Sandya Liyanarachchi

The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States

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Publications (77)628.97 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Skeletal muscle growth immediately following birth is critical for proper body posture and locomotion. However, compared with embryogenesis and adulthood, the processes regulating the maturation of neonatal muscles is considerably less clear. Studies in the 1960s predicted that neonatal muscle growth results from nuclear accretion of myoblasts preferentially at the tips of myofibers. Remarkably, little information has been added since then to resolve how myoblasts migrate to the ends of fibers. Here, we provide insight into this process by revealing a unique NF-κB-dependent communication between NG2+ interstitial cells and myoblasts. NF-κB in NG2+ cells promotes myoblast migration to the tips of myofibers through cell-cell contact. This occurs through expression of ephrinA5 from NG2+ cells, which we further deduce is an NF-κB target gene. Together, these results suggest that NF-κB plays an important role in the development of newborn muscles to ensure proper myoblast migration for fiber growth.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Developmental Cell
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    ABSTRACT: The main nonmedullary form of thyroid cancer is papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) that accounts for 80-90% of all thyroid malignancies. Only 3-10% of PTC patients have a positive family history of PTC yet the familiality is one of the highest of all cancers as measured by case control studies. A handful of genes have been implicated accounting for a small fraction of this genetic predisposition. It was therefore of considerable interest that a mutation in the HABP2 gene was recently implicated in familial PTC. The present work was undertaken to examine the extent of HABP2 variant involvement in PTC. The HABP2 G534E variant (rs7080536) was genotyped in blood DNA from 179 PTC families (one affected individual per family), 1160 sporadic PTC cases and 1395 controls. RNA expression of HABP2 was tested by qPCR in RNA extracted from tumor and normal thyroid tissue from individuals that are homozygous wild-type or heterozygous for the variant. The variant was found to be present in 6.1% familial cases, 8.0% sporadic cases (2 individuals were homozygous for the variant) and 8.7% controls. The variant did not segregate with PTC in one large and 6 smaller families in which it occurred. In keeping with data from the literature and databases the expression of HABP2 was highest in the liver, much lower in 3 other tested tissues (breast, kidney, brain) but not found in thyroid. Given these results showing lack of any involvement we suggest that the putative role of variant HABP2 in PTC should be carefully scrutinized.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Background Traditionally, the CD56dimCD16+ subset of Natural Killer (NK) cells has been thought to mediate cellular cytotoxicity with modest cytokine secretion capacity. However, studies have suggested that this subset may exert a more diverse array of immunological functions. There exists a lack of well-developed functional models to describe the behavior of activated NK cells, and the interactions between signaling pathways that facilitate effector functions are not well understood. In the present study, a combination of genome-wide microarray analyses and systems-level bioinformatics approaches were utilized to elucidate the transcriptional landscape of NK cells activated via interactions with antibody-coated targets in the presence of interleukin-12 (IL-12). Methods We conducted differential gene expression analysis of CD56dimCD16+ NK cells following FcR stimulation in the presence or absence of IL-12. Next, we functionally characterized gene sets according to patterns of gene expression and validated representative genes using RT-PCR. IPA was utilized for biological pathway analysis, and an enriched network of interacting genes was generated using GeneMANIA. Furthermore, PAJEK and the HITS algorithm were employed to identify important genes in the network according to betweeness centrality, hub, and authority node metrics. Results Analyses revealed that CD56dimCD16+ NK cells co-stimulated via the Fc receptor (FcR) and IL-12R led to the expression of a unique set of genes, including genes encoding cytotoxicity receptors, apoptotic proteins, intracellular signaling molecules, and cytokines that may mediate enhanced cytotoxicity and interactions with other immune cells within inflammatory tissues. Network analyses identified a novel set of connected key players, BATF, IRF4, TBX21, and IFNG, within an integrated network composed of differentially expressed genes in NK cells stimulated by various conditions (immobilized IgG, IL-12, or the combination of IgG and IL-12). Conclusions These results are the first to address the global mechanisms by which NK cells mediate their biological functions when encountering antibody-coated targets within inflammatory sites. Moreover, this study has identified a set of high-priority targets for subsequent investigation into strategies to combat cancer by enhancing the anti-tumor activity of CD56dimCD16+ NK cells.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · BMC Medical Genomics
