Kenji Masunaga

Kurume University, Куруме, Fukuoka, Japan

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Publications (22)37.21 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) (vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration: 4 mg/L) outbreak occurred in an advanced emergency medical service centre [hereafter referred to as the intensive care unit (ICU)] between 2013 and 2014.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: Healthcare workers are exposed to serious infectious diseases via needlestick and sharps injuries. The operating room is a particularly important environment in which the risk for needlestick injuries is increased for surgical doctors. According to national surveillance studies, the proportion of needlestick and sharps injuries in operating rooms has been increasing for unknown reasons. In this study, we examined risk factors for and circumstances of injuries in operating rooms by combining and analyzing incidence reports and electronic records of every surgery in Kurume University Hospital (Kurume, Japan). The annual injury rate (reflecting the reporting rate) rose continuously from fiscal years 2007-2012. We conducted analyses focusing on surgeries that used general anesthesia, which accounted for 88.1% of the injuries. An analysis of the time of injury found that the number of injuries increased toward the end of the surgical procedure. A comparative analysis of surgeries by doctors who had experienced injury revealed risk for the injury increased when a procedure ended after 20:00. In addition, a comparative analysis of doctors with and without injury experience who had similar level of operating time per year revealed that the number of working years was not lower in the injured doctors. Although the data analyzed in this study were confined to one university hospital, our approach and these results will form a basis on which to consider more effective measures to prevent injury in operating rooms.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy

  • No preview · Article · Apr 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Warfarin is known to interact with many drugs; however, there are currently no descriptions of an interaction with linezolid in the literature. It was recently brought to our attention, however, that several warfarin-medicated patients have experienced an increase in the prothrombin time international normalized ratio (PT-INR) following the administration of linezolid. We therefore performed a retrospective survey in order to investigate the possibility of an interaction between warfarin and linezolid. Methods: The survey items included age, gender, underlying disease, type of surgery, type of infectious disease, duration of linezolid administration, laboratory values and the dose of warfarin. The PT-INR was observed over time before treatment and at days 4 or 5 and 10, completion and one week after the end of concomitant therapy. Patients The subjects included six patients who were recovering from recent heart-related surgery. Results: The PT-INR increased from 1.62±0.32 before concomitant linezolid administration to 3.00±0.83 at day 4 or 5 after concomitant administration (p<0.01) and significantly decreased from 1.65±0.45 at the completion of the regimen to 1.26±0.1 one week later (p<0.05). With respect to the relationship between the dose of warfarin and the PT-INR in five cases, the PT-INR increased following concomitant linezolid treatment in all cases. Conclusion: Although it has been reported that linezolid does not influence the metabolism or protein binding of warfarin, our data showed potential drug interactions between warfarin and linezolid. Our data suggest that PT-INR monitoring after the completion of concomitant warfarin and linezolid therapy is important.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Internal Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Pediatric Rheumatology Association of Japan has developed evidence-based guideline of vaccination in pediatric rheumatic diseases (PRDs) as a part of Guideline of Vaccination for Pediatric Immunocompromised Hosts. Available articles on vaccination in both adult rheumatic diseases and PRDs were analyzed. Non-live vaccines are generally safe and effective in patients with PRDs on corticosteroid, immunosuppressant, and/or biologics, although efficacy may be attenuated under high dose of the drugs. On the other hand, efficacy and safety of live-attenuated vaccine for the patients on such medication have not been established. Thus, live-attenuated vaccines should be withheld and, if indicated, may be considered as a clinical trial under the approval by Institutional Review Board. All patients with PRDs anticipating treatment with immunosuppressants or biologics should be screened for infection of hepatitis B and C and tuberculosis before the commencement of medication. Varicella vaccine should be considered in sensitive patients ideally 3 weeks or longer before the commencement of immunosuppressants, corticosteroids, or biologics. Bacille Calmette-Guérin should be withheld at least for 6 months after birth, if their mothers have received anti-tumor necrosis factor-α antibodies during the second or third trimester of pregnancy.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Modern Rheumatology
