugelski
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    ABSTRACT: Macrophage-derived foam cells are a prominent component of developing atherosclerotic lesions. We describe an in vitro model of foam cell formation which mimics some aspects of the evolution of foam cells in mature atherosclerotic lesions. Thioglycollate-elicited mouse peritoneal macrophages were incubated with copper-oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) for periods up to 168 hr. Identifiable foam cells were present after incubation with ox-LDL at 24, 72, and 168 hr. Control cells incubated without ox-LDL did not form foam cells. Fluorescence microscopy after staining with Nile red exhibited progressive accumulation of lipids, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed distinct ultrastructural changes over time. Macrophages at 24 hr had a few non-membrane-bound lipid droplets but were otherwise identical to control cells. These lipid droplets fluoresced yellow-gold after Nile red staining. After 72 hr of incubation with ox-LDL, in addition to increased numbers of non-membrane-bound lipid inclusions, macrophages contained membrane-bound multilamellar lipoid structures. These multilamellar structures corresponded to areas of reddish-orange fluorescence after Nile red staining. In macrophages incubated with ox-LDL for 168 hr, the amount of cellular lipid was further increased and cholesterol crystal profiles were apparent within some multilamellar lipoid structures. Biochemical analysis showed that the total cholesterol content steadily increased over 168 hr. The increase in total cholesterol was accompanied by a dramatic increase in free cholesterol between 72 and 168 hr. These results demonstrate that long-term incubation of macrophages with ox-LDL increased lipid deposition in cultured cells and that, under the conditions studied, cholesterol crystals formed in macrophage foam cells. Moreover, this system allows investigation of the evolution of foam cells showing some characteristics of those found in atherosclerotic lesions.
    Preview · Article · Nov 1995 · Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Azaspiranes are novel immunomodulators which are effective in a variety of autoimmune diseases. One azaspirane analog, SK&F 105685 (N,N-dimethyl-8,8-dipropyl-2-azaspiro [4.5] decane-2-propanamine dihydrochloride), caused a decrease in total serum cholesterol in dogs after oral administration. To determine whether an effect on cholesterol was common to this class of compounds, the immunomodulatory activity was compared with the cholesterol-lowering activity of six azaspirane analogs. The compounds were given to beagles at a dose of 1 mg/kg p.o. for 28 days, and the effect on serum cholesterol was determined. The results from this study showed a clear dissociation between the immunomodulatory and hypocholesterolemic activities of these compounds. Studies performed to determine the mechanism of the decrease in serum cholesterol caused by SK&F 105685 indicated that it was not due to inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase or acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase activities, or to a potentiation of cholesterol-7 alpha-hydroxylase activity. In addition, analysis by gas chromatography of the nonsaponifiable sterol fraction in dog plasma after treatment with SK&F 105685 or SK&F 106333 showed a decrease in cholesterol and an accumulation of lathosterol and an unknown sterol, indicating that the conversion of these sterols is inhibited and cholesterol synthesis is blocked at these steps. SK&F 105685 affected the sterol profile in human hepatoblastoma cells (Hep G2) in a similar way. Characterization of the unknown sterol by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry indicated that the unknown sterol is very similar to cholesterol and lathosterol, but its identity has yet to be established. These results show that the hypocholesterolemic effects of azaspiranes are related to inhibition of one or more of the final steps in the biosynthetic pathway of cholesterol.
    No preview · Article · Mar 1995 · Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics

  • No preview · Article · Sep 1994 · Atherosclerosis

  • No preview · Article · Sep 1994 · Atherosclerosis

  • No preview · Article · Sep 1994 · Atherosclerosis
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    ABSTRACT: Fractal geometry in addition to traditional morphometry was applied to quantitatively describe the effect of lovastatin on CaCo-2 cell differentiation in vitro. Linear segments of CaCo-2 cells on the membrane support were viewed with a light microscope with an attached video camera. Fractal analysis, a quantitative measure of surface roughness, revealed that lovastatin induced a dose-dependent increase in surface complexity of CaCo-2 cultures. Results show that fractal analysis provides a reliable and more sensitive quantitative descriptor of drug effects in vitro concentration of CaCo-2 cells than traditional morphometric methods.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1994
  • K.E. Suckling · W.D. Kerns · B. Jackson

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