[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: At the April, 2015 International Society for Computerized Electrocardiology (ISCE) Annual Conference in San Jose, CA, a special session entitled Remembering Ron & Rory was held to pay tribute to the extraordinary work and lives of two experts in electrocardiology. The session was well attended by conference attendees, Childers' family members and friends, and additional colleagues who traveled to San Jose solely to participate in this session. The purpose of the present paper is to document the spirit of this special session as faithfully as possible using the words of the session speakers.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of electrocardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is a highly effective agent for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). QT interval prolongation is common with ATO and can pose a barrier to effective administration. The objective of this study was to characterize the prevalence, management, and clinical consequences of QT prolongation in a large cohort of patients treated with ATO.
Patients and methods:
We analyzed 3,011 electrocardiograms from 113 patients with non-APL acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome who were treated on a previously reported clinical trial. QT intervals were assessed using four different correction formulas, and data were correlated with clinical parameters and treatment with ATO.
There were no clinically significant cardiac events in the study population. Of those receiving ATO therapy, 29 patients (26%) had rate-uncorrected QT values above 470 ms and 13 (12%) had values exceeding 500 ms. With the commonly used Bazett rate correction formula, 102 patients (90%) had QTc greater than 470 ms, including 74 (65%) above 500 ms. By using alternative rate correction formulas, only 24% to 32% of patients had rate-corrected QT intervals above 500 ms.
QT interval prolongation is common with ATO treatment, but clinically significant arrhythmias are rare and can be avoided with appropriate precautions. Use of the Bazett correction may result in unnecessary interruptions in ATO therapy, and alternative rate correction formulas should be considered for routine electrocardiographic monitoring.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The electrocardiogram (ECG) is the most widely used imaging tool helping in diagnosis and initial management of patients presenting with symptoms compatible with acute coronary syndrome. Acute ischemia affects the configuration of the QRS complexes, the ST segments and the T waves. The ECG should be read along with the clinical assessment of the patient. ST segment elevation (and ST depression in leads V1–V3) in patients with active symptoms usually indicates acute occlusion of an epicardial artery with ongoing transmural ischemia. These patients should be triaged for emergent reperfusion therapy per current guidelines. However, many patients have ST segment elevation secondary to nonischemic causes. ST depression in leads other than V1–V3 usually are indicative of subendocardial ischemia secondary to subocclusion of the epicardial artery, distal embolization to small arteries or spasm supply/demand mismatch. ST depression may also be secondary to nonischemic etiologies, such as left ventricular hypertrophy, cardiomyopathies, etc. Knowing the clinical scenario, comparison to previous ECG and subsequent ECGs (in cases that there are changes in the quality or severity of symptoms) may add in the diagnosis and interpretation in difficult cases. This review addresses the different ECG patterns, typically seen in patients with active symptoms, after resolution of symptoms and the significance of such changes when seen in asymptomatic patients.
No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
For many years was considered that negative T wave in ischemic heart disease represents ischemia and for many authors located in subepicardial area.Methods
We performed a review based in the literature and in the experience of the authors commenting the real significance of the presence of negative T wave in patients with ischemic heart disease.ResultsThe negative T wave may be of primary or secondary type. Negative T wave observed in ischemic heart disease are of primary origin, therefore not a consequence of abnormal repolarization pattern. The negative T wave of ischemic origin presents the following characteristics: (1) are symmetrical and of variable deepness; (2) present mirror patterns; (3) starts in the second part of repolarization; and (4) may be accompanied by positive or negative U wave. The negative T wave of ischemic origin may be seen in the following clinical settings: (1) postmyocardial infarction due to a window effect of necrotic zone and (2) as a consequence of reperfusion in case of aborted MI when the artery has opened spontaneously, or after fibrinolysis, PCI, or coronary spasm.Conclusion
Acute ongoing ischemia do not cause negative T wave. This pattern appears when the ongoing ischemia is vanishing or in the chronic phase. In all these cases the cause of negative T wave is not located in the subepicardial area. Furthermore, positive exercise testing is expressed by ST depression never by isolated negative T wave. There are many circumstances that may present negative T wave outside ischemic heart disease and that have been discussed in this paper.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
It is well known that accurate interpretation of the 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) requires a high degree of skill. There is also a moderate degree of variability among those who interpret the ECG. While this is the case, there are no best practice guidelines for the actual ECG interpretation process. Hence, this study adopts computerized eye tracking technology to investigate whether eye-gaze can be used to gain a deeper insight into how expert annotators interpret the ECG. Annotators were recruited in San Jose, California at the 2013 International Society of Computerised Electrocardiology (ISCE).