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease (RP-ILD) is a rare but potentially fatal complication of JDM. The aim of this study was to establish markers for the prediction and early diagnosis of RP-ILD associated with JDM. Methods: The clinical records of 54 patients with JDM were retrospectively reviewed: 10 had RP-ILD (7 died, 3 survived), 19 had chronic ILD and 24 were without ILD. Routine tests included a high-resolution CT (HRCT) scan of the chest and measurement of serum levels of creatine phosphokinase, ferritin and Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6). Anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) antibodies and IL-18 levels were measured by ELISA. Results: No differences were found in the ratio of juvenile clinically amyopathic DM between the three groups. Initial chest HRCT scan findings were variable and could not distinguish between RP-ILD and chronic ILD. Anti-MDA5 antibodies were positive in all 8 patients with RP-ILD and 10 of 14 with chronic ILD, but none of the patients without ILD. Serum levels of anti-MDA5 antibody, ferritin, KL-6 and IL-18 were significantly higher in the RP-ILD group than in the chronic ILD and non-ILD groups. Serum levels of IL-18 positively correlated with serum KL-6 (R = 0.66, P < 0.001). Conclusion: High serum levels of IL-18, KL-6, ferritin and anti-MDA5 antibodies (e.g. >200 units by ELISA) are associated with RP-ILD. These can be used as an indication for early intensive treatment. Both alveolar macrophages and autoimmunity to MDA5 are possibly involved in the development of RP-ILD associated with JDM.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Rheumatology (Oxford, England)
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    ABSTRACT: A methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) outbreak occurred in an advanced emergency medical service center between 2010 and 2011. Our objective was to evaluate the status of the MRSA outbreak, as monitored by molecular analysis. Twenty-eight MRSA strains were isolated from blood samples from 11 patients, from other specimens (pharynx, nasal cavity, etc.) from 12 patients, from two environmental samples, and from the skin, middle nasal meatus, and urine of one patient each from other wards. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed to evaluate horizontal transmission. Molecular typing by PFGE showed that the 28 MRSA strains presented 7 patterns in total, and that 11 of the MRSA strains had the same PGFE pattern. Unselective use of intranasal mupirocin ointment, MRSA monitoring for new inpatients, and prevention of direct or indirect contact infection were performed. However, the number of inpatients with MRSA did not quickly decrease, and additional molecular typing by PFGE showed that 10 of 19 MRSA strains found (5 of 6 from blood, 5 of 13 from other specimens) were the same as those found previously. Lectures and ward rounds were performed repeatedly, and staff participation in ward rounds was suggested. Finally, the number of inpatients with MRSA significantly decreased more than 6 months after the intervention. Although the MRSA outbreak was thought to have ended, follow-up molecular typing by PFGE showed that horizontal transmission persisted. Our data suggest that various combinations of infection control measures are essential when dealing with an MRSA outbreak, and monitoring by molecular analysis using PFGE is useful to identify the status of the outbreak.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy
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    ABSTRACT: Hospital renovation projects pose risks of invasive infection by fungi from dust that is blown about during the period in question. Control measures to reduce the amount of dust during hospital renovation are thus necessary. Currently, no study has compared different control measures for effectiveness through more than one period of renovation. In this study, we examined the capacities of two control measures of weatherstripping (0.15 mm poly film and adhesive tape) to reduce the amount of blowing dust during two different hospital renovations (in 2008 and 2009). The amount of dust in the air of the hospital before and during the renovation was measured about once a week in both 2008 and 2009, and the between-year and within-year differences were tested. Our study revealed that the weatherstripping used in 2009 (adhesive tape) was significantly more effective than the measures taken in 2008 (0.15 mm poly film) to reduce the amount of dust during the renovations (p < 0.001), while in both years the amount of dust became significantly higher during the renovations than before the renovations. Differences in the effectiveness of weatherstripping during renovations between floors of the hospital were not significant in both 2008 and 2009. The number of Aspergillus-positive samples did not significantly increase compared with the number observed before the start of the hospital renovations (2006-2007) in 2008 and 2009, respectively. The weatherstripping potentially reduced the associated risk of airborne fungal infection.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy
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    ABSTRACT: A 54-year-old Japanese man without underlying disease developed pneumococcal bacteremia and meningitis after traveling to the Philippines. The isolate demonstrated high affinity to the lung and invasiveness in vivo. The international travelers can import indigenous high virulent strains even if the bacterium is commonly isolated in the home country.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2010 · Journal of Travel Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) has been the first-line drug for the treatment of West syndrome, although the therapy has various adverse effects. ACTH depresses resistance to a variety of bacterial, viral, protozoal, and fungal agents. The timing of the various vaccinations is delayed after ACTH therapy in Japan, because the immune system is believed to be affected for approximately 6 months. However, the duration of the effect of ACTH on the immune system is not known. Therefore, we examined changes in the immunity levels before and after ACTH therapy. We measured white blood cell counts, lymphocyte counts, T/B cell counts, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell counts, CD 4/8 ratio, lymphocyte blastoid transformation by PHA or Con-A, and the levels of IgA, IgM, and IgG before, immediately after, and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after ACTH therapy. The lymphocyte counts and CD4(+) T cell counts were significantly decreased immediately after and at 1 and 3 months after the therapy, and did not return to the previous levels even at 6 months and 12 months after ACTH treatment; however, these levels returned to within normal limits (within the 95% confidence interval). Immunoglobulin levels did not change after the ACTH therapy. Helper T cells were more depressed than cytotoxic T cells after ACTH therapy.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2009 · Brain & development
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    ABSTRACT: MICs of penicillin G, erythromycin, clarithromycin, clindamycin, azithromycin, and telithromycin were tested for 189 clinical isolates collected during 2002 to 2005 from children in southwestern Japan. Serotyping and polymerase chain reaction for presence of erm(B) and mef(A) were performed. All strains with erm(B) + mef(A) were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and compared to 3 global clones: Spain(23F)-1; Spain(9V)-3 and its variant -14; a South Korean strain same as Taiwan (19F)-14 clone and 5 strains with erm(B) + mef(A) from other countries. Of the 173 macrolide-resistant (erythromycin MIC > or =0.5 microg/mL) strains, 104 (60.1%) had erm(B), 47 (27.2%) had mef(A), and 22 (12.7%) had erm(B) + mef(A). Strains expressing erm(B) or both erm(B) and mef(A) had high macrolide MIC(90)s (>64 microg/mL), except telithromycin (MIC(90), 0.25 microg/mL). Of the 22 erm(B) + mef(A) strains, 10 had 4 distinct PFGE patterns and were mainly serotype 6B clones, which differed from those described in previous reports; 5 other strains had unique profiles.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2008 · Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
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    ABSTRACT: Streptococcus bovis very occasionally causes rarely sepsis, endocarditis, and meningitis in newborns and the elderly. We report the case of infant meningitis caused by S. bovis despite normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings at the first CSF examination. A 77-day-old boy with 21-trisomy and patent foramen ovale and seen for a high fever underwent blood examination and lumbar puncture due to toxic appearance despite a lack of meningeal signs, and was admitted. His CSF findings were normal and he was given intravenous ceftriaxone against potential bacteremia. He had systemic seizures with continuous fever for 2 days after admission and a second CSF examination. Gram-positive coccus grew from his CSF at the first examination, and CSF cells from the second lumbar puncture increased to 4060/tL (86% neutrophils), so vancomycin was added against potential enterococcal meningitis. S. bovis was finally grown from the first CSF, ceftriaxone discontinued, and intravenous ampicillin added. He recovered after 20 days of antibiotic administration. S. bovis becomes a potential pathogen for meningitis in infants, and must be considered as a cause of meningitis despite its very rarity. CSF findings at the first lumbar puncture may be normal for meningitis in newborns and infants at the first CSF examination, so we must be very careful in the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis even with normal CSF findings, and considered antibiotic treatment against potential bacterial meningitis.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2008 · Kansenshogaku zasshi. The Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Dipylidium caninum, the dog tapeworm, is a common intestinal cestode of domestic dogs and cats, but few cases have been reported of human infection by this parasite in Japan. We repot a case of D. caninum infection in a 17 month-old girl, who sometimes had symptoms of abdominal pain, diarrhea, and dysphoria at night. Her mother noted the appearance of small white worms in her stool, and she was seen by a local pediatrician. Despite antiparasitic therapy wiht pyrantel pamoate, the problem persisted and was eventually referred for further workup to Kurume University Hospital. The diagnosis was made by microscopic examination of the excreted proglottids, which contained characteristic egg capsules. She was successfully treated with a singledose of praziquantel and four adult parasites were recovered. The longest intact worm was 32cm. Her family had household pets (a dog and a cat). The pets were seen by the local veterinary and both were evidenced D. caninum. Humans, primarily children, become infected when they accidentally ingest fleas. Parents usually find proglottids as multiple white objects, often described as cucumber, melon, or pumpkin seeds, in stool, diapers, or on the perineum. Most general practitioners and pediatricians may treat children with enterobiasis (pinworm) infection, and in case the treatment fails, other parasite infection should be considered such as this worm. A history of dog or cat pets, fleas, and flea bites may be important clues to diagnosis. Pets found to be infected should also be treated.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2007 · Kansenshogaku zasshi. The Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: An epidemic of aseptic meningitis caused by human echovirus 9 (E-9) occurred in the summer of 1997 in northern Kyushu, Japan. Sequences of genome position 2504-3358, which encoded a part of VP1, of the nine isolated viruses were determined. An RGD motif and B-C loop were found in all. They were almost identical and closely related to the virulent strain Barty.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2001 · Microbiology and Immunology
  • T Toyoda · K Masunaga · Y Ohtsu · K Hara · N Hamada · T Kashiwagi · J Iwahashi
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    ABSTRACT: Because synthetic short peptides bearing critical binding residues, can chemically mimic the folded antigenic determinants on proteins, short synthetic peptides can generate antibodies that react with cognate sequences in intact folded proteins. According to this mimotope theory, we produced site-specific antibodies by immunization with short peptides which overlapped each other and covered the entire protein, and used them for domain mapping of influenza virus RNA polymerase (antibody-scanning method). We also used a tagged-epitope and its monoclonal antibodies for topology mapping of clathrin light chains in clathrin triskelions by electron microscopy. Both methods using specific epitopes in combination with their antibodies enable us to determine the domains of interesting proteins systematically without the need to generate monoclonal antibodies or mutant proteins.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2000 · Current Protein and Peptide Science
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    ABSTRACT:  To obtain reagents to functionally map the PA protein, we produced monoclonal antibodies specific to this protein. Twenty-two monoclonal antibodies reacting with PA protein in ELISA were divided into 10 groups on the basis of competitive binding patterns to this protein. Of these, seventeen monoclonal antibodies bound to PA polypeptide spanning amino acids 101–400 and three bound to that of amino acids 518–600, while the other two did not react with any PA polypeptides tested with the exception of the intact PA. Among these monoclonal antibodies, only five reacted with PA in A/PR/8/34 virus-infected cells in indirect immunofluorescence assay. Thus, we obtained monoclonal antibodies that recognize at least 10 distinct regions of the PA molecule. These monoclonal antibodies should be useful in dissecting functions of the PA protein.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2000 · Archives of Virology
