J V Forrester

University of Western Australia, Perth City, Western Australia, Australia

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Publications (385)1354.1 Total impact

  • No preview · Chapter · Jan 2016

  • No preview · Chapter · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: We previously have reported that application of the intracellular toll-like receptor (TLR)-9 ligand CpG-ODN onto the injured corneal surface induces widespread inflammation within the eye, including the retina. We tested the hypothesis that topical application of two other intracellular TLR agonists, Poly I:C and R848, would cause retinal microglial activation and migration into the subretinal space. Methods: C57BL/6J wild-type and Cx3cr1gfp/+ mice were anesthetized and received central corneal abrasions followed by topical application of Poly I:C (TLR3 agonist), R848 (TLR7/8 agonist), or CpG-ODN (TLR9 agonist). Eyes were imaged in vivo by using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography to assess and quantify vitreous cells and retinal edema. Tissues were processed for whole-mount immunofluorescence staining or gene expression studies. Microglial activation was determined by morphologic changes, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II reactivity, and migration to the subretinal space. Expression of proinflammatory cytokine gene IL-6, IL-1β, IFN-γ, and MCP-1 in retinal tissues were analyzed. Results: At 24 hours, topical treatment with CpG-ODN and R848, but not Poly I:C, led to altered microglial morphology. One week after CpG-ODN and R848-treatment, eyes exhibited vitritis and mild inner retinal edema, increased number of subretinal Iba-1+ cells, and an increase in MHC II+ cells in the neural retina. Proinflammatory cytokine genes were upregulated after R848 treatment, whereas in the CpG-ODN group, only IL-1β and MCP-1 were significantly upregulated. Retinal microglial activation was not observed in the Poly I:C-treated group. Conclusions: Topical application of CpG-ODN and R848, but not Poly I:C, to the damaged corneal surface can cause activation and migration of retinal microglia.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Autoimmune uveitis is a leading cause of visual impairment in developed countries in patients of working age. Animal models of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) have been established to serve as a useful template for novel therapeutic approaches. Methods: Experimental autoimmune uveitis is induced in C57BL/6 mice by subcutaneous application of interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein in complete Freund's adjuvant and pertussis toxin. Clinical and histological grading is used to assess the inflammation intensity of EAU. Results: The protocol of induction of EAU in mice hides several important aspects, which are crucial for developing the disease. These details have to be addressed to ensure reproducible disease induction. We describe our experience in establishing the model by pointing out the critical steps in EAU protocol which we found important. Conclusion: The mouse model of EAU has practical value for preclinical studies, is robust and well established. However, the induction of inflammation of the eye can be quite challenging when important details of the protocol are not recognized and adhered to.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Biomedical papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacky, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
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    ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease and results from the loss of dopaminergic neurons of the nigrostriatal pathway. The pathogenesis of PD is poorly understood, but inflammatory processes have been implicated. Indeed increases in the number of major histocompatibility complex II (MHC II) reactive cells have long been recognised in the brains of PD patients at post-mortem. However whether cells expressing MHC II play an active role in PD pathogenesis has not been delineated. This was addressed utilising a transgenic mouse null for MHC II and the parkinsonian toxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). In wild-type mice MHC II levels in the ventral midbrain were upregulated 1-2 days after MPTP treatment and MHC II was localized in both astrocytes and microglia. MHC II null mice showed significant reductions in MPTP-induced dopaminergic neuron loss and a significantly reduced invasion of astrocytes and microglia in MHC II null mice receiving MPTP compared with controls. In addition, MHC II null mice failed to show increases in interferon-γ or tumour necrosis factor-α in the brain after MPTP treatment, as was found in wild-type mice. However, interleukin-1β was significantly increased in both wild-type and MHC II null mice. These data indicate that in addition to microglial cell/myeloid cell activation MHC Class II-mediated T cell activation is required for the full expression of pathology in this model of PD. GLIA 2015.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Glia
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    Lucia Kuffova · John V Forrester · Andrew Dick