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    ABSTRACT: The B-Raf proto-oncogene serine/threonine kinase (BRAF) gene is the most frequently mutated gene in malignant melanoma (MM) and papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and is causally involved in malignant cell transformation. Mutated BRAF is associated with an aggressive disease phenotype, thus making it a top candidate for targeted treatment strategies in MM and PTC. We show that BRAF mutations in both MM and PTC drive increased expression of oncomiR-3151, which is coactivated by the SP1/NF-κB complex. Knockdown of microRNA-3151 (miR-3151) with short hairpin RNAs reduces cell proliferation and increases apoptosis of MM and PTC cells. Using a targeted RNA sequencing approach, we mechanistically determined that miR-3151 directly targets TP53 and other members of the TP53 pathway. Reducing miR-3151's abundance increases TP53's mRNA and protein expression and favors its nuclear localization. Consequently, knockdown of miR-3151 also leads to caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. Simultaneous inhibition of aberrantly activated BRAF and knockdown of miR-3151 potentiates the effects of sole BRAF inhibition with the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib and may provide a novel targeted therapeutic approach in BRAF-mutated MM and PTC patients. In conclusion, we identify miR-3151 as a previously unidentified player in MM and PTC pathogenesis, which is driven by BRAF-dependent and BRAF-independent mechanisms. Characterization of TP53 as a downstream effector of miR-3151 provides evidence for a causal link between BRAF mutations and TP53 inactivation.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: We previously showed that a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) gene (PTCSC3) located close to the variant rs944289 that predisposes to papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) might target the S100A4 gene. The aim was to investigate the impact of PTCSC3 on S100A4 expression and its role in cancer development. S100A4 abundance was analyzed by qPCR in unaffected and tumor tissue from n=73 PTC patients. The expression of PTCSC3 and S100A4 was studied in BCPAP and TPC-1 cell lines with forced expression of PTCSC3 by quantitative PCR (qPCR). Expression of S100A4 target genes (VEGF and MMP-9) was studied in the BCPAP cell lines with forced expression of PTCSC3 by qPCR, reverse transcriptase PCR and Western blot. The impact of PTCSC3 on BCPAP motility and invasiveness was analyzed by the Transwell and Matrigel assays, respectively. This was a laboratory-based study using cells from clinical samples and thyroid cancer cell lines. Evidence for a link between the expression of PTCSC3 and thyroid carcinogenesis. Expression data from PTC cell lines pinpointed S100A4 as the most significantly downregulated gene in the presence of PTCSC3. S100A4 was upregulated in tumor tissue (p=9.33x10(-7)) while PTCSC3 was strongly downregulated (p=2.2x10(-16)). S100A4 transcription was moderately correlated with PTCSC3 expression in unaffected thyroid tissue (r=0.429, p=0.0001), and strongly in unaffected tissue of patients with the risk allele of rs944289 (r=0.685, p=7.88x10(-5)). S100A4, VEGF and MMP-9 were suppressed in the presence of PTCSC3 (p=0.0051, p=0.0090 and p=0.0037, respectively). PTC cells expressing PTCSC3 showed reduction in motility and invasiveness (p=4.52x10(-5) and p=1.0x10(-4), respectively). PTCSC3 downregulates S100A4 leading to a reduction in cell motility and invasiveness. We propose that PTCSC3 impacts PTC predisposition and carcinogenesis through the S100A4 pathway.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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    ABSTRACT: Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) displays strong but so far largely uncharacterized heritability. Here we studied genetic predisposition in a family with six affected individuals. We genotyped all available family members and conducted whole exome sequencing of blood DNA from two affected individuals. Haplotype analysis and other genetic criteria narrowed our list of candidates to a germline variant in the serine/arginine repetitive matrix 2 gene (SRRM2). This heterozygous variant, c.1037C > T (Ser346Phe or S346F; rs149019598) cosegregated with PTC in the family. It was not found in 138 other PTC families. It was found in 7/1,170 sporadic PTC cases and in 0/1,404 controls (p = 0.004). The encoded protein SRRM2 (also called SRm300) is part of the RNA splicing machinery. To evaluate the possibility that the S346F missense mutation affects alternative splicing, we compared RNA-Seq data in leukocytes from three mutation carriers and three controls. Significant differences in alternative splicing were identified for 1,642 exons, of which a subset of 7 exons was verified experimentally. The results confirmed a higher ratio of inclusion of exons in mutation carriers. These data suggest that the S346F mutation in SRRM2 predisposes to PTC by affecting alternative splicing of unidentified downstream target genes.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Scientific Reports
