[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The brain is an important modulator of glucose metabolism, and is known to respond Gastrodia elata Blume water extract (GEB). Therefore, we examined whether long-term administration of GEB has hypoglycemic activity, and its action mechanism was explored in partially-pancreatectomized rats that exhibit similar characteristics as Asian type 2 diabetes, non-obese insulin-insufficient diabetes. The rats were provided high-fat diets supplemented with either of (1) 0.5% GEB (GEB-L), (2) 2% GEB (GEB-H), (3) 2% dextrin (control), or (4) 2% dextrin with rosiglitazone (20 mg/kg body weight; positive-control) for eight weeks. GEB dose-dependently improved hypothalamic insulin signaling, enhanced whole-body insulin sensitivity during hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp, and reduced hepatic glucose output in a hyperinsulinemic state. GEB dose-dependently increased the area under the curve of the serum insulin levels at the first and second phases during hyperglycemic clamp compared to the control, whereas the positive control had no effect. Insulin sensitivity during the hyperglycemic state also improved, dose-dependently, in response to GEB compared with that of the control, but was less than the positive control. GEB-H increased the mass of β-cells by potentiating proliferation and decreasing apoptosis. In conclusion, GEB could be a therapeutic agent for treating Asian type 2 diabetes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Smell and taste are frequently referenced senses when describing flavors of food. In addition to these two senses, Koreans have regarded that there is another sense of taste experienced through the body. This third sense, siwonhan-mat(시원한 맛), describes the sensation of the body including the tongue, stomach and intestines when eating. While smell and taste play an important role in the enjoyment of food, it is also crucial to evaluate what your body can experience from eating. In this context, siwonhan-mat is the sense acquired through the digestion of food.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Background: Korea has developed a unique food culture connected to its long agricultural history. Recently, interest in Korean food, especially regarding its health benefits, has greatly increased. However, there are insufficient resources and research available on the characteristics and definitions of Korean cuisine. Methods: Researchers and professors of the food and nutritional sciences in Korea began working together in April 2015 in order to establish cohesive definitions and concepts to be used in dialogue related to the Korean diet (K-diet). The 100 most representative Korean dishes (K-food) were selected by evaluating their role in tradition, culture, and health promotion. Results: Although the K-diet has been widely discussed in regard to raw ingredients, traditional cooking methods and technology, fundamental principles, and knowledge, it would be valuable to preserve the traditional methods and knowledge of Korean foods rather than focus on the raw materials themselves. Korean meals have historically been served with bap (cooked rice), kuk (dishes with broth), kimchi, and banchan (side dishes) to be consumed at the same time. As traditionally baking or frying were not common cooking methods, Koreans tended to use fermenting, boiling, blanching, seasoning, and pickling. Among these methods, the most characteristic method is fermentation. The process of fermentation enriches food flavors and preserves foods. Conclusion: The K-diet is composed of bab (cooked-rice) and kuk, and various banchan with one serving called bapsang. Kimchi is always served at every meal. The principal aspects of the K-diet include proportionally high consumption of vegetables, moderate to high consumption of legumes and fish, and low consumption of red meat. Banchan is mostly seasoned with various jang (fermented soy products), medicinal herbs, and sesame or perilla oil.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Background/objectives:
This is the first study to identify common genetic factors associated with the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and body mass index (BMI) in obese Korean women including overweight. This will be a basic study for future research of obese gene-BMR interaction.
The experimental design was 2 by 2 with variables of BMR and BMI. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was conducted in the overweight and obesity (BMI > 23 kg/m(2)) compared to the normality, and in women with low BMR (< 1426.3 kcal/day) compared to high BMR. A total of 140 SNPs reached formal genome-wide statistical significance in this study (P < 1 × 10(-4)). Surveys to estimate energy intake using 24-h recall method for three days and questionnaires for family history, a medical examination, and physical activities were conducted.
We found that two NRG3 gene SNPs in the 10q23.1 chromosomal region were highly associated with BMR (rs10786764; P = 8.0 × 10(-7), rs1040675; 2.3 × 10(-6)) and BMI (rs10786764; P = 2.5 × 10(-5), rs10786764; 6.57 × 10(-5)). The other genes related to BMI (HSD52, TMA16, MARCH1, NRG1, NRXN3, and STK4) yielded P <10 × 10(-4). Five new loci associated with BMR and BMI, including NRG3, OR8U8, BCL2L2-PABPN1, PABPN1, and SLC22A17 were identified in obese Korean women (P < 1 × 10(-4)). In the questionnaire investigation, significant differences were found in the number of starvation periods per week, family history of stomach cancer, coffee intake, and trial of weight control in each group.
We discovered several common BMR- and BMI-related genes using GWAS. Although most of these newly established loci were not previously associated with obesity, they may provide new insights into body weight regulation. Our findings of five common genes associated with BMR and BMI in Koreans will serve as a reference for replication and validation of future studies on the metabolic rate.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2016 · Nutrition research and practice
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Despite the long history of Korean foods, the truth and history behind them are either scaled down or distorted due to several scholars who happen to “know” hanja (漢字). A representative case is the distortion of the history of gochu, which inflicts serious distortion on foods that use the very ingredient as well. As the distorted history of gochu is pushed forward to be true, the history and the origin name words for gochu, gochujang, and bibimbap are perverted as a result. Hence food research will only be in the right direction when such misrepresented origin names are corrected.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Objective:
We investigated whether long-term consumption of Korean mistletoe or Asian Ulmi cortex would prevent or delay menopausal symptoms and progression of osteoarthritis in estrogen-deficient obese rats.
Ovariectomized (OVX) rats were provided a 45% fat diet containing either (1) 0.6% lyophilized water extract of Korean mistletoe (KME) + 1.4% dextrose (KME; n = 10), (2) 2% lyophilized water extract of Ulmi cortex (UCE; n = 10), (3) 30 μg/kg bw 17β-estradiol + 2% dextrose (positive control; n = 10), (4) 2% dextrose (placebo; OVX-control; n = 10), or (5) 2% dextrose (normal-control; n = 10) for 4 weeks. At the beginning of the 5th week, OVX rats, except in the normal-control group, were given articular injections of monoiodoacetate into the right knee and the assigned diets were provided for an additional 3 weeks. The rats in the normal-control had injections of saline into the right knee.
KME, but not UCE, partially prevented the insulin resistance and the loss of bone mineral density and lean mass. The limping scores were lower in the descending order of the OVX-control > KME and 17β-estradiol > UCE > normal-control at day 14 and 21 (P < 0.05). The scores for pain behaviors measured by weight distribution on the right leg, maximum running velocity on a treadmill and locomotive activity, were markedly decreased in the same order as limping scores. Monoiodoacetate increased the expression of matrix metalloprotinase-3 and metalloprotinase-13 in the articular cartilage and elevated the production of inflammatory markers such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6, but they were lower in the UCE than in the other groups (P < 0.05). Histology of the right knee revealed cartilage damage near the tidemark of the knee and proteoglycan loss was markedly less in UCE.
UCE was an effective therapeutic agent for preventing osteoarthritis and KME prevented decreases in lean body mass, bone mineral density, and insulin sensitivity in estrogen-deficient rats.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Menopause (New York, N.Y.)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: kimchi is unique and traditional fermented ethnic food of Korea that fermented vegetables such as Chinese cabbage with lactic acid bacteria. However, some argue that kimchi has only 100 years of history which is false assertion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Bibimpap, a Korean rice dish with mixed vegetables, is very popular around the world. The origin, its unique structure, and the health benefits of bibimbap have attracted interest. Although there are many hypotheses about the origin and development of bibimbap, most of them lack strong scientific evidence. The existence of various theories about the origin of bibimbap suggests that none of these theories have strong support. Therefore, it is crucial to take a scientific approach in analyzing each hypothesis. This article will discuss the origin of bibimbap on the basis of the structure of the Korean traditional meal table. Furthermore, it will analyze its development based on historical references to bibimbap. Someone have made false arguments that the first written recording of bibimbap is from the Siuijonseo (是議全書), and that the name, bibimbap, came from koldongban (混沌飯). We should, however, firmly exclude unsupported claims which can hinder further understanding of bibimbap in the global market. Moreover, this article will focus on Jeonju bibimbap and the health benefits of bibimbap based on previous research.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Human milk fat substitutes were synthesized using non-preprocessed natural fats and oils with lipase. Enzymatic interesterification of tripalmitin and oleic acid was carried out in isooctane. The reaction reached equilibrium after 12 h and the reaction conditions were partially optimized as a molar ratio of tripalmitin to oleic acid of 1:5, an initial water content of 0.01 g/L, and a water removal time of 1 h. After interesterification of tripalmitin and oleic acid, the reaction products contained 55.2% 1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoyl glycerol (OPO). The OPO yield was 25.2% when commercial palm oil and camellia oil were used as substrates, and the OPO concentration was increased to 53.3% after fractional crystallization of the reaction product.
No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Food science and biotechnology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Dementia induced by β-amyloid accumulation impairs peripheral glucose homeostasis, but red pepper extract improves glucose homeostasis. We therefore evaluated whether long-term oral consumption of different red pepper extracts improves cognitive dysfunction and glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetic rats with β-amyloid-induced dementia.
Male diabetic rats received hippocampal CA1 infusions of β-amyloid (25-35) (AD) or β-amyloid (35-25, non-plaque forming), at a rate of 3.6 nmol/day for 14 days (Non-AD). AD rats were divided into four dietary groups receiving either 1% lyophilized 70% ethanol extracts of either low, moderate and severe pungency red peppers (AD-LP, AD-MP, and AD-SP) or 1% dextrin (AD-CON) in Western diets (43% energy as fat).
The ascending order of control < LSP < MSP and SSP potentiated the phosphorylation of CREB and GSK and inhibited Tau phosphorylation in the hippocampus which in turn inhibited β-amyloid accumulation. The inhibition by MP and SP reduced the memory deficit measured by passive avoidance test and water maze test. Furthermore, the accumulation of β-amyloid induced glucose intolerance, although serum insulin levels were elevated during the late phase of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). All of the red pepper extracts prevented the glucose intolerance in AD rats. Consistent with OGTT results, during euglycemic hyperinulinemic clamp glucose infusion rates were lower in AD-CON than Non-AD-CON with no difference in whole body glucose uptake. Hepatic glucose output at the hyperinsulinemic state was increased in AD-CON. β-amyloid accumulation exacerbated hepatic insulin resistance, but all red pepper extract treatments reversed the insulin resistance in AD rats.
The extracts of moderate and severe red peppers were found to prevent the memory deficit and exacerbation of insulin resistance by blocking tau phosphorylation and β-amyloid accumulation in diabetic rats with experimentally induced Alzheimer's-like dementia. These results suggest that red pepper consumption might be an effective intervention for preventing age-related memory deficit.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Nutrition & Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Gochujang (Korean fermented red pepper sauce, also written in Kochujang), along with kimchi, is an age-old ethnic food made with Korea’s representative ingredient, red pepper. A typical Korean meal (Bapsang) is composed of rice (Bap), from which calories are derived, soup (Kuk), which helps in the chewing and digesting of the rice, and side dishes (Banchan), which provide additional nutrition and flavor. To add even more variety to the taste, seasoning (Yangnyum) is added. Gochujang has become the most fundamental of these kinds of food in Korea over thousands of years, functioning to make add flavor to rice taste better while aiding the digestive system. Gochujang also serves as a simple seasoning when making dishes such as braised spicy chicken, and provide additional nutrients. According to age-old documents, the development process used to manufacture Gochujang requires the basic ingredients of Meju (block made with cooked soy bean) powder, rice or glutinous rice flour, and red pepper powder. Sunchang Gochujang is one variety known for its great taste that was often consumed by kings during the Chosun dynasty. The basic method for making Gochujang in the present is almost the same as it was in the past. Gochujangis not just used to season food; it is also known for its nutritional value For example, it is widely accepted among Koreans that when a person has a weak stomach (due to the poor functionality of the stomach and spleen), and cannot digest food well., Gochujang can be eaten alleviates the symptoms. Recently many studies have been done to prove the medical functions of Gochujang scientifically. Due improvements in science and technology in the area of biology, it has also been discovered that Gochujang has the ability to prevent obesity and diabetes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Resveratrol is well-known for its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant effects on several diseases. We investigated whether dietary supplementation with resveratrol may suppress joint inflammation and destruction in a mouse model of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA).