[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study evaluated the efficacy and safety of pemetrexed, carboplatin and bevacizumab, followed by maintenance pemetrexed and bevacizumab, in chemotherapy-naïve patients with stage IIIB/IV non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The patients were administered pemetrexed (500 mg/m(2)), carboplatin (area under the concentration-time curve, 6.0 mg/ml × min) and bevacizumab (15 mg/kg) intravenously every three weeks for up to six cycles. Patients who did not experience tumor progression remained on maintenance pemetrexed and bevacizumab until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity occurred. The primary endpoint was the overall response rate. Of the 26 patients enrolled between March 2010 and April 2011, three were excluded due to brain metastases, therefore the intention-to-treat (ITT) population consisted of 23 patients. The median age was 64 years (range, 40-74 years) and 15 patients were male. In total, six patients had a performance status of 0, and 20 had stage IV tumors. The response rate was 69.6% [95% confidence interval (CI), 47.1-86.8], the disease control rate was 100% and the time to response was 1.2 months (95% CI, 0.72-1.93). The median progression-free survival time was 8.6 months (95% CI, 5.9-10.9) and the median overall survival time was 18.6 months (95% CI, 12.9-24.8). There were no grade 3 or worse hemorrhagic events and the feasibility was modest. Overall, pemetrexed and carboplatin plus bevacizumab, followed by maintenance pemetrexed and bevacizumab, was effective and tolerable in the patients with non-squamous NSCLC, and the time to response was relatively short.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has historically emerged as a potent adjuvant in cancer immunization through dendritic cell (DC) activation, the efficacy of its antitumor effect has been limited. Therefore, the strategy of adjuvant therapy using BCG needs to be improved by adding enhancers. Here we found that thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) acts as an enhancer for the BCG-mediated antitumor effect. While BCG-stimulated DCs induced CD8(+) T cell production of IFN-gamma without strong cell expansion, TSLP-stimulated DCs induced robust CD8(+) T cell expansion without high quantities of IFN-gamma production. Notably, DCs stimulated with both BCG and TSLP induced robust expansion of CD8(+) T cells that produced a large amount of IFN-gamma with a potent cytolytic activity related to granzyme B expression. Our data suggest that TSLP is a good adjuvant to enhance the BCG-mediated cytotoxic T cell effect through DC activation, and provide a functional basis for a novel strategy for antitumor immune-based therapy.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · Clinical Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Pulmonary or bronchial mucoepidermoid carcinoma is a rare subtype of lung cancer, and effective treatment has not yet been established for advanced stage cases. Case. A 41-year-old man with headache and back pain was referred to our hospital because biopsy of a right lower jaw tumor had revealed metastatic carcinoma, and computed tomography revealed a right hilar tumor. In our hospital, fiberoptic bronchoscopy showed stricture of the right middle lobe bronchus and sessile polypoid tumor, and a biopsy specimen revealed high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (FDG-PET) showed abnormal accumulations in the mediastinal lymph node, and liver, bone, skin and muscular lesions. Multiple metastasis was suspected, and it was classified stage IV (cT1N2M1). After receiving chemotherapy with carboplatin and paclitaxel, the metastatic liver and bone lesions worsened. Gefitinib was administered as a second-line therapy, resulting in a partial response. Molecular screening of the tumor identified an EGFR exon 19 deletion mutation. Conclusion. There is sometimes an EGFR mutation among cases of mucoepidermoid carcinoma. This case suggests that EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors could be effective for the treatment of mucoepidermoid carcinoma with EGFR mutation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) has historically emerged as a potent adjuvant in cancer immunization through dendritic cell (DC) activation, the efficacy of its antitumor effect has been limited. Therefore, the strategy of adjuvant therapy using BCG needs to be improved by adding enhancers. Here we found that thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) acts as an enhancer for the BCG-mediated antitumor effect. While BCG-stimulated DCs induced CD8 + T cell production of IFN-γ without strong cell expansion, TSLP-stimulated DCs induced robust CD8 + T cell expansion without high quantities of IFN-γ production. Notably, DCs stimulated with both BCG and TSLP induced robust expansion of CD8 + T cells that produced a large amount of IFN-γ with a potent cytolytic activity related to granzyme B expression. Our data suggest that TSLP is a good adjuvant to enhance the BCG-mediated cytotoxic T cell effect through DC activation, and provide a functional basis for a novel strategy for antitumor immune-based therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 28-year-old man had a 1-year history of hemoptysis. Consequently, he underwent a medical examination. A right pleural effusion, left hydropneumothorax, and multiple pulmonary nodular shadows were found on chest radiography. During a detailed interview, he reported that the hemoptysis began after eating "kejang" (a raw crab preparation) with a friend a year previously. His peripheral blood eosinophil count and serum IgE level were elevated. In addition, ova were detected in the sputum and bilateral pleural effusion. Morphological examination of the ova and immunoserological examination led to the diagnosis of Paragonimus westermani infection. The pleural effusion could be partially drained, and his symptoms and radiographic results showed improvement after treatment with Praziquantel administered at a dose of 75 mg/(kg x day) for 3 days. After one month, he and his friend ate seasoned raw crabs, Paragonimus was diagnosed in his friend. This case suggests that on encountering a paragonimus infection, everyone who ate food prepared in the same kitchen should be contacted because of possible infection with paragonimus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atopic dermatitis is a major allergic disease that develops through dysregulation of Th2-mediated inflammation. Although dendritic cells (DCs) have been thought to play a critical role in the upstream phase of the allergic cascade, conventional drugs such as steroids and chemical mediator antagonists target the effector cells or factors in allergic inflammation. Recently, it has been demonstrated that interaction between thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and human DCs plays an essential role in evoking inflammatory Th2 responses in allergy through OX40 ligand expression on DCs. In this study, we provide evidence that R848, an imidazoquinoline compound, which is a TLR ligand and a strong Th1 response-inducing reagent, is a potent adjuvant for the alteration of the Th2-inducing potency of human DCs activated by TSLP (TSLP-DCs). R848 inhibited the inflammatory Th2-inducing capacity of TSLP-DCs and redirected them to possessing an IL-10 and IFN-gamma-producing regulatory Th1-inducing capacity. This functional alteration depended on both repression of OX40 ligand expression and induction of IL-12 production from DCs by the addition of R848. Additionally, R848 had the ability to inhibit the TSLP-mediated expansion and maintenance of the Th2 memory response. These findings suggest that imidazoquinoline may be a useful in the treatment of allergic diseases that are triggered by TSLP.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2008 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis and asthma develop as a consequence of dysregulated Th2 responses. Recently, it has been demonstrated that interaction between dendritic cells (DCs) and thymic stromal lymphopoietin
(TSLP), an IL-7-like cytokine, is essential for evoking Th2 responses in allergy. In this study, we investigated whether Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG), a strong Th1 response-inducing adjuvant, can alter the function of DCs activated by TSLP (TSLP-DCs). We demonstrated that BCG redirects
TSLP-DCs away from inducing inflammatory Th2 cells that produce IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and toward regulatory Th1 cells that produce IFN-γ and IL-10. We also demonstrated that this functional alteration of TSLP-DCs by BCG depended on
both production of IL-12 from DCs and down-regulation of OX40 ligand, a member of the TNF family, on DCs. These findings suggest
that BCG might be a useful adjuvant for the treatment of allergic diseases that are triggered by TSLP.
Preview · Article · Sep 2008 · International Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) is a rheumatoid disorder characterized by high fever, polyarthritis, leukocytosis, hyperferritinaemia, and mild liver involvement. We describe the case of a patient with AOSD with severe liver dysfunction. His serum levels of interleukin-10 and 18 showed a similar trend to his disease activity. Drug lymphocyte stimulation tests were positive for three drugs in the patient. Hypercytokinaemia was controlled by plasma exchange therapy.
Full-text · Article · May 2008 · Modern Rheumatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pneumomediastinum is a rare complication of dermatomyositis (DM) and Polymiositis (PM). We report here three cases of PM/DM who developed pneumomediastinum. First case was 61 years old woman with amyopathic dermatomyositis (aDM). Her aDM was complicated with skin ulceration due to vasculopathy, but complicated interstitial pneumonia was not severe. She developed subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum. Second case was 57 years old woman with DM, who had intractable skin phenomena and mild interstitial pneumonia. The patient became subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum following severe vasculopathy of skin. The last case was 63 years old man with PM. His PM was complicated with interstitial pneumonia. He had intractable respiratory symptom. Ten years later, he became subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum following pneumothorax. First and second cases suggest that their pneumomediastinum were due to vasculopathy. On the other hand, pneumomediastinum of the last patient seemed to be associated with interstitial pneumonia and steroid.
No preview · Article · Mar 2008 · Japanese Journal of Clinical Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A recent report revealed that a large population of Hodgkin's lymphoma-infiltrating lymphocytes (HLILs) consisted of regulatory T cells. In this study, we cocultured CD4+ naive T cells with KM-H2, which was established as a Hodgkin's Reed-Sternberg cell line, to clarify their ability to induce CD25+ Forkhead box P3+ (Foxp3+) T cells. The characteristic analyses of T cells cocultured with KM-H2 revealed the presence of CD4+CD25+ T cells. They expressed CTLA-4, glucocorticoid-induced TNFR family-related gene, and Foxp3 and could produce large amounts of IL-10. Conversely, KM-H2 also generated CD4+ CTLs, which expressed Granzyme B and T cell intracellular antigen-1 in addition to Foxp3+ T cells. They exhibit a strong cytotoxic effect against the parental KM-H2. In conclusion, KM-H2 promotes a bidirectional differentiation of CD4+ naive T cells toward Foxp3+ T cells and CD4+ CTLs. In addition to KM-H2, several cell lines that exhibit the APC function were able to generate Foxp3+ T cells and CD4+ CTLs. Conversely, the APC nonfunctioning cell lines examined did not induce both types of cells. Our findings suggest that the APC function of tumor cells is essential for the differentiation of CD4+ naive T cells into CD25+Foxp3+ T cells and CD4+ CTLs and at least partly explains the predominance of CD25+Foxp3+ T cells in HLILs and their contribution to a better prognosis. Therefore, in APC-functioning tumors, including classical Hodgkin lymphomas, which generate Foxp3+ T cells and CD4+ CTLs, these T cell repertories play a beneficial role synergistically in disease stability.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2007 · Journal of Leukocyte Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a major lipid derived from the metabolism of arachidonic acid, is an environmentally bioactive substance produced by inflammatory processes and acts as a cAMP up-regulator that plays an important role in immune responses. It has been reported that PGE2 has the ability to inhibit the production of interleukin-12 by myeloid dendritic cells (MDCs) and macrophages, and then induce preferential T helper type 2 (Th2) cell responses. However, little is known of the function of PGE2 for plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs), which may contribute to the innate and adaptive immune response to viral infection, allergy and autoimmune diseases. In the present study, we compared the biological effect of PGE2 on human PDCs and MDCs. PGE2 caused the death of PDCs but MDCs survived. Furthermore, we found that, whereas PGE2 inhibited interferon-alpha production by PDCs in response to virus or cytosine-phosphate-guanosine, it inhibited interleukin-12 production by MDCs in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or poly(I:C). Although both virus-stimulated PDCs and LPS-stimulated MDCs preferentially induced the development of interferon-gamma-producing Th1 cells, pretreatment with PGE2 led both DC subsets to attenuate their Th1-inducing capacity. These findings suggest that PGE2 represents a negative regulator on not only MDCs but also PDCs.