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    ABSTRACT: The [A] allele of SNP rs965513 in 9q22 has been consistently shown to be highly associated with increased papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) risk with an odds ratio of ∼1.8 as determined by genome-wide association studies, yet the molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Previously, we noted that the expression of two genes in the region, forkhead box E1 (FOXE1) and PTC susceptibility candidate 2 (PTCSC2), is regulated by rs965513 in unaffected thyroid tissue, but the underlying mechanisms were not elucidated. Here, we fine-mapped the 9q22 region in PTC and controls and detected an ∼33-kb linkage disequilibrium block (containing the lead SNP rs965513) that significantly associates with PTC risk. Chromatin characteristics and regulatory element signatures in this block disclosed at least three regulatory elements functioning as enhancers. These enhancers harbor at least four SNPs (rs7864322, rs12352658, rs7847449, and rs10759944) that serve as functional variants. The variant genotypes are associated with differential enhancer activities and/or transcription factor binding activities. Using the chromosome conformation capture methodology, long-range looping interactions of these elements with the promoter region shared by FOXE1 and PTCSC2 in a human papillary thyroid carcinoma cell line (KTC-1) and unaffected thyroid tissue were found. Our results suggest that multiple variants coinherited with the lead SNP and located in long-range enhancers are involved in the transcriptional regulation of FOXE1 and PTCSC2 expression. These results explain the mechanism by which the risk allele of rs965513 predisposes to thyroid cancer.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Context: By genome-wide association studies (GWAS) the risk allele [A] of SNP rs965513 predisposes strongly to papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). It is located in a gene-poor region of 9q22 some 60kb from the FOXE1 gene. The underlying mechanisms remain to be discovered. Objective: Our objective was to identify novel transcripts in the 9q22 locus and correlate gene expression levels with the genotypes of rs965513. Design: We performed 3' and 5' RACE and RT-PCR to detect novel transcripts. One novel transcript was forcibly expressed in a cell line followed by gene expression array analysis. We genotyped rs965513 from PTC patients and measured gene expression levels by real time RT-PCR in unaffected thyroid tissue and matched tumor. Setting: This was a laboratory-based study using cells from clinical tissue samples and a cancer cell line. Main Outcome Measures: We detected previously uncharacterized transcripts and evaluated the gene expression levels and the correlation with the risk allele of rs965513, age, gender, chronic lymphocyte thyroiditis (CLT), and TSH levels. Results: We found a novel long intergenic noncoding RNA (lincRNA) gene and named it papillary thyroid cancer susceptibility candidate 2 (PTCSC2). Transcripts of PTCSC2 are downregulated in PTC tumors. The risk allele [A] of rs965513 was significantly associated with low expression of unspliced PTCSC2, FOXE1 and TSHR in unaffected thyroid tissue. We also observed a significant association of age and CLT with PTCSC2 unspliced transcript levels. The correlation between the rs965513 genotype and the PTCSC2 unspliced transcript levels remained significant after adjusting for age, gender, and CLT. Forced expression of PTCSC2 in the BCPAP cell line affected the expression of a subset of non-coding and coding transcripts with enrichment of genes functionally involved in cell cycle and cancer. Conclusions: Our data suggest a role for PTCSC2, FOXE1, and TSHR in the predisposition to PTC.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism

  • No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Cancer Research

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma and Leukemia
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    ABSTRACT: Neuroblastoma rat sarcoma (RAS) viral oncogene homolog (NRAS), a small GTPase, is one of the most thoroughly studied oncogenes that controls cell growth, differentiation, and survival by facilitating signal transduction. Here, we identify four novel naturally occurring NRAS isoforms (isoforms 2-5) in addition to the canonical isoform (isoform 1). Expression analyses performed on a panel of several different human malignancies and matching normal tissue revealed distinct isoform expression patterns. Two of the novel isoforms were found in the nucleus and cytoplasm, whereas the others were exclusively cytoplasmic. The isoforms varied in their binding affinities to known downstream targets and differentially regulated the RAS signaling pathway. Strikingly, forced expression of isoform 5, which encodes only a 20-aa peptide, led to increased cell proliferation and to transformation by activation of known NRAS targets. These discoveries open new avenues in the study of NRAS.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Individuals with thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAbs) have an increased risk of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD), which are common in the general population and associated with increased cardiovascular, metabolic and psychiatric morbidity and mortality. As the causative genes of TPOAbs and AITD remain largely unknown, we performed a genome-wide scan for TPOAbs in 18,297 individuals, with replication in 8,990 individuals. Significant associations were detected with variants at TPO, ATXN2, BACH2, MAGI3, and KALRN. Individuals carrying multiple risk variants also had a higher risk of increased thyroid-stimulating hormone levels (including subclinical and overt hypothyroidism), and a decreased risk of goiter. The MAGI3 and BACH2 variants were associated with an increased risk of hyperthyroidism, and the MAGI3 variant was also associated with an increased risk of hypothyroidism. This first genome-wide scan for TPOAbs identified five newly associated loci, three of which were also associated with clinical thyroid disease. With these markers we identified a large subgroup in the general population with a substantially increased risk of TPOAbs. These results provide insight into why individuals with thyroid autoimmunity do or do not eventually develop thyroid disease, and these markers may therefore predict which individuals are particularly at risk of developing clinical thyroid dysfunction. Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) are common, affecting 2-5% of the general population. Individuals with positive thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAbs) have an increased risk of autoimmune hypothyroidism (Hashimoto's thyroiditis), as well as autoimmune hyperthyroidism (Graves' disease). As the possible causative genes of TPOAbs and AITD remain largely unknown, we performed GWAS meta-analyses in 18,297 individuals for TPOAb-positivity (1769 TPOAb-positives and 16,528 TPOAb-negatives) and in 12,353 individuals for TPOAb serum levels, with replication in 8,990 individuals. Significant associations (P
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · PLoS Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Thyroid cancer shows high heritability but causative genes remain largely unknown. According to a common hypothesis the genetic predisposition to thyroid cancer is highly heterogeneous; being in part due to many different rare alleles. Here we used linkage analysis and targeted deep sequencing to detect a novel single-nucleotide mutation in chromosome 4q32 (4q32A>C) in a large pedigree displaying non-medullary thyroid carcinoma (NMTC). This mutation is generally ultra-rare; it was not found in 38 NMTC families, in 2676 sporadic NMTC cases or 2470 controls. The mutation is located in a long-range enhancer element whose ability to bind the transcription factors POU2F and YY1 is significantly impaired, with decreased activity in the presence of the C- allele compared with the wild type A-allele. An enhancer RNA (eRNA) is transcribed in thyroid tissue from this region and is greatly downregulated in NMTC tumors. We suggest that this is an example of an ultra-rare mutation predisposing to thyroid cancer with high penetrance.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Two recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) identified five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs965513, rs944289, rs966423, rs2439302, and rs116909374) associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Each variant showed highly significant but moderate to low disease risk. Here we assessed the cumulative risk and predictive value of the five SNPs. Methods: We genotyped two cohorts of individuals, 747 PTC cases and 1047 controls from Ohio and 1795 PTC cases and 2090 controls from Poland. Cumulative genetic risk scores were calculated using unweighted and weighted approaches. Results: All five SNPs showed significant association with PTC. The average cumulative risk score in cases was significantly higher than in controls (p<2.2×10(-16)). Each additional risk allele increased the risk of having PTC by 1.51 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4, 1.64] in Ohio and by 1.35 [95% CI 1.27, 1.44] in Poland. An analysis was performed weighing risk alleles by effect size and assigning individuals to three weighted risk score groups, low (≤2), medium (2-5), and high (>5). Individuals in the high group were significantly more susceptible to PTC compared with individuals in the low group with an odds ratio of 8.7 [95% CI 5.8, 13.3] in Ohio and 4.24 [95% CI 3.10, 5.84] in Poland. Almost identical results were obtained when follicular variant PTCs and microPTCs were omitted. These five SNPs explained 11% of the familial risk of thyroid cancer in the Ohio cohort and 6% in the Polish cohort. Conclusion: As the genetic risk score increases, the risk of having PTC increases. However, the predictive power of the cumulative effect of these five variants is only moderately high and clinical use may not be feasible until more variants are detected.
    No preview · Article · May 2013 · Thyroid: official journal of the American Thyroid Association
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    ABSTRACT: Background:Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) shows high heritability, yet efforts to find predisposing genes have been largely negative.Objectives:The objective of this study was to identify susceptibility genes for PTC.Methods:A genome-wide linkage analysis was performed in 38 families. Targeted association study and screening were performed in 2 large cohorts of PTC patients and controls. Candidate DNA variants were tested in functional studies.Results:Linkage analysis and association studies identified the Slit-Robo Rho GTPase activating protein 1 gene (SRGAP1) in the linkage peak as a candidate gene. Two missense variants, Q149H and A275T, localized in the Fes/CIP4 homology domain segregated with the disease in 1 family each. One missense variant, R617C, located in the RhoGAP domain occurred in 1 family. Biochemical assays demonstrated that the ability to inactivate CDC42, a key function of SRGAP1, was severely impaired by the Q149H and R617C variants.Conclusions:Our findings suggest that SRGAP1 is a candidate gene in PTC susceptibility. SRGAP1 is likely a low-penetrant gene, possibly of a modifier type.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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    ABSTRACT: Inherited malabsorption of cobalamin (Cbl) causes hematological and neurological abnormalities that can be fatal. Three genes have been implicated in Cbl malabsorption; yet, only about 10% of ~400-500 reported cases have been molecularly studied to date. Recessive mutations in CUBN or AMN cause Imerslund-Gräsbeck Syndrome (IGS), while recessive mutations in GIF cause Intrinsic Factor Deficiency (IFD). IGS and IFD differ in that IGS usually presents with proteinuria, which is not observed in IFD. The genetic heterogeneity and numerous differential diagnoses make clinical assessment difficult. We present a large genetic screening study of 154 families or patients with suspected hereditary Cbl malabsorption. Patients and their families have been accrued over a period spanning >12 years. Systematic genetic testing of the three genes CUBN, AMN, and GIF was accomplished using a combination of single strand conformation polymorphism and DNA and RNA sequencing. In addition, six genes that were contenders for a role in inherited Cbl malabsorption were studied in a subset of these patients. Our results revealed population-specific mutations, mutational hotspots, and functionally distinct regions in the three causal genes. We identified mutations in 126/154 unrelated cases (82%). Fifty-three of 126 cases (42%) were mutated in CUBN, 45/126 (36%) were mutated in AMN, and 28/126 (22%) had mutations in GIF. We found 26 undescribed mutations in CUBN, 19 in AMN, and 7 in GIF for a total of 52 novel defects described herein. We excluded six other candidate genes as culprits and concluded that additional genes might be involved. Cbl malabsorption is found worldwide and genetically complex. However, our results indicate that population-specific founder mutations are quite common. Consequently, targeted genetic testing has become feasible if ethnic ancestry is considered. These results will facilitate clinical and molecular genetic testing of Cbl malabsorption. Early diagnosis improves the lifelong care required by these patients and prevents potential neurological long-term complications. This study provides the first comprehensive overview of the genetics that underlies the inherited Cbl malabsorption phenotype.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common and aggressive primary brain malignancy, is incurable despite the best combination of current cancer therapies. For the development of more effective therapies, discovery of novel candidate tumor drivers is urgently needed. Here, we report that peroxiredoxin 4 (PRDX4) is a putative tumor driver. PRDX4 levels were highly increased in a majority of human GBMs as well as in a mouse model of GBM. Reducing PRDX4 expression significantly decreased GBM cell growth and radiation resistance in vitro with increased levels of ROS, DNA damage, and apoptosis. In a syngenic orthotopic transplantation model, Prdx4 knockdown limited GBM infiltration and significantly prolonged mouse survival. These data suggest that PRDX4 can be a novel target for GBM therapies in the future.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: A genome-wide association study of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) pinpointed two independent SNPs (rs944289 and rs965513) located in regions containing no annotated genes (14q13.3 and 9q22.33, respectively). Here, we describe a unique, long, intergenic, noncoding RNA gene (lincRNA) named Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Susceptibility Candidate 3 (PTCSC3) located 3.2 kb downstream of rs944289 at 14q.13.3 and the expression of which is strictly thyroid specific. By quantitative PCR, PTCSC3 expression was strongly down-regulated (P = 2.84 × 10(-14)) in thyroid tumor tissue of 46 PTC patients and the risk allele (T) was associated with the strongest suppression (genotype [TT] (n = 21) vs. [CT] (n = 19), P = 0.004). In adjacent unaffected thyroid tissue, the genotype [TT] was associated with up-regulation of PTCSC3 ([TT] (n = 21) vs. [CT] (n = 19), P = 0.034). The SNP rs944289 was located in a binding site for the CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBP) α and β. The risk allele destroyed the binding site in silico. Both C/EBPα and C/EBPβ activated the PTCSC3 promoter in reporter assays (P = 0.0009 and P = 0.0014, respectively) and the risk allele reduced the activation compared with the nonrisk allele (C) (P = 0.026 and P = 0.048, respectively). Restoration of PTCSC3 expression in PTC cell line cells (TPC-1 and BCPAP) inhibited cell growth (P = 0.002 and P = 0.019, respectively) and affected the expression of genes involved in DNA replication, recombination and repair, cellular movement, tumor morphology, and cell death. Our data suggest that SNP rs944289 predisposes to PTC through a previously uncharacterized, long intergenic noncoding RNA gene (PTCSC3) that has the characteristics of a tumor suppressor.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Germline mutations in PMS2 are associated with Lynch syndrome (LS), the most common known cause of hereditary colorectal cancer. Mutation detection in PMS2 has been difficult due to the presence of several pseudogenes, but a custom-designed long-range PCR strategy now allows adequate mutation detection. Many mutations are unique. However, some mutations are observed repeatedly across individuals not known to be related due to the mutation being either recurrent, arising multiple times de novo at hot spots for mutations, or of founder origin, having occurred once in an ancestor. Previously, we observed 36 distinct mutations in a sample of 61 independently ascertained Caucasian probands of mixed European background with PMS2 mutations. Eleven of these mutations were detected in more than one individual not known to be related and of these, six were detected more than twice. These six mutations accounted for 31 (51%) ostensibly unrelated probands. Here, we performed genotyping and haplotype analysis in four mutations observed in multiple probands and found two (c.137G>T and exon 10 deletion) to be founder mutations and one (c.903G>T) a probable founder. One (c.1A>G) could not be evaluated for founder mutation status. We discuss possible explanations for the frequent occurrence of founder mutations in PMS2.
    No preview · Article · May 2012 · Clinical Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in the mismatch repair genes cause Lynch syndrome (LS), conferring high risk of colorectal, endometrial and some other cancers. After the same splice site mutation in the MLH1 gene (c.589-2A>G) had been observed in four ostensibly unrelated American families with typical LS cancers, its occurrence in comprehensive series of LS cases (Mayo Clinic, Germany and Italy) was determined. It occurred in 10 out of 995 LS mutation carriers (1.0%) diagnosed in the Mayo Clinic diagnostic laboratory. It did not occur among 1,803 cases tested for MLH1 mutations by the German HNPCC consortium, while it occurred in three probands and an additional five family members diagnosed in Italy. In the U.S., the splice site mutation occurs on a large (∼4.8 Mb) shared haplotype that also harbors the variant c.2146G>A, which predicts a missense change in codon 716 referred to here as V716M. In Italy, it occurs on a different, shorter shared haplotype (∼2.2 Mb) that does not carry V716M. The V716M variant was found to be present by itself in the U.S., German and Italian populations with individuals sharing a common haplotype of 280 kb, allowing us to calculate that the variant arose around 5,600 years ago (225 generations; 95% confidence interval 183-272). The splice site mutation in America arose or was introduced some 450 years ago (18 generations; 95% confidence interval 14-23); it accounts for 1.0% all LS in the Unites States and can be readily screened for.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · International Journal of Cancer

Publication Stats

4k Citations
628.97 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002-2016
    • The Ohio State University
      • • The James Comprehensive Cancer Center
      • • Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology and Medical Genetics
      Columbus, Ohio, United States
  • 2009
    • Comprehensive Cancer Centers of Nevada
      Las Vegas, Nevada, United States
  • 2004
    • Columbus State University
      Columbus, Georgia, United States