    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · BMJ (online)
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    ABSTRACT: Mycobacteria in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) are an essential component of immunization protocols in a number of autoimmune disease animal models including experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and uveoretinitis (EAE and EAU, respectively). We determined the role in EAU of two C-type lectin receptors on myeloid cells that recognize and respond to mycobacteria. Using receptor-specific antibodies and knockout mice, we demonstrated for the first time that the macrophage mannose receptor delays disease development but does not affect severity. In contrast, dectin-1 is critically involved in the development of CFA-mediated EAU. Disease severity is reduced in dectin-1 knockout mice and antibody blockade of dectin-1 during the induction, but not the effector phase, prevents EAU development. Significantly, similar blockade of dectin-1 in vivo has no effect in non-CFA-mediated, spontaneously induced or adoptive transfer models of EAU. Thus dectin-1 plays a critical role in the ability of complete Freund's adjuvant to induce EAU in mice. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Molecular Immunology
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    Dataset: mjv032supp

    Full-text · Dataset · Jul 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DC) are the major antigen-presenting cells bridging innate and adaptive immunity, a function they perform by converting quiescent DC to active, mature DC with the capacity to activate naïve T cells. They do this by migrating from the tissues to the T cell area of the secondary lymphoid tissues. Here, we demonstrate that myeloid cell-specific genetic deletion of PTP1B (LysM PTP1B) leads to defects in lipopolysaccharide-driven bone marrow-derived DC (BMDC) activation associated with increased levels of phosphorylated Stat3. We show that myeloid cell-specific PTP1B deletion also causes decreased migratory capacity of epidermal DC, as well as reduced CCR7 expression and chemotaxis to CCL19 by BMDC. PTP1B deficiency in BMDC also impairs their migration in vivo. Further, immature LysM PTP1B BMDC display fewer podosomes, increased levels of phosphorylated Src at tyrosine 527, and loss of Src localization to podosome puncta. In co-culture with T cells, LysM PTP1B BMDC establish fewer and shorter contacts than control BMDC. Finally, LysM PTP1B BMDC fail to present antigen to T cells as efficiently as control BMDC. These data provide first evidence for a key regulatory role for PTP1B in mediating a central DC function of initiating adaptive immune responses in response to innate immune cell activation.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
  • Izabela P Klaska · John V Forrester
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    ABSTRACT: Uveitis is a sight threatening intraocular inflammation accounting for approximately 10% of blindness worldwide. On the basis of aetiology, disease can be classified as infectious or non-infectious; and by anatomical localization of inflammation as anterior, posterior and panuveitis. Non-infectious uveitis is believed to be autoimmune in nature with Th1 and Th17 cells being identified as the prominent effector cell types. Numerous animal models of autoimmune uveitis were developed contributing to our understanding of this inflammatory condition. The classical peptide-induced experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) model resembles human posterior uveitis due to the recurrent/relapsing nature of the disease; while the intraocular inflammation triggered by administration of bacterial lipopolisaccharide (endotoxin-induced uveitis, EIU) mimics closely anterior uveitis. The clinical need for novel, more targeted forms of anti-inflammatory therapy has emerged as currently available therapeutic strategies are associated with a number of adverse effects and intolerance in patients. This review summarises knowledge about existing mouse models of uveitis, discusses mechanisms driving intraocular inflammation and describes possible customised translational treatment strategies that can be potentially used in the clinic to prevent blindness in patients.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Post Communist Economies
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    ABSTRACT: Background Experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) is a widely used experimental animal model of human endogenous posterior uveoretinitis. In the present study, we performed in vivo imaging of the retina in transgenic reporter mice to investigate dynamic changes in exogenous inflammatory cells and endogenous immune cells during the disease process.Methods Transgenic mice (C57Bl/6 J Cx 3 cr1 GFP/+ , C57Bl/6 N CD11c-eYFP, and C57Bl/6 J LysM-eGFP) were used to visualize the dynamic changes of myeloid-derived cells, putative dendritic cells and neutrophils during EAU. Transgenic mice were monitored with multi-modal fundus imaging camera over five time points following disease induction with the retinal auto-antigen, interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein (IRBP1¿20). Disease severity was quantified with both clinical and histopathological grading.ResultsIn the normal C57Bl/6 J Cx 3 cr1 GFP/+ mouse Cx3cr1-expressing microglia were evenly distributed in the retina. In C57Bl/6 N CD11c-eYFP mice clusters of CD11c-expressing cells were noted in the retina and in C57Bl/6 J LysM-eGFP mice very low numbers of LysM-expressing neutrophils were observed in the fundus. Following immunization with IRBP1¿20, fundus examination revealed accumulations of Cx3cr1-GFP+ myeloid cells, CD11c-eYFP+ cells and LysM-eGFP+ myelomonocytic cells around the optic nerve head and along retinal vessels as early as day 14 post-immunization. CD11c-eYFP+ cells appear to resolve marginally earlier (day 21 post-immunization) than Cx3cr1-GFP+ and LysM-eGFP+ cells. The clinical grading of EAU in transgenic mice correlated closely with histopathological grading.Conclusions These results illustrate that in vivo fundus imaging of transgenic reporter mice allows direct visualization of various exogenously and endogenously derived leukocyte types during EAU progression. This approach acts as a valuable adjunct to other methods of studying the clinical course of EAU.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Journal of Neuroinflammation
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Chlamydia trachomatis is a sexually transmitted obligate intracellular pathogen that causes inflammatory reactive arthritis, spondylitis, psoriasiform dermatitis, and conjunctivitis in some individuals after genital infection. The immunologic basis for this inflammatory response in susceptible hosts is poorly understood. As ZAP-70(W163C) -mutant BALB/c (SKG) mice are susceptible to spondylo-arthritis after systemic exposure to microbial β-glucan, we undertook the present study to compare responses to infection with Chlamydia muridarum in SKG mice and BALB/c mice. Methods: After genital or respiratory infection with C muridarum, conjunctivitis and arthritis were assessed clinically, and eye, skin, and joint specimens were analyzed histologically. Chlamydial major outer membrane protein antigen-specific responses were assessed in splenocytes. Treg cells were depleted from FoxP3-DTR BALB/c or SKG mice, and chlamydial DNA was quantified by polymerase chain reaction. Results: Five weeks after vaginal infection with live C muridarum, arthritis, spondylitis, and psoriasiform dermatitis developed in female SKG mice, but not in BALB/c mice. Inflammatory bowel disease did not occur in mice of either strain. The severity of inflammatory disease was correlated with C muridarum inoculum size and vaginal burden postinoculation. Treatment with combination antibiotics starting 1 day postinoculation prevented disease. Chlamydial antigen was present in macrophages and spread from the infection site to lymphoid organs and peripheral tissue. In response to chlamydial antigen, production of interferon-γ and interleukin-17 was impaired in T cells from SKG mice but tumor necrosis factor (TNF) responses were exaggerated, compared to findings in T cells from BALB/c mice. Unlike previous observations in arthritis triggered by β-glucan, no autoantibodies developed. Accelerated disease triggered by depletion of Treg cells was TNF dependent. Conclusion: In the susceptible SKG strain, Chlamydia-induced reactive arthritis develops as a result of deficient intracellular pathogen control, with antigen-specific TNF production upon dissemination of antigen, and TNF-dependent inflammatory disease.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Arthritis and Rheumatology
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    ABSTRACT: Macrophage adherence to the inner corneal surface and formation of MGCs in the stroma are common signs of chronic inflammation following corneal infection. To determine whether macrophage adherence (known clinically as KPs) and giant cell formation were specific to innate immune activation via particular TLR ligands, macrophage activation was examined in a murine model of TLR-mediated corneal inflammation. The corneal epithelium was debrided and highly purified TLR ligands were topically applied once to the cornea of TLR7(-/-), TLR9(-/-), Cx3cr1(gfp/+), CD11c(eYFP), and IL-4(-/-) mice. At 1 week post-treatment macrophage activation and phenotype was evaluated in the cornea. Treatment with TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, and TLR5 ligands caused an increase in the number of activated stromal macrophages in the central cornea at 1 week post-treatment. However, treatment with TLR9 ligand CpG-ODN and the TLR7/8 ligand R848/Resiquimod led to an accumulation of macrophages on the corneal endothelium and formation of multinucleated giant macrophages in the corneal stroma. We suggest that giant cell formation, which is a characteristic feature of granuloma formation in many tissues, may be a unique feature of TLR9- and TLR7/8-mediated macrophage activation. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of Leukocyte Biology
