[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The gain-of-function mutation of the RET proto-oncogene, which encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase, is strongly associated with the development of several medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTCs). Thus, the RET protein has been explored as an excellent target for progressive and advanced MTC. In this study we have demonstrated a therapeutic strategy for MTC by suppressing the transcription of RET proto-oncogene though the stabilization of G-quadruplex structure formed on the promoter region of this gene using a natural product berberine.
Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) TT cell line has been used to evaluate the effects of berberine on RET expression and its downstream signaling pathways. The specificity of berberine was demonstrated by using the papillary thyroid carcinoma TPC1 cell line, which lacks the G-quadruplex forming sequence on the RET promoter region due to chromosomal rearrangement.
Berberine suppressed the RET expression by more than 90 % in MTC TT cells at a concentration of 2.5 μg/ml with minimal effect on the TPC1 cells. Canadine, which is a structural analogue of berberine, showed little interaction with RET G-quadruplex and also had no effect on RET expression in MTC TT cells. The down-regulation of RET with berberine further inhibited the cell proliferation through cell cycle arrest and activation of apoptosis in TT cells, which was confirmed by a 2-fold increase in the caspase-3 activity and the down-regulation of cell-cycle regulatory proteins.
Our data strongly suggest that the G-quadruplex forming region and the stabilization of this structure play a critical role in mediating the repressive effect of berberine on RET transcription.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leinamycin (1) is a Streptomyces-derived natural product that displays nanomolar IC(50) values against human cancer cell lines. In the work described here, we report the synthesis and characterization of a small leinamycin analogue 19 that closely resembles the 'upper-right quadrant' of the natural product, consisting of an alicyclic 1,2-dithiolan-3-one 1-oxide heterocycle connected to an alkene by a two-carbon linker. The results indicate that this small analogue contains the core set of functional groups required to enable thiol-triggered generation of both redox active polysulfides and an episulfonium ion intermediate via the complex reaction cascade first seen in the natural product leinamycin. The small leinamycin analogue 19 caused thiol-triggered oxidative DNA strand cleavage in a manner similar to the natural product, but did not alkyate duplex DNA effectively. This highlights the central role of the 18-membered macrocycle of leinamycin in driving efficient DNA alkylation by the natural product.
No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The natural product leinamycin has been found to produce abasic sites in duplex DNA through the hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond of guanine residues modified by this drug. In the present study, using a synthetic oligonucleotide duplex, we demonstrate spontaneous DNA strand cleavage at leinamycin-induced abasic sites through a β-elimination reaction. However, methoxyamine modification of leinamycin-induced abasic sites was found to be refractory to the spontaneous β-elimination reaction. Furthermore, this complex was even resistant to the δ-elimination reaction with hot piperidine treatment. Bleomycin and methyl methanesulfonate also induced strand cleavage in a synthetic oligonucleotide duplex even without thermal treatment. However, methoxyamine has a negligible effect on DNA strand cleavage induced by both drugs, suggesting that the mechanism of DNA cleavage induced by leinamycin might be different from those induced by bleomycin or methyl methanesulfonate. In this study, we also assessed the cytotoxicity of leinamycin against a collection of mammalian cell lines defective in various repair pathways. The mammalian cell line defective in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) or base excision repair (BER) pathways was about 3 to 5 times more sensitive to leinamycin as compared to the parental cell line. In contrast, the radiosensitive mutant xrs-5 cell line deficient in V(D)J recombination showed similar sensitivity towards leinamycin compared to the parental cell line. Collectively, our findings suggest that both NER and BER pathways play an important role in the repair of DNA damage caused by leinamycin.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reaction of cellular thiols with the 1,2-dithiolan-3-one 1-oxide moiety of leinamycin triggers the generation of DNA-damaging reactive intermediates. Studies with small, synthetic analogues of leinamycin reveal that the macrocyclic portion of the natural product imparts remarkable hydrolytic stability to the 1,2-dithiolan-3-one 1-oxide heterocycle without substantially compromising its thiol-sensing property.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) promoter contains a polypurine/polypyrimidine (pPu/pPy) tract that is known to play a critical role in its transcriptional regulation. This pPu/pPy tract undergoes a conformational transition between B-DNA, single-stranded DNA, and atypical secondary DNA structures such as G-quadruplexes and i-motifs. We studied the interaction of the cytosine-rich (C-rich) and guanine-rich (G-rich) strands of this tract with transcription factors heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) K and nucleolin, respectively, both in vitro and in vivo and their potential role in the transcriptional control of VEGF. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay for our in vivo studies and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) for our in vitro studies, we demonstrated that both nucleolin and hnRNP K bind selectively to the G- and C-rich sequences, respectively, in the pPu/pPy tract of the VEGF promoter. The small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of either nucleolin or hnRNP K resulted in the down-regulation of basal VEGF gene, suggesting that they act as activators of VEGF transcription. Taken together, the identification of transcription factors that can recognize and bind to atypical DNA structures within the pPu/pPy tract will provide new insight into mechanisms of transcriptional regulation of the VEGF gene.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The polypurine/polypyrimidine (pPu/pPy) tract of the human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene is proposed to be
structurally dynamic and to have potential to adopt non-B DNA structures. In the present study, we further provide evidence
for the existence of the G-quadruplex structure within this tract both in vitro and in vivo using the dimethyl sulfate (DMS) footprinting technique and nucleolin as a structural probe specifically recognizing G-quadruplex
structures. We observed that the overall reactivity of the guanine residues within this tract toward DMS was significantly
reduced compared with other guanine residues of the flanking regions in both in vitro and in vivo footprinting experiments. We also demonstrated that nucleolin, which is known to bind to G-quadruplex structures, is able
to bind specifically to the G-rich sequence of this region in negatively supercoiled DNA. Our chromatin immunoprecipitation
analysis further revealed binding of nucleolin to the promoter region of the VEGF gene in vivo. Taken together, our results are in agreement with our hypothesis that secondary DNA structures, such as G-quadruplexes,
can be formed in supercoiled duplex DNA and DNA in chromatin in vivo under physiological conditions similar to those formed in single-stranded DNA templates.
Preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Nucleic Acids Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aminomethylated Beaucage's reagent 1 was found to be more potent than 3H-1,2-benzodithiol-3-one 1,1-dioxide (Beaucage's reagent) in causing DNA cleavage. The current study demonstrated the importance of the amino functionality in enhancing DNA-cleaving activities, and such findings may facilitate development of novel sulfur-containing DNA-cleaving molecules in cancer therapy.
No preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polypurine/polypyrimidine (pPu/pPy) tracts, which exist in the promoter regions of many growth-related genes, have been proposed to be very dynamic in their conformation. In this chapter, we describe a detailed protocol for DNase I and S1 nuclease footprinting experiments with supercoiled plasmid DNA containing the promoter regions to probe whether there are conformational transitions to B-type DNA, melted DNA, and G-quadruplex structures within this tract. This is demonstrated with the proximal promoter region of the human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene, which also contains multiple binding sites for Sp1 and Egr-1 transcription factors.
Preview · Article · Jan 2010 · Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The proximal promoter region of many human growth-related genes contains a polypurine/polypyrimidine tract that serves as multiple binding sites for Sp1 or other transcription factors. These tracts often contain a guanine-rich sequence consisting of four runs of three or more contiguous guanines separated by one or more bases, corresponding to a general motif known for the formation of an intramolecular G-quadruplex. Recent results provide strong evidence that specific G-quadruplex structures form naturally within these polypurine/polypyrimidine tracts in many human promoter regions, raising the possibility that the transcriptional control of these genes can be modulated by G-quadruplex-interactive agents. In this chapter, we describe three general biochemical methodologies, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), dimethylsulfate (DMS) footprinting, and the DNA polymerase stop assay, which can be useful for initial characterization of G-quadruplex structures formed by G-rich sequences.
Preview · Article · Jan 2010 · Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We synthesized and evaluated new specific tridentate iron(III) chelators of 2,6-bis[hydroxyamino]-1,3,5-triazine (BHT) family for use in iron deprivation cancer therapy. Physical properties of BHT chelators are easily customizable allowing easy penetration through cellular membranes. Antiproliferative activity of new BHT chelators was studied on MDA-MB-231 and MiaPaCa cells and compared to a clinically available new oral iron chelator, deferasirox (DFX). The antiproliferative activity of new chelators was found to correlate with iron(III) chelation ability and some of analogs showed substantially higher antiproliferative activity than DFX.
No preview · Article · Dec 2009 · Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leinamycin is a structurally novel Streptomyces-derived natural product that displays very potent activity against various human cancer cell lines (IC(50) values in the low nanomolar range). Previous in vitro biochemical studies have revealed that leinamycin alkylates DNA, generates apurinic (AP) sites and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and causes DNA strand breaks. However, it is not clear whether these events occur inside cells. In the present study, we have determined the endogenous amount of AP sites and DNA strand breaks in genomic DNA and the amount of oxidative stress in a human pancreatic carcinoma cell line, MiaPaCa, treated with leinamycin by utilizing the aldehyde-reactive probe assay, the comet assay, and fluorescent probes, respectively. We demonstrated that AP sites are formed rapidly following exposure to leinamycin, and the number of AP sites was increased up to seven-fold in a dose-dependent manner. However, only 25-50% of these sites remain 2 h after media containing drug molecules were aspirated and replaced with fresh media. We also observed leinamycin-induced ROS generation and a concomitant increase in apoptosis of MiaPaCa cells. Because both AP sites and ROS have the potential to generate strand breaks in cellular DNA, the comet assay was utilized to detect damage to nuclear DNA in leinamycin-treated MiaPaCa cell cultures. Both alkaline and neutral electrophoretic analysis revealed that leinamycin produces both single- and double-stranded DNA damage in drug-treated cells in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, the results suggest that rapid conversion of leinamycin-guanine (N7) adducts into AP sites to produce DNA strand breaks, in synergy with leinamycin-derived ROS, accounts for the exceedingly potent biological activity of this natural product.
Preview · Article · Dec 2009 · Chemical Research in Toxicology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: myc is a proto-oncogene that plays an important role in the promotion of cellular growth and proliferation. Understanding the
regulation of c-myc is important in cancer biology, as it is overexpressed in a wide variety of human cancers, including most gynecological,
breast, and colon cancers. We previously demonstrated that a guanine-rich region upstream of the P1 promoter of c-myc that controls 85–90% of the transcriptional activation of this gene can form an intramolecular G-quadruplex (G4) that functions
as a transcriptional repressor element. In this study, we used an affinity column to purify proteins that selectively bind
to the human c-myc G-quadruplex. We found that nucleolin, a multifunctional phosphoprotein, binds in vitro to the c-myc G-quadruplex structure with high affinity and selectivity when compared with other known quadruplex structures. In addition,
we demonstrate that upon binding, nucleolin facilitates the formation and increases the stability of the c-myc G-quadruplex structure. Furthermore, we provide evidence that nucleolin overexpression reduces the activity of a c-myc promoter in plasmid presumably by inducing and stabilizing the formation of the c-myc G-quadruplex. Finally, we show that nucleolin binds to the c-myc promoter in HeLa cells, which indicates that this interaction occurs in vivo. In summary, nucleolin may induce c-myc G4 formation in vivo.
Preview · Article · Aug 2009 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The formation of G-quadruplex structures within the nuclease hypersensitive element (NHE) III(1) region of the c-myc promoter and the ability of these structures to repress c-myc transcription have been well established. However, just how these extremely stable DNA secondary structures are transformed to activate c-myc transcription is still unknown. NM23-H2/nucleoside diphosphate kinase B has been recognized as an activator of c-myc transcription via interactions with the NHE III(1) region of the c-myc gene promoter. Through the use of RNA interference, we confirmed the transcriptional regulatory role of NM23-H2. In addition, we find that further purification of NM23-H2 results in loss of the previously identified DNA strand cleavage activity, but retention of its DNA binding activity. NM23-H2 binds to both single-stranded guanine- and cytosine-rich strands of the c-myc NHE III(1) and, to a lesser extent, to a random single-stranded DNA template. However, it does not bind to or cleave the NHE III(1) in duplex form. Significantly, potassium ions and compounds that stabilize the G-quadruplex and i-motif structures have an inhibitory effect on NM23-H2 DNA-binding activity. Mutation of Arg(88) to Ala(88) (R88A) reduced both DNA and nucleotide binding but had minimal effect on the NM23-H2 crystal structure. On the basis of these data and molecular modeling studies, we have proposed a stepwise trapping-out of the NHE III(1) region in a single-stranded form, thus allowing single-stranded transcription factors to bind and activate c-myc transcription. Furthermore, this model provides a rationale for how the stabilization of the G-quadruplex or i-motif structures formed within the c-myc gene promoter region can inhibit NM23-H2 from activating c-myc gene expression.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2009 · Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The importance of DNA supercoiling in transcriptional regulation has been known for many years, and more recently, transcription itself has been shown to be a source of this superhelicity. To mimic the effect of transcriptionally induced negative superhelicity, the G-quadruplex/i-motif-forming region in the c-Myc promoter was incorporated into a supercoiled plasmid. We show, using enzymatic and chemical footprinting, that negative superhelicity facilitates the formation of secondary DNA structures under physiological conditions. Significantly, these structures are not the same as those formed in single-stranded DNA templates. Together with the recently demonstrated role of transcriptionally induced superhelicity in maintaining a mechanosensor mechanism for controlling the firing rate of the c-Myc promoter, we provide a more complete picture of how c-Myc transcription is likely controlled. Last, these physiologically relevant G-quadruplex and i-motif structures, along with the mechanosensor mechanism for control of gene expression, are proposed as novel mechanisms for small molecule targeting of transcriptional control of c-Myc.
Preview · Article · May 2009 · Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A polyguanine/polycytosine (polyG/polyC) tract in the proximal promoter of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene
is essential for transcriptional activation. The guanine-rich (G-rich) and cytosine-rich (C-rich) strands on this tract are
shown to form specific secondary structures, characterized as G-quadruplexes and i-motifs, respectively. Mutational analysis
of the G-rich strand combined with dimethyl sulfate (DMS) footprinting, a polymerase stop assay, and circular dichroism (CD)
spectroscopy revealed that the G-quadruplex containing a 1:4:1 double-chain reversal loop is the most thermodynamically stable
conformation that this strand readily adopts. These studies provide strong evidence that the size of loop regions plays a
critical role in determining the most favored folding pattern of a G-quadruplex. The secondary structure formed on the complementary
C-rich strand was also determined by mutational analysis combined with Br2 footprinting and CD spectroscopy. Our results reveal that at a pH of 5.9 this strand is able to form an intramolecular i-motif
structure that involves six C–C+ base pairs and a 2:3:2 loop configuration. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the G-quadruplex and i-motif structures
are able to form on the G- and C-rich strands, respectively, of the polyG/polyC tract in the VEGF proximal promoter under
conditions that favor the transition from B-DNA to non-B-DNA conformations.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2008 · Nucleic Acids Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies on the functional analysis of the human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) promoter using the full-length VEGF promoter reporter revealed that the proximal 36-bp region (-85 to -50 relative to transcription initiation site) is essential for basal or inducible VEGF promoter activity in several human cancer cells. This region consists of a polypurine (guanine) tract that contains four runs of at least three contiguous guanines separated by one or more bases, thus conforming to a general motif capable of forming an intramolecular G-quadruplex. Here, we show that the G-rich strand in this region is able to form an intramolecular propeller-type parallel-stranded G-quadruplex structure in vitro by using the electrophoretic mobility shift assay, dimethyl sulfate footprinting technique, the DNA polymerase stop assay, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and computer-aided molecular modeling. Two well-known G-quadruplex-interactive agents, TMPyP4 and Se2SAP, stabilize G-quadruplex structures formed by this sequence in the presence of a potassium ion, although Se2SAP is at least 10-fold more effective in binding to the G-quadruplex than TMPyP4. Between these two agents, Se2SAP better suppresses VEGF transcription in different cancer cell lines, including HEC1A and MDA-MB-231. Collectively, our results provide evidence that specific G-quadruplex structures can be formed in the VEGF promoter region, and that the transcription of this gene can be controlled by ligand-mediated G-quadruplex stabilization. Our results also provide further support for the idea that G-quadruplex structures may play structural roles in vivo and therefore might provide insight into novel methodologies for rational drug design.
Full-text · Article · May 2008 · Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A polypurine (guanine)/polypyrimidine (cytosine)-rich sequence within the proximal promoter region of the human RET oncogene has been shown to be essential for RET basal transcription. Specifically, the G-rich strand within this region consists of five consecutive runs of guanines, which is consistent with the general motif capable of forming intramolecular G-quadruplexes. Here we demonstrate that, in the presence of 100 mM K+, this G-rich strand has the ability to adopt two intramolecular G-quadruplex structures in vitro. Moreover, comparative circular dichroism (CD) and DMS footprinting studies have revealed that the 3'-G-quadruplex structure is a parallel-type intramolecular structure containing three G-tetrads. The G-quadruplex-interactive agents TMPyP4 and telomestatin further stabilize this G-quadruplex structure. In addition, we demonstrate that the complementary C-rich strand forms an i-motif structure in vitro, as shown by CD spectroscopy and chemical footprinting. This 19-mer duplex sequence is predicted to form stable intramolecular G-quadruplex and i-motif species having minimum symmetrical loop sizes of 1:3:1 and 2:3:2, respectively. Together, our results indicate that stable G-quadruplex and i-motif structures can form within the proximal promoter region of the human RET oncogene, suggesting that these secondary structures play an important role in transcriptional regulation of this gene.
Preview · Article · Sep 2007 · Journal of the American Chemical Society
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The proximal 5′-flanking region of the human platelet-derived growth factor A (PDGF-A) promoter contains one nuclease hypersensitive element (NHE) that is critical for PDGF-A gene transcription. On the basis of circular dichroism (CD) and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), we have shown
that the guanine-rich (G-rich) strand of the DNA in this region can form stable intramolecular parallel G-quadruplexes under
physiological conditions. A Taq polymerase stop assay has shown that the G-rich strand of the NHE can form two major G-quadruplex structures, which are in
dynamic equilibrium and differentially stabilized by three G-quadruplex-interactive drugs. One major parallel G-quadruplex
structure of the G-rich strand DNA of NHE was identified by CD and dimethyl sulfate (DMS) footprinting. Surprisingly, CD spectroscopy
shows a stable parallel G-quadruplex structure formed within the duplex DNA of the NHE at temperatures up to 100°C. This structure has been characterized by DMS footprinting in the double-stranded DNA of the NHE. In transfection experiments,
10 μM TMPyP4 reduced the activity of the basal promoter of PDGF-A ∼40%, relative to the control. On the basis of these results, we have established that ligand-mediated stabilization of G-quadruplex
structures within the PDGF-A NHE can silence PDGF-A expression.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2007 · Nucleic Acids Research