Each annotator was recruited to interpret a number of 12-lead ECGs (N=12) while their eye gaze was recorded using a Tobii X60 eye tracker. The device is based on corneal reflection and is non-intrusive. With a sampling rate of 60Hz, eye gaze coordinates were acquired every 16.7ms. Fixations were determined using a predefined computerized classification algorithm, which was then used to generate heat maps of where the annotators looked. The ECGs used in this study form four groups (3=ST elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI], 3=hypertrophy, 3=arrhythmias and 3=exhibiting unique artefacts). There was also an equal distribution of difficulty levels (3=easy to interpret, 3=average and 3=difficult). ECGs were displayed using the 4x3+1 display format and computerized annotations were concealed.
Precisely 252 expert ECG interpretations (21 annotators×12 ECGs) were recorded. Average duration for ECG interpretation was 58s (SD=23). Fleiss' generalized kappa coefficient (Pa=0.56) indicated a moderate inter-rater reliability among the annotators. There was a 79% inter-rater agreement for STEMI cases, 71% agreement for arrhythmia cases, 65% for the lead misplacement and dextrocardia cases and only 37% agreement for the hypertrophy cases. In analyzing the total fixation duration, it was found that on average annotators study lead V1 the most (4.29s), followed by leads V2 (3.83s), the rhythm strip (3.47s), II (2.74s), V3 (2.63s), I (2.53s), aVL (2.45s), V5 (2.27s), aVF (1.74s), aVR (1.63s), V6 (1.39s), III (1.32s) and V4 (1.19s). It was also found that on average the annotator spends an equal amount of time studying leads in the frontal plane (15.89s) when compared to leads in the transverse plane (15.70s). It was found that on average the annotators fixated on lead I first followed by leads V2, aVL, V1, II, aVR, V3, rhythm strip, III, aVF, V5, V4 and V6. We found a strong correlation (r=0.67) between time to first fixation on a lead and the total fixation duration on each lead. This indicates that leads studied first are studied the longest. There was a weak negative correlation between duration and accuracy (r=-0.2) and a strong correlation between age and accuracy (r=0.67).
Eye tracking facilitated a deeper insight into how expert annotators interpret the 12-lead ECG. As a result, the authors recommend ECG annotators to adopt an initial first impression/pattern recognition approach followed by a conventional systematic protocol to ECG interpretation. This recommendation is based on observing misdiagnoses given due to first impression only. In summary, this research presents eye gaze results from expert ECG annotators and provides scope for future work that involves exploiting computerized eye tracking technology to further the science of ECG interpretation.
No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of Electrocardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Automated measurements of electrocardiographic (ECG) intervals are widely used by clinicians for individual patient diagnosis and by investigators in population studies. We examined whether clinically significant systematic differences exist in ECG intervals measured by current generation digital electrocardiographs from different manufacturers and whether differences, if present, are dependent on the degree of abnormality of the selected ECGs.
Measurements of RR interval, PR interval, QRS duration, and QT interval were made blindly by 4 major manufacturers of digital electrocardiographs used in the United States from 600 XML files of ECG tracings stored in the US FDA ECG warehouse and released for the purpose of this study by the Cardiac Safety Research Consortium. Included were 3 groups based on expected QT interval and degree of repolarization abnormality, comprising 200 ECGs each from (1) placebo or baseline study period in normal subjects during thorough QT studies, (2) peak moxifloxacin effect in otherwise normal subjects during thorough QT studies, and (3) patients with genotyped variants of congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS).
Differences of means between manufacturers were generally small in the normal and moxifloxacin subjects, but in the LQTS patients, differences of means ranged from 2.0 to 14.0 ms for QRS duration and from 0.8 to 18.1 ms for the QT interval. Mean absolute differences between algorithms were similar for QRS duration and QT intervals in the normal and in the moxifloxacin subjects (mean ≤6 ms) but were significantly larger in patients with LQTS.
Small but statistically significant group differences in mean interval and duration measurements and means of individual absolute differences exist among automated algorithms of widely used, current generation digital electrocardiographs. Measurement differences, including QRS duration and the QT interval, are greatest for the most abnormal ECGs.
No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · American heart journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The American College of Cardiology Foundation along with key specialty and subspecialty societies, conducted an appropriate use review of common clinical presentations for stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) to consider use of stress testing and anatomic diagnostic procedures. This document reflects an updating of the prior Appropriate Use Criteria (AUC) published for radionuclide imaging (RNI), stress echocardiography (Echo), calcium scoring, coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), stress cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), and invasive coronary angiography for SIHD. This is in keeping with the commitment to revise and refine the AUC on a frequent basis. A major innovation in this document is the rating of tests side by side for the same indication. The side-byside rating removes any concerns about differences in indication or interpretation stemming from prior use of separate documents for each test. However, the ratings were explicitly not competitive rankings due to the limited availability of comparative evidence, patient variability, and range of capabilities available in any given local setting. The indications for this review are limited to the detection and risk assessment of SIHD and were drawn from common applications or anticipated uses, as well as from current clinical practice guidelines. Eighty clinical scenarios were developed by a writing committee and scored by a separate rating panel on a scale of 1 to 9, to designate Appropriate, May Be Appropriate, or Rarely Appropriate use following a modified Delphi process following the recently updated AUC development methodology. The use of some modalities of testing in the initial evaluation of patients with symptoms representing ischemic equivalents, newly diagnosed heart failure, arrhythmias, and syncope was generally found to be Appropriate or May Be Appropriate, except in cases where low pre-test probability or low risk limited the benefit of most testing except exercise electrocardiogram(ECG). Testing for the evaluation of newor worsening symptoms following a prior test or procedure was found to be Appropriate. In addition, testing was found to be Appropriate or May Be Appropriate for patients within 90 days of an abnormal or uncertain prior result. Pre-operative testing was rated Appropriate or May Be Appropriate only for patientswho had poor functional capacity and were undergoing vascular or intermediate risk surgery with 1 or more clinical risk factors or an organ transplant. The exercise ECGwas suggested as an Appropriate test for cardiac rehabilitation clearance or for exercise prescription purposes. Testing in asymptomatic patients was generally found to be Rarely Appropriate, except for calcium scoring and exercise testing in intermediate and high-risk individuals and either stress or anatomic imaging in higher-risk individuals, which were all rated as May Be Appropriate. All modalities of follow-up testing after a prior test or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) within 2 years and within 5 years after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) in the absence of new symptoms were rated Rarely Appropriate. Pre-operative testing for patients with good functional capacity, prior normal testing within 1 year, or prior to low-risk surgery also were found to be Rarely Appropriate. Imaging for an exercise prescription or prior to the initiation of cardiac rehabilitation was Rarely Appropriate except for cardiac rehabilitation clearance for heart failure patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exercise duration during exercise treadmill testing (ETT) predicts long-term outcome among asymptomatic patients with mitral regurgitation. However, the prognostic value of preoperative exercise duration in patients who undergo mitral valve surgery is unknown. We examined findings among 45 prospectively followed (average 9.2 ± 4.3 years) patients (aged 54.8 ± 12.0 years, 45% men) with chronic isolated severe MR who underwent ETT before mitral valve surgery to test the hypotheses that exercise duration predicts long-term postoperative survival and persistent symptoms within 2 years after operation. During follow-up, 11 patients died; of these, 8 had persistent symptoms. Among patients who exercised >7 minutes, average annual postoperative all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risks were 0.75% (both endpoints) versus 5.4% and 4.8%, respectively, versus those who exercised ≤7 minutes (p = 0.003 all-cause, p = 0.007 cardiovascular). Exercise duration predicted postoperative deaths (p <.02 all cause, p <.04 cardiovascular) even when analysis was adjusted for preoperative variations in age, gender, medications, history of atrial fibrillation, and peak exercise heart rates. Other ETT, echocardiographic, and clinical variables were not independently associated with these outcomes when exercise duration was considered in the analysis. Preoperative exercise duration also predicted postoperative (New York Heart Association functional class ≥II) symptom persistence (p = 0.012), whereas other ETT, echocardiographic and clinical variables did not (NS, all). In conclusion, among patients who undergo surgery for chronic nonischemic mitral regurgitation, preoperative exercise duration, unlike many commonly used descriptors, is useful for predicting postoperative mortality and symptom persistence. Future research should determine whether interventions to improve exercise tolerance before mitral valve surgery can modify these postoperative outcomes.