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    ABSTRACT: Corneal graft rejection is primarily a CD4(+) T cell-mediated mechanism in which macrophages may play an important inflammatory role. CD200Fc fusion protein is an artificial agonist of CD200R1, a receptor expressed predominantly on myeloid cells, engagement of which is known to down-regulate macrophage function. We therefore wished to test whether CD200Fc could be used as a therapeutic agent to prolong corneal graft survival. The distribution of CD200R1 and CD200, its natural ligand, was examined by immunohistology in the cornea and conjunctiva of unoperated rats and rats that had received corneal allografts. Mouse CD200Fc was injected subconjunctivally into transplanted rats on six occasions from the day of surgery until day 10 after transplantation. Control groups received injections of mouse IgG or diluent PBS. Allo-transplants were also performed in CD200(-/-) and control mice. The ability of CD200Fc to bind rat macrophages in vitro and to inhibit nitric oxide production was tested. Mean day of rejection in CD200Fc, IgG and PBS-treated rats was 12, 10 and 9 respectively (p=0.24). Mean day of rejection in CD200(-/-) and wild type mice was 17.5 and 16.0 respectively (p=0.07). Mouse CD200Fc bound to rat macrophages in a dose-dependent manner, but was unable to inhibit nitric oxide production. The fact that treatment with CD200Fc did not inhibit graft rejection and the failure of CD200 deficiency to affect graft survival suggests that local targeting of the CD200-CD200R axis to suppress macrophage activation is not a useful therapeutic strategy in corneal graft rejection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Experimental Eye Research
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin (IL)-33 is associated with several important immune-mediated disorders. However, its role in uveitis, an important eye inflammatory disease, is unknown. Here we investigated the function of IL-33 in the development of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). IL-33 and IL-33 receptor (ST2) were expressed in murine retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in culture, and IL-33 increased the expression of Il33 and Mcp1 mRNA in RPE cells. In situ, IL-33 was highly expressed in the inner nuclear cells of the retina of naïve mice, and its expression was elevated in EAU mice. ST2-deficient mice developed exacerbated EAU compared with WT mice, and administration of IL-33 to WT mice significantly reduced EAU severity. The attenuated EAU in IL-33-treated mice was accompanied by decreased frequency of IFN-γ+ and IL-17+ CD4+ T cells and reduced IFN-γ and IL-17 production but with increased frequency of IL-5+ and IL-4+ CD4 T cells and IL-5 production in the draining lymph node and spleen. Macrophages from the IL-33-treated mice show a significantly higher polarization towards an alternatively-activated macrophage (M2) phenotype. Our results therefore demonstrate that the endogenous IL-33/ST2 pathway plays an important role in EAU, and suggest that IL-33 represents a potential option for treatment of uveitis.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · European Journal of Immunology
  • Kurt Spiteri Cornish · Lucia Kuffova · John V Forrester
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    ABSTRACT: Diffuse subretinal fibrosis uveitis (DUS) syndrome is a rare form of granulomatous multifocal choroiditis (MFC) characterised by enlarging areas of subretinal fibrosis (SRF) which coalesce with subsequent macular involvement and visual loss. First described by Palestine, DUS carries a poor visual prognosis despite use of high-dose corticosteroids and systemic immunosuppression. We report two cases of bilateral DUS successfully treated with rituximab. We believe given the B-cell predominance in the underlying pathogenesis of the disease, rituximab should be considered first line in the management of this potentially devastating disease.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · British Journal of Ophthalmology
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To evaluate the potential utility of collagen-based corneal implants with anti-Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)-1 activity achieved through sustained release of LL-37, from incorporated nanoparticles, as compared with cell-based delivery from model human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) transfected to produce endogenous LL-37. Methods: We tested the ability of collagen-phosphorylcholine implants to tolerate the adverse microenvironment of herpetic murine corneas. Then, we investigated the efficacy of LL-37 peptides delivered through nanoparticles incorporated within the corneal implants to block HSV-1 viral activity. In addition, LL-37 complementary DNA (cDNA) was transferred into HCECs to confer viral resistance, and their response to HSV-1 infection was examined. Results: Our implants remained in herpetic murine corneas 7 days longer than allografts. LL-37 released from the implants blocked HSV-1 infection of HCECs by interfering with viral binding. However, in pre-infected HCECs, LL-37 delayed but could not prevent viral spreading nor clear viruses from the infected cells. HCECs transfected with the LL-37 expressed and secreted the peptide. Secreted LL-37 inhibited viral binding in vitro but was insufficient to protect cells completely from HSV-1 infection. Nevertheless, secreted LL-37 reduced both the incidence of plaque formation and plaque size. Conclusion: LL-37 released from composite nanoparticle-hydrogel corneal implants and HCEC-produced peptide, both showed anti-HSV-1 activity by blocking binding. However, while both slowed down virus spread, neither was able on its own to completely inhibit the viruses. Translational relevance: LL-37 releasing hydrogels may have potential utility as corneal substitutes for grafting in HSV-1 infected corneas, possibly in combination with LL-37 producing therapeutic cells.