  • M Hatta · Y Asano · K Masunaga · T Ito · K Okazaki · T Toyoda · Y Kawaoka · A Ishihama · H Kida
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    ABSTRACT: To obtain reagents to functionally map the PA protein, we produced monoclonal antibodies specific to this protein. Twenty-two monoclonal antibodies reacting with PA protein in ELISA were divided into 10 groups on the basis of competitive binding patterns to this protein. Of these, seventeen monoclonal antibodies bound to PA polypeptide spanning amino acids 101-400 and three bound to that of amino acids 518-600, while the other two did not react with any PA polypeptides tested with the exception of the intact PA. Among these monoclonal antibodies, only five reacted with PA in A/PR/8/34 virus-infected cells in indirect immunofluorescence assay. Thus, we obtained monoclonal antibodies that recognize at least 10 distinct regions of the PA molecule. These monoclonal antibodies should be useful in dissecting functions of the PA protein.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2000 · Archives of Virology
  • M Hatta · Y Asano · K Masunaga · T Ito · K Okazaki · T Toyoda · Y Kawaoka · A Ishihama · H Kida
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    ABSTRACT: Monoclonal antibodies against the PB2 of A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (A/PR/ 8/34) (H1N1) were prepared in order to define the functional domains of the RNA polymerase of influenza virus. The fifteen monoclonal antibodies that were generated were divided into 4 groups on the basis of ELISA binding to PB2 or its peptide fragments. Six Group I antibodies that bound to the PB2 N-terminal region (amino acids 1-104) did not inhibit transcription by the viral ribonucleoprotein complex. A single Group II antibody recognizing the region of amino acids 206-259 inhibited ApG-primed transcription. Groups III and IV antibodies bound to the C-terminal region of amino acids 660-759. Of these, Group III antibodies inhibited transcription. The present results identify multiple monoclonal antibody binding domains in PB2, two of which, when bound by antibodies, negatively affect viral RNA transcription.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2000 · Archives of Virology
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    ABSTRACT: Influenza virus RNA polymerase with the subunit structure PB1-PB2-PA is involved in both transcription and replication of the RNA genome, including the unique cap-I-dependent RNase activity. To map the important domains for RNA polymerization, cap-I-dependent RNase, and cap-I-binding activity, we generated site-specific antibodies against overlapping 150-amino-acid peptides that cover each entire subunit. Monospecific antibodies against each subunit inhibited RNA synthesisin vitro.Those against PB1 and PB2 inhibited the cap-I-dependent RNase activity, but those against PB2 alone slightly inhibited the cap-I-binding activity. Antibodies against the N-terminal amino acids 1–159 of PB2 that overlap the PB1-binding site on PB2 and the C-terminal amino acids 501–617 of PA that overlap the putative nucleotide-binding site and PB1-binding site on PA inhibited RNA polymerizing activity as well as monospecific antibodies. Those against the N-terminal (amino acids 1–159); the central region (amino acids 305–559) of PB2, where a part of the cap-binding domain predicted previously is localized; the N-terminal (amino acids 1–222) of PB1; and amino acids 301–517 and 601–716 of PA inhibited the cap-I-dependent RNase activity. The cap-binding domain on PB2 could be mapped in amino acids 402–559, where one of the cap-binding domains mapped previously overlapped.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 1999 · Virology
  • N Hamada · K Masunaga · Y Ohtsu · H Kato · K Tsuji · H Maeda · M Shingu · T Toyoda
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    ABSTRACT: The nucleotide sequences of the genome RNA encoding the RNA polymerase and the 3' non-coding region (NCR) of bovine enterovirus (BEV) serotype I Japanese isolate, MZ468, were determined. The genetic distance between the two BEV serotype I strains, MZ468 and VG-5-27, was calculated by pairwise comparison of nucleotide sequences. The synonymous substitution rate was high (1.40 x 10(-2)/site/year), and of the same order as those of influenza virus HA, HIV-1 gag and env, and enterovirus 70 VP1 genes.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1998 · Archives of Virology