[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is the current method used for screening and diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). OGTT is a relatively complicated procedure and is expensive. Thus, new strategies that do not require fasting or more than a single blood draw may improve the diagnosis of GDM and increase the rate of GDM testing. We investigated the utility of monitoring glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels for the diagnosis of GDM.
The data from 992 pregnant women with estimated gestational ages ranging from 24 to 28 weeks were retrospectively reviewed. There were 367 women with plasma glucose levels ≥140 mg/dL 1 hour after a 50-g OGTT. GDM was diagnosed according to the Carpenter-Coustan criteria for a 3-hour 100 g OGTT. A HbA1c assessment was performed at the same time.
We enrolled 343 women in this study, and there were 109 women with GDM. The area under the curve the receiver operating characteristic curve for HbA1c detection of GDM was 0.852 (95% confidence interval, 0.808 to 0.897). A HbA1c cutoff value ≥5.35% had maximal points on the Youden index (0.581). The sensitivity was 87.2% and the specificity was 70.9% for diagnosing GDM. A threshold value ≥5.35% indicated that 163 patients had GDM and that 68 (41.7%) were false positive. The positive predictive value was 58.3% at this threshold value.
Despite substantial progress in methodology, HbA1c values cannot replace OGTT for the diagnosis of GDM.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A follow-up (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) PET/CT scan of a 57-year-old asymptomatic male who had undergone total thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer revealed a 5.0 × 4.0-cm, well-defined, ovoid-shaped mass around the left adrenal gland without definite FDG uptake. On the adrenal CT scan, the left paraadrenal tumor showed high attenuation on the precontrast scan without enhancement. The average Hounsfield unit (HU) was 58.1 on the precontrast scan and 58.4 on the postcontrast scan. The patient underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy for resection of the left paraadrenal tumor. The final histopathologic examination revealed a bronchogenic cyst. Although retroperitoneal bronchogenic cysts are rare, they should be considered in the differential diagnosis of retroperitoneal cystic tumors. The preoperative diagnosis is difficult, but a contrast-enhanced CT scan or (18)F-FDG PET/CT scan may be useful for differentiating hyperattenuated cysts from other soft tissue masses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors on adipokines remain obscure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of vildagliptin on visfatin, an adipokine that represents inflammatory biomarkers of adipose tissue, in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with prior metformin monotherapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The most common cause of thyrotoxicosis is Graves' disease (GD), while painless thyroiditis (PT) comes in second. In Korea, the treatment of choice for GD is antithyroid drugs (ATDs). Since most cases of PT spontaneously improve, an accurate diagnosis is very important for the proper management of patients presenting with thyrotoxicosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
There have been few randomized control trials comparing the incidence of stent fracture and primary patency among different self-expanding nitinol stents to date. The SMART™ CONTROL stent (Cordis Corp, Miami Lakes, Florida, United States) has a peak-to-valley bridge and inline interconnection, whereas the COMPLETE™-SE stent (Medtronic Vascular, Santa Rosa, California, United States) crowns have been configured to minimize crown-to-crown interaction, increasing the stent's flexibility without compromising radial strength. Further, the 2011 ESC (European society of cardiology) guidelines recommend that dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and a thienopyridine such as clopidogrel should be administered for at least one month after infrainguinal bare metal stent implantation. Cilostazol has been reported to reduce intimal hyperplasia and subsequent repeat revascularization. To date, there has been no randomized study comparing the safety and efficacy of two different antiplatelet regimens, clopidogrel and cilostazol, following successful femoropopliteal stenting.
The primary purpose of our study is to examine the incidence of stent fracture and primary patency between two different major representative self-expanding nitinol stents (SMART™ CONTROL versus COMPLETE™-SE) in stenotic or occlusive femoropopliteal arterial lesion. The secondary purpose is to examine whether there is any difference in efficacy and safety between aspirin plus clopidogrel versus aspirin plus cilostazol for one month following stent implantation in femoropopliteal lesions. This is a prospective, randomized, multicenter trial to assess the efficacy of the COMPLETE™-SE versus SMART™ CONTROL stent for provisional stenting after balloon angioplasty in femoropopliteal arterial lesions. The study design is a 2x2 randomization design and a total of 346 patients will be enrolled. The primary endpoint of this study is the rate of binary restenosis in the treated segment at 12 months after intervention as determined by catheter angiography or duplex ultrasound.
This trial will provide powerful insight into whether the design of the COMPLETE™-SE stent is more fracture-resistant or effective in preventing restenosis compared with the SMART™ CONTROL stent. Also, it will determine the efficacy and safety of aspirin plus clopidogrel versus aspirin plus cilostazol in patients undergoing stent implantation in femoropopliteal lesions.
Registered on 2 April 2012 with the National Institutes of Health Clinical Trials Registry (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier# NCT01570803).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
To investigate the incidence of actinomyces-like organisms in routine cervical smears of Korean women and to evaluate its association with the development of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in these women.
The results of cervical smears between 2011 and 2012 at a single university hospital were searched. If positive for actinomyces-like organisms, the medical record of the patient was searched and development of PID was followed. If the data were not available in the medical record, the patient was contacted by telephone.
The incidence of actinomyces-like organisms in cervical smears was 0.26% (52/20,390). Forty-two women (80.8%) were intrauterine device (IUD) users: the copper-IUD in 25 women and the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system in 13 women (type unknown in 4 women). The majority (71.4%, 30/42) of the IUD users maintained the IUD. Prophylactic antibiotics were prescribed to 12 women. Two continuous IUD users were later diagnosed with PID, but these cases were not pelvic actinomycosis.
It would be a reasonable option to choose the expectant management for asymptomatic women who incidentally showed actinomyces-like organisms in their cervical smear.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was performed to compare the mucosal findings after esophagogastroduodenoscopy in two groups before and after the use of alendronate only and following administration of the enteric-coated alendronate (5 mg) and calcitriol (0.5 µg) combined drug (Maxmarvil, Yuyu Co.).
The study population consisted of 33 postmenopausal healthy female volunteers, aged 50 to 70 years (mean age, 58 ± 5) without gastrointestinal symptoms and with normal baseline endoscopic findings. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy was performed at baseline and was repeated 2 weeks later after daily intake of Maxmarvil (n = 17 subjects) or alendronate only (n = 16 subjects). Mucosal injury scores were reported by an endoscopist after 2 weeks of treatment with each medication schedule.
Esophageal mucosal injuries developed in two of 16 subjects in the alendronate only group and 0 of 17 in the Maxmarvil group. Gastric mucosal injuries developed in eight subjects in the alendronate group and four subjects in the Maxmarvil group; this difference was statistically significant.
The mucosal damage scores for the alendronate group (total score 24) were significantly higher than those for the Maxmarvil group (total score 9) in the esophagus and stomach. Therefore, this study suggested that enteric-coated Maxmarvil is less harmful to gastrointestinal mucosa than alendronate, and may improve the tolerability of osteoporosis medication in clinical practice.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) are treated with (131)I therapy after total thyroidectomy or surgical resection of recurrent tumor. However, some recurrent DTC lesions are not iodine-avid, which affects further treatment planning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical benefit of (18)F-FDG PET/CT performed concurrently with (131)I therapy in DTC patients with intermediate to high risk.
We retrospectively enrolled 286 DTC patients at 2 Korean medical centers who comprised 2 different patient groups: 28 patients who underwent adjuvant (131)I treatment after curative surgical resection of recurrent tumor and 258 patients with intermediate to high risk who underwent (131)I ablation after total thyroidectomy. (131)I therapy and (18)F-FDG PET/CT scanning were performed on the same day. Administration of l-thyroxine was withheld from all enrollees for 4 wk before (131)I treatment.
In 39 patients (14%), (18)F-FDG PET/CT detected additional recurrent or metastatic lesions that were not detected on the posttherapy (131)I scan, and the treatment plan was changed for 30 patients (10%) based on such findings. Among the 28 patients receiving (131)I treatment after resection of recurrent tumor, PET/CT detected additional lesions in 46%, and treatment was changed in 43%. Assessing a subgroup of stage T3-T4N1 patients with tumor size > 2.0 cm, among 258 patients undergoing (131)I ablation after total thyroidectomy, we found that 25% had additional positive PET/CT results, and treatment changed for 17%. In contrast, 8% of stage T3-T4N1 patients with tumor size ≤ 2.0 cm, 6% of stage T1-T2N1 patients, and 3% of stage T3-T4N0 patients had additional positive PET/CT findings.
(18)F-FDG PET/CT performed concurrently with (131)I therapy detected additional lesions in 14% of DTC patients and was particularly helpful for detecting additional lesions in patients undergoing (131)I therapy after resection of recurrent tumor or in stage T3-T4N1 patients with tumor size > 2.0 cm.
Preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Journal of Nuclear Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular symptoms are integral and often the most predominant clinical presentation in patients with thyrotoxicosis. In patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease, myocardial ischemia and angina-like chest pain may be presented due to increase in cardiac output and cardiac contractility as a result of thyrotoxicosis. In addition, coronary spasm may result in angina-like chest pain in thyrotoxicosis patients without any fixed coronary artery stenosis. However, there are few reports about clinical characteristics of thyrotoxicosis associated with coronary artery spasm.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relationship between Runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) gene inactivation and various solid tumors has been reported; however, little information is available about RUNX3 in thyroid cancers.
We evaluated the DNA methylation of RUNX3 in 13 papillary thyroid cancer tissues and four thyroid cancer cell lines. Additionally, using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, we analyzed RUNX3 gene expression in several thyroid cancer cell lines after treating with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC).
RUNX3 was hypermethylated in many thyroid cancer cell lines and in 10 of the 12 papillary thyroid cancer tissues. Treatment with DAC increased the expression of RUNX3 in some thyroid cancer cell lines.
We suggest that RUNX3 is associated with thyroid carcinogenesis, and RUNX3 methylation is a potentially useful diagnostic marker for papillary thyroid cancer.
Preview · Article · Dec 2012 · The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Activating somatic mutation of the BRAF (V600E) has been identified as the most common genetic event in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with a variable frequency (32-87%) in different series by different methods. The BRAF (V600E) mutation is associated with various clinicopathological parameters. The mutation is an important factor for the management of the PTC patients. The objective of this study was to detect the BRAF (V600E) mutation in PTCs by peptide nucleic acid (PNA) clamp real-time PCR and to analyze the results with clinicopathological parameters.
We performed genetic analysis of BRAF (V600E) by PNA clamp real-time PCR in 211 PTCs in Korea, stratified by clinicopathological parameters.
The BRAF (V600E) mutation was detected in 90% of PTC cases, and it occurred significantly more often in female patients than in male patients (p = 0.001). The clinicopathological parameters of age, tumor size, and disease stage were not associated with the BRAF (V600E) mutation, while extrathyroid invasion (p = 0.031), lymph nodal metastasis (p = 0.002), and tumor multiplicity (p = 0.020) were.
The prevalence (90%) of the BRAF (V600E) mutation in this study is the highest ever reported, confirming the key role of this mutation in PTC tumorigenesis. The BRAF (V600E) mutation was associated with aggressive clinical behaviors including extrathyroid invasion, lymph nodal metastasis and tumor multifocality. The PNA clamp real-time PCR method for the BRAF (V600E) mutation detection is sensitive and is applicable in a clinical setting.
No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Annals of Surgical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Granulomatous hypophysitis is a rare pituitary condition that commonly presents with enlargement of the pituitary gland. A 31-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital with a severe headache and bitemporal hemianopsia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an 18 × 10-mm sellar mass with suprasellar extension and compression of the optic chiasm. Interestingly, brain MRI had shown no abnormal finding 4 months previously. On hormonal examination, hypopituitarism with mild hyperprolactinemia was noted. The biopsy revealed granulomatous changes with multinucleated giant cells. We herein report this rare case and discuss the relevant literature.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although adrenocortical tumors are common, adrenocortical carcinomas are rare. Moreover, aldosterone-producing adrenocortical carcinomas without hypertension are exceedingly rare, with only two previously reported cases.
Preview · Article · Jun 2012 · The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin autoimmune syndrome is characterized by spontaneous hypoglycemia, elevated insulin level and a high level of insulin autoantibodies without previous insulin exposure. Among the clinical manifestations of insulin autoimmune syndrome, diabetic ketoacidosis is extremely rare. A 72-year-old diabetic woman was hospitalized with diabetic ketoacidosis. She suffered repeated fasting hypoglycemia after treatment of the diabetic ketoacidosis. Here we describe this case of insulin autoimmune syndrome manifested as diabetic ketoacidosis followed by recurrent hypoglycemia with a review of the relevant literature.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma is very rare. Hence, radionuclide imaging of thyroid hot nodules usually suggests a benign tumor, and less than 4% of cases have been reported as malignant. We would like to present a case of a hyperfunctioning papillary thyroid carcinoma that was initially treated with radioactive iodine. A 58-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for palpable thyroid nodule and a 5-kg weight loss within 6 months. Thyroid function test revealed thyrotoxicosis, and thyroid autoantibodies were absent. 99mTc thyroid scintigraphy showed a 2 × 2 cm-sized hyperactive hot nodule at the left lobe. Despite radioactive iodine treatment with a dose of 10 mCi 131I, thyroid function did not improve. Fine needle aspiration revealed papillary thyroid cancer. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy. Although clinical features and thyroid scans suggest a benign nodule, the possibility of malignancy should not be ruled out. Malignant thyroid hot nodules are rare; however, its possibility should be taken into account. Therefore, we suggest that ruling out malignancy by existing diagnostic guidelines can misdiagnose even a typical case with benign features. As thyroid nodule detection is getting sensitive and accurate, we present this case to discuss whether additional diagnostic approaches would be necessary for thyroid nodules.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 30-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of fatigue, palpitation and severe weakness of both legs. The admission laboratory findings revealed thyrotoxicosis, and 131I thyroid scintigraphic imaging revealed a low radioactive iodine uptake. He was treated for painless thyroiditis for about 4 months. However, thyrotoxic state had continued and radioactive iodine uptake was markedly increased in the follow up scan. Painless thyroiditis often relapses, but rarely develops into Graves' disease. This is a rare case in which painless thyroiditis was followed by Graves' disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess the MRI findings of skeletal muscle lymphoma.
MR images of pathologically proven lymphoma of skeletal muscle in 20 patients were retrospectively reviewed for the presence or absence of individual imaging findings. Nine patients had primary muscle lymphoma, and 11 patients had muscle metastasis from systemic lymphoma.
The initial manifestation of skeletal muscle lymphoma was a muscle mass in 15 patients (75%) and abnormal muscle signal intensity in five patients (25%). Muscle enlargement was found in all cases. Long segmental involvement with orientation of the tumor along muscle fascicles was found in 15 patients (75%). Seventeen patients (85%) had traversing vessels within involved muscles. All of the tumors had equal to slightly increased signal intensity compared with normal muscle on T1-weighted images and intermediate signal intensity compared with fat on T2-weighted images. Among the 19 patients who underwent contrast-enhanced imaging, skeletal muscle lymphoma exhibited diffuse homogeneous enhancement in 13 patients (68%), predominantly peripheral thick bandlike enhancement in four patients (21%), and marginal septal enhancement in two patients (11%). Thick irregular enhancement of both deep and superficial fascia was found in 16 patients (84%), and one patient (5%) had deep enhancement only. Subcutaneous stranding was found in 16 patients (80%) and skin thickening in four patients (20%).
Skeletal muscle lymphoma has distinctive MRI features that help differentiate it from other soft-tissue tumors and tumorlike lesions.
No preview · Article · Dec 2010 · American Journal of Roentgenology