[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that cardiovascular risk is not only determined by conventional risk factors in adulthood, but also by early life events which may reprogram vascular function. To evaluate the effect of maternal diabetes on fetal programming of vascular tone in offspring and its evolution during adulthood, we investigated vascular reactivity of third order mesenteric arteries from diabetic mother offspring (DMO) and control mother offspring (CMO) aged 3 and 18 months. In arteries isolated from DMO the relaxation induced by prostacyclin analogues was reduced in both 3- and 18-month old animals although endothelium (acetylcholine)-mediated relaxation was reduced in 18-month old DMO only. Endothelium-independent (sodium nitroprusside) relaxation was not affected. Pressure-induced myogenic tone, which controls local blood flow, was reduced in 18-month old CMO compared to 3-month old CMO. Interestingly, myogenic tone was maintained at a high level in 18-month old DMO even though agonist-induced vasoconstriction was not altered. These perturbations, in 18-months old DMO rats, were associated with an increased pMLC/MLC, pPKA/PKA ratio and an activated RhoA protein. Thus, we highlighted perturbations in the reactivity of resistance mesenteric arteries in DMO, at as early as 3 months of age, followed by the maintenance of high myogenic tone in older rats. These modifications are in favour of excessive vasoconstrictor tone. These results evidenced a fetal programming of vascular functions of resistance arteries in adult rats exposed in utero to maternal diabetes, which could explain a re-setting of vascular functions and, at least in part, the occurrence of hypertension later in life.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
Chronic increases in blood flow in resistance arteries induce outward remodeling associated with increased wall thickness and endothelium-mediated dilatation. This remodeling is essential for collateral arteries growth following occlusion of a large artery. As estrogens have a major role in this remodeling, we hypothesized that resveratrol, described as possessing phytoestrogen properties, could improve remodeling in ovariectomized rats.
Blood flow was increased in vivo in mesenteric arteries after ligation of adjacent arteries in 3-month old ovariectomized rats treated with resveratrol (5 or 37.5 mg/kg per day: RESV5 or RESV37.5) or vehicle. After 2 weeks arterial structure and function were measured in vitro in high flow (HF) and normal flow (NF) arteries isolated from each rat.
Arterial diameter was greater in HF than in NF arteries in ovariectomized rats treated with RESV5 or RESV37.5, not in vehicle-treated rats. In mice lacking estrogen receptor alpha diameter was equivalent in HF and NF arteries whereas in mice treated with RESV5 diameter was greater in HF than in NF vessels. A compensatory increase in wall thickness and a greater phenylephrine-mediated contraction were observed in HF arteries. This was more pronounced in HF arteries from RESV37.5-treated rats. ERK1/2 phosphorylation, involved in hypertrophy and contraction, were higher in RESV37.5-treated rats than in RESV5- and vehicle-treated rats. Endothelium-dependent relaxation was greater in HF than in NF arteries in RESV5-treated rats only. In HF arteries from RESV37.5-treated rats relaxation was increased by superoxide reduction and markers of oxidative stress (p67phox, GP91phox) were higher than in the 2 other groups.
Resveratrol improved flow-mediated outward remodeling in ovariectomized rats thus providing a potential therapeutic tool in menopause-associated ischemic disorders. This effect seems independent of the estrogen receptor alpha. Nevertheless, caution should be taken with high doses inducing excessive contractility and hypertrophy in association with oxidative stress in HF arteries.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resistance arteries play a key role in the control of local blood flow. They undergo outward remodeling in response to a chronic increase in blood flow as seen in collateral artery growth in ischemic disorders. We have previously shown that mesenteric artery outward remodeling depends on the endothelial estrogen receptor alpha. As outward arterial remodeling is associated with improved endothelium-dependent dilation, we hypothesized that estrogens might also play a role in flow-mediated improvement of endothelium-dependent dilation. Local increase in blood flow in first order mesenteric arteries was obtained after ligation of adjacent arteries in three-month old ovariectomized female rats treated with 17-beta-estradiol (OVX+E2) or vehicle (OVX). After 2 weeks, diameter was equivalent in high flow (HF) than in normal flow (NF) arteries with a greater wall to lumen ratio in HF vessels in OVX rats. Acetylcholine-mediated relaxation was lower in HF than in NF vessels. eNOS and caveolin-1 expression level was equivalent in HF and NF arteries. By contrast, arterial diameter was 30% greater in HF than in NF arteries and the wall to lumen ratio was not changed in OVX+E2 rats. Acetylcholine-mediated relaxation was higher in HF than in NF arteries. The expression level of eNOS was higher and that of caveolin-1 was lower in HF than in NF arteries. Acetylcholine (NO-dependent)-mediated relaxation was partly inhibited by the NO-synthesis blocker L-NAME in OVX rats whereas L-NAME blocked totally the relaxation in OVX+E2 rats. Endothelium-independent relaxation (sodium nitroprusside) was equivalent in OXV and OVX+E2 rats. Similarly, serotonin- and phenylephrine-mediated contractions were higher in HF than in NF arteries in both OVX and OVX+E2 rats in association with high ratio of phosphorylated ERK1/2 to ERK1/2. Thus, we demonstrated the essential role of endogenous E2 in flow-mediated improvement of endothelium (NO)-mediated dilatation in rat mesenteric arteries.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Vascular Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In resistance arteries a chronic increase in blood flow induces hypertrophic outward remodeling. This flow-mediated remodeling (FMR) is absent in male rats aged 10 months and more. As FMR depends on estrogens in 3-month old female rats, we hypothesized that it might be preserved in 12-month old female rats. Blood flow was increased in vivo in mesenteric resistance arteries after ligating side arteries in 3- and 12-month old male and female rats. After 2 weeks, high (HF) and normal flow (NF) arteries were isolated for in vitro analysis. Arterial diameter and cross sectional area increased in HF, compared to NF arteries, in 3-month old male and female rats. In 12-month old rats, diameter increased only in female rats. Endothelial NO-synthase expression and endothelium-mediated relaxation were higher in HF than in NF arteries in all groups. ERK1/2 phosphorylation, NADPHoxidase subunits expression level and arterial contractility to KCl and to phenylephrine were greater in HF than in NF vessels in 12-month old male rats only. Ovariectomy in 12-month old female rats induced a similar pattern with an increased contractility without diameter increase in HF arteries. Treatment of 12-month old male rats and ovariectomized female rats with hydralazine, the antioxidant TEMPOL or the angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker candesartan restored HF-remodeling and normalized arterial contractility in HF vessels. Thus, we found that FMR of resistance arteries remains efficient in 12-month old female rats compared to age-matched male rats. A balance between estrogens and vascular contractility might preserve FMR in mature female rats.
Preview · Article · Jun 2014 · AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disorders. As flow-mediated outward remodeling has a key role in postischemic revascularization, we investigated this remodeling in mesenteric resistance arteries of normotensive (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) aged 3 to 9 months. Sequential ligation of mesenteric resistance arteries allowed modifying blood flow in vivo, thus exposing arteries to low, normal, or high flow. After 1, 3, 8, or 24 weeks, arteries were isolated for in vitro study. High flow (HF) induced outward hypertrophic remodeling in WKY rats after 1 week and persisted until 24 weeks without change in wall to lumen ratio. In SHRs, diameter increase was delayed, occurring only after 3 weeks. Nevertheless, it was reduced at 8 weeks and no longer significant after 24 weeks. In parallel, media cross-section area increased more with time in SHRs than in WKY rats and this was associated with increased contractility and oxidative stress with decreased NO-dependent relaxation. Low flow induced progressive inward remodeling until 24 weeks in both strains with excessive hypertrophy in SHRs. Thus, a chronic increase in flow induced transitory diameter expansion and long-lasting hypertrophy in SHRs. This could contribute to the higher susceptibility of hypertensive subjects to ischemic diseases.
Full-text · Article · May 2014 · International Journal of Hypertension
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Increasing evidence implicates overactivation of RhoA as a critical component of the pathogenesis of hypertension. Although a substantial body of work has established that Rac1 functions antagonize RhoA in a broad range of physiological processes, the role of Rac1 in the regulation of vascular tone and blood pressure is not fully elucidated.
Methods and Results
To define the role of Rac1 in vivo in vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMC), we generated smooth muscle (SM)‐specific Rac1 knockout mice (SM‐Rac1‐KO) and performed radiotelemetric blood pressure recordings, contraction measurements in arterial rings, vSMC cultures and biochemical analyses. SM‐Rac1‐KO mice develop high systolic blood pressure sensitive to Rho kinase inhibition by fasudil. Arteries from SM‐Rac1‐KO mice are characterized by a defective NO‐dependent vasodilation and an overactivation of RhoA/Rho kinase signaling. We provide evidence that Rac1 deletion‐induced hypertension is due to an alteration of cGMP signaling resulting from the loss of Rac1‐mediated control of type 5 PDE activity. Consequently, cGMP‐dependent phosphorylation and binding of RhoA with its inhibitory partner, the phosphatase‐RhoA interacting protein (p116RIP3), are decreased.
Our data reveal that the depletion of Rac1 in SMC decreases cGMP‐dependent p116RIP3/RhoA interaction and the subsequent inhibition of RhoA signaling. Thus, we unveil an in vivo role of Rac1 in arterial blood pressure regulation and a new pathway involving p116RIP3 that contributes to the antagonistic relationship between Rac1 and RhoA in vascular smooth muscle cells and their opposite roles in arterial tone and blood pressure.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Journal of the American Heart Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Flow (shear stress)-mediated outward remodeling (FMR) of resistance arteries is a key adaptive process allowing collateral growth after arterial occlusion but declining with age. 17-β-estradiol (E2) has a key role in this process through activation of estrogen receptor α (ERα). Thus, we investigated the impact of age and timing for estrogen efficacy on FMR.
Female rats, 3 to 18 months old, were submitted to surgery to increase blood flow locally in 1 mesenteric artery in vivo. High-flow and normal-flow arteries were collected 2 weeks later for in vitro analysis. Diameter increased by 27% in high-flow arteries compared with normal-flow arteries in 3-month-old rats. The amplitude of remodeling declined with age (12% in 18-month-old rats) in parallel with E2 blood level and E2 substitution failed restoring remodeling in 18-month-old rats. Ovariectomy of 3-, 9-, and 12-month-old rats abolished FMR, which was restored by immediate E2 replacement. Nevertheless, this effect of E2 was absent 9 months after ovariectomy. In this latter group, ERα and endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression were reduced by half compared with age-matched rats recently ovariectomized. FMR did not occur in ERα(-/-) mice, whereas it was decreased by 50% in ERα(+/-) mice, emphasizing the importance of gene dosage in high-flow remodeling.
E2 deprivation, rather than age, leads to decline in FMR, which can be prevented by early exogenous E2. However, delayed E2 replacement was ineffective on FMR, underlining the importance of timing of this estrogen action.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A chronic increase in blood flow in resistance arteries is associated with increased lumen diameter (outward remodeling) and improved endothelium (NO)-mediated relaxation. Flow-mediated remodeling of resistance arteries is essential for revascularization in ischemic diseases. Nevertheless, it is impaired in 12 to 24-month old rats and in young Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats due to advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and oxidative stress. As type 2 diabetes occurs preferentially in older subjects we investigated flow-mediated remodeling and the effect of the AGEs breaker ALT-711 associated or not to the antioxidant TEMPOL in one-year old lean (LZ) and ZDF rats.
Mesenteric resistance arteries were exposed to high (HF) or normal blood flow (NF) in vivo. They were collected after 2 weeks for in vitro analysis.
In LZ rats, diameter expansion did not occur despite a significant increase in blood flow in HF arteries. Nevertheless, endothelium-mediated relaxation was higher in HF than in NF arteries. ALT-711, alone or in combination with TEMPOL, restored outward remodeling in HF arteries in association with AGEs reduction. TEMPOL alone had no effect. ALT-711, TEMPOL or the combination of the 2 drugs did not significantly affect endothelium-mediated relaxation in HF and NF arteries.In ZDF rats, diameter did not increase despite the increase in blood flow and endothelium-mediated relaxation was further decreased in HF arteries in association with AGEs accumulation and excessive oxidative stress. In both NF and HF arteries, endothelium-mediated relaxation was lower in ZDF than in LZ rats. ALT-711, TEMPOL or their combination did not improve remodeling (diameter equivalent in HF and NF arteries). In parallel, they did not reduce AGEs level and did not improve MMPs activity. Nevertheless, ALT-711 and TEMPOL partly improved endothelium-mediated relaxation through a reduction of oxidative stress and the association of ALT-711 and TEMPOL fully restored relaxation to the level found in LZ rats.
ALT-711 did not improve outward remodeling in mature ZDF rats but it reduced oxidative stress and consequently improved endothelium-dependent relaxation. In mature LZ rats, ALT-711 improved outward remodeling and reduced AGEs level. Consequently, AGEs breaking is differently useful in ageing whether it is associated with diabetes or not.
Preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Cardiovascular Diabetology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several studies assess an important risk of thrombosis relapse in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) (1-2), and the need for a secondary prophylaxis (3). Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is such a treatment, revealing a positive balance benefits/risks and a low economic cost. The goals of this first prospective study in primary APS patients were to assess the HCQ efficacy as a new therapeutic approach and to evaluate its effectiveness relative to standard oral anticoagulants (OA) for the prevention of recurrent thrombosis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endothelial dysfunction in resistance arteries alters end organ perfusion in type 2 diabetes. Superoxides and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) derivatives have been shown separately to alter endothelium-mediated relaxation in aging and diabetes but their role in the alteration of vascular tone in old diabetic subjects is not clear, especially in resistance arteries. Consequently, we investigated the role of superoxide and COX-2-derivatives on endothelium-dependent relaxation in 3 and 12 month-old Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) and lean (LZ) rats. Mesenteric resistance arteries were isolated and vascular tone was investigated using wire-myography. Endothelium (acetylcholine)-dependent relaxation was lower in ZDF than in LZ rats (60 versus 84% maximal relaxation in young rats and 41 versus 69% in old rats). Blocking NO production with L-NAME was less efficient in old than in young rats. L-NAME had no effect in old ZDF rats although eNOS expression level in old ZDF rats was similar to that in old LZ rats. Superoxide level and NADPH-oxidase subunits (p67phox and gp91phox) expression level were greater in ZDF than in LZ rats and were further increased by aging in ZDF rats. In young ZDF rats reducing superoxide level with tempol restored acetylcholine-dependent relaxation to the level of LZ rats. In old ZDF rats tempol improved acetylcholine-dependent relaxation without increasing it to the level of LZ rats. COX-2 (immunolabelling and Western-blot) was present in arteries of ZDF rats and absent in LZ rats. In old ZDF rats arterial COX-2 level was higher than in young ZDF rats. COX-2 blockade with NS398 restored in part acetylcholine-dependent relaxation in arteries of old ZDF rats and the combination of tempol and NS398 fully restored relaxation in control (LZ rats) level. Accordingly, superoxide production and COX-2 derivatives together reduced endothelium-dependent relaxation in old ZDF rats whereas superoxides alone attenuated relaxation in young ZDF or old LZ rats.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arteriogenesis requires growth of pre-existing arteriolar collateral networks and determines clinical outcome in arterial occlusive diseases. Factors responsible for the development of arteriolar collateral networks are poorly understood. The Notch ligand Delta-like 4 (Dll4) promotes arterial differentiation and restricts vessel branching. We hypothesized that Dll4 may act as a genetic determinant of collateral arterial networks and functional recovery in stroke and hind limb ischemia models in mice. Genetic loss- and gain-of-function approaches in mice showed that Dll4-Notch signaling restricts pial collateral artery formation by modulating arterial branching morphogenesis during embryogenesis. Adult Dll4(+/-) mice showed increased pial collateral numbers, but stroke volume upon middle cerebral artery occlusion was not reduced compared with wild-type littermates. Likewise, Dll4(+/-) mice showed reduced blood flow conductance after femoral artery occlusion, and, despite markedly increased angiogenesis, tissue ischemia was more severe. In peripheral arteries, loss of Dll4 adversely affected excitation-contraction coupling in arterial smooth muscle in response to vasopressor agents and arterial vessel wall adaption in response to increases in blood flow, collectively contributing to reduced flow reserve. We conclude that Dll4-Notch signaling modulates native collateral formation by acting on vascular branching morphogenesis during embryogenesis. Dll4 furthermore affects tissue perfusion by acting on arterial function and structure. Loss of Dll4 stimulates collateral formation and angiogenesis, but in the context of ischemic diseases such beneficial effects are overruled by adverse functional changes, demonstrating that ischemic recovery is not solely determined by collateral number but rather by vessel functionality.