No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · The American journal of cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (VT), frequent in unoperated severe mitral regurgitation (MR), confers mortality risk [sudden death (SD) and cardiac death (CD)]. The prognostic value of VT after mitral valve surgery (MVS) is unknown; we aimed to define this prognostic value and to assess its modulation by left (LV) and/or right (RV) ventricular ejection fraction (EF) for mortality after MVS.
In 57 patients (53% females, aged 58 ± 12 years) with severe MR prospectively followed before and after MVS, we performed 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiograms approximately annually. LVEF and RVEF were determined within 1 year after MVS by radionuclide cineangiography.
During 9.52 ± 3.49 endpoint-free follow-up years, late postoperative CD occurred in 11 patients (7 SD, 4 heart failures). In univariable analysis, >1 VT episode after MVS predicted SD (p < 0.01) and CD (SD or heart failure; p < 0.04). Subnormal postoperative RVEF predicted CD (p < 0.04). When adjusted for preoperative age, gender, etiology or antiarrhythmics, both postoperative VT and RVEF predicted CD (p ≤ 0.05). When postoperative VT and RVEF were both in the multivariable model, only subnormal RVEF predicted CD (p < 0.04). Among those with normal RVEF, VT >1 episode predicted SD (p = 0.03).
Postoperative VT and subnormal RVEF predict late postoperative deaths in nonischemic MR. Their assessment may aid patient management.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Cardiac Safety Research Consortium (CSRC) ECG database was initiated to foster research using anonymized, XML-formatted, digitized ECGs with corresponding descriptive variables from placebo- and positive-control arms of thorough QT studies submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) by pharmaceutical sponsors. The database can be expanded to other data that are submitted directly to CSRC from other sources, and currently includes digitized ECGs from patients with genotyped varieties of congenital long-QT syndrome; this congenital long-QT database is also linked to ambulatory electrocardiograms stored in the Telemetric and Holter ECG Warehouse (THEW). Thorough QT data sets are available from CSRC for unblinded development of algorithms for analysis of repolarization and for blinded comparative testing of algorithms developed for the identification of moxifloxacin, as used as a positive control in thorough QT studies. Policies and procedures for access to these data sets are available from CSRC, which has developed tools for statistical analysis of blinded new algorithm performance. A recently approved CSRC project will create a data set for blinded analysis of automated ECG interval measurements, whose initial focus will include comparison of four of the major manufacturers of automated electrocardiographs in the United States. CSRC welcomes application for use of the ECG database for clinical investigation.
No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Journal of Electrocardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we consider the proposition that the criteria for the electrocardiographic (ECG) diagnosis of left bundle-branch block (LBBB) be revised, a proposition born from analysis of results of cardiac resynchronization therapy trials. The various ECG definitions for LBBB (or lack thereof) used in these trials are reviewed as are the results of the analysis of ECGs from patients with left ventricular conduction disturbances by Grant and Dodge (Am J Med. 1956;20:834-852) and the criteria for the ECG diagnosis of LBBB recommended by the World Health Organization and the International Society and Federation for Cardiology in 1985. These criteria stress that the QRS complex be notched or slurred, that the initial portion of the QRS complex (the "septal Q waves") be absent, and that the QRS duration be at least 120 milliseconds in duration. This is in contrast to the recent suggestion that the QRS complex has a minimum duration of 130 to 140 milliseconds. We conclude that the criteria for the ECG diagnosis of LBBB should be standardized to that recommended by the World Health Organization and International Society and Federation for Cardiology with retention of the minimum duration of 120 milliseconds and that the QRS prolongation should be not be gradual. However, we also conclude that in patients with LBBB being considered for cardiac resynchronization therapy, the duration of the QRS complex should be at least 130 milliseconds.
No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Journal of electrocardiology