    No preview · Article · May 2014
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    Full-text · Dataset · Mar 2014
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    Zexu Dang · Lucia Kuffová · Lei Liu · John V Forrester
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    ABSTRACT: The transport of antigen to the secondary lymphoid tissue is a central component in the initiation of the adaptive immune response. The mechanism of antigen delivery to the DLN from the avascular cornea has not been fully explored. Previous studies in the mouse have shown that cell-associated corneal antigen is delivered within 6 h to the eye draining SM DLN via DCs and macrophages. In this study, we used a system in which antigen and the processed p-MHCII complexes derived from the antigen could be tracked in vivo. We report that soluble antigen applied to an abraded cornea in the mouse is transported rapidly (within 30 min) to the SM DLN, where a proportion is taken up by resident DCs and presented as p-MHCII complexes, while the larger part is cleared by 8 h. At a later time, a second wave of antigen transport in migratory DCs enters the DLN and participates in further continued antigen presentation. With the use of an antigen-specific TCR transgenic mouse system, we demonstrate that T cell activation does not occur during the early stages of soluble antigen delivery to LN, even though p-MHCII complexes are generated. Antigen-specific T cell activation occurs in the later, presumed cell-associated phase but requires codelivery of a "danger" signal, such as the TLR ligand CpG. We suggest that the early delivery of soluble antigen is more likely to induce T cell nonresponsiveness (anergy) unless presented in the context of an innate-immune cell activation (danger) signal.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Journal of leukocyte biology
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    ABSTRACT: Protein-tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B) negatively regulates insulin and leptin signalling, rendering it an attractive drug target for treatment of obesity-induced insulin resistance. However, some studies suggest caution when targeting macrophage-PTP1B, due to its potential anti-inflammatory role. We assessed the role of macrophage-PTP1B in inflammation and whole body metabolism using myeloid-cell (LysM)-PTP1B-knockout mice (LysM-PTP1B). LysM-PTP1B mice were protected against LPS-induced endotoxemia and hepatic damage, associated with decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in vivo. In vitro, LPS-treated LysM-PTP1B bone-marrow-derived-macrophages (BMDMs) displayed increased IL10 mRNA expression, with a concomitant decrease in TNFα mRNA levels. These anti-inflammatory effects were associated with increased LPS- and IL10-induced STAT3 phosphorylation in LysM-PTP1B BMDMs. Chronic inflammation induced by high-fat (HF)-feeding led to equally beneficial effects of macrophage-PTP1B deficiency; LysM-PTP1B mice exhibited improved glucose- and insulin tolerance, protection against LPS-induced hyperinsulinemia, decreased macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue and decreased liver damage. HF-fed LysM-PTP1B mice had increased basal and LPS-induced IL10 levels, associated with elevated splenic STAT3 phosphorylation, IL10 mRNA expression, and expansion of cells expressing myeloid markers. These increased IL10 levels negatively correlated with circulating insulin and ALT levels. Our studies implicate myeloid-PTP1B in negative regulation of STAT3/IL10-mediated signalling, highlighting its inhibition as a potential anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic target in obesity.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Diabetes

Publication Stats

12k Citations
1,354.10 Total Impact Points


  • 1992-2015
    • University of Western Australia
      • • School of Anatomy, Physiology and Human Biology
      • • Lions Eye Institute
      Perth City, Western Australia, Australia
  • 1985-2015
    • University of Aberdeen
      • • Division of Applied Medicine
      • • Institute of Medical Sciences
      • • Aberdeen Royal Infirmary
      • • School of Engineering
      Aberdeen, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 2008
    • Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin
      • Department of Ophthalmology
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany
  • 2006
    • Universität Regensburg
      Ratisbon, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2001-2003
    • University of Bristol
      Bristol, England, United Kingdom
    • Charles University in Prague
      Praha, Praha, Czech Republic
  • 2002
    • VU University Amsterdam
      • Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Immunology
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 1981-1988
    • University of Glasgow
      • Division of Biochemistry
      Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom