[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Teicoplanin and polymyxin E (colistin) are antibiotics consisting of multiple, closely related subcomponents, produced by fermentation. The principal components comprise a complex mixture of chemically related, active substances (teicoplanin A2-1-A2-5 and polymyxin E1-2, respectively), which might be required to be present in specific ratios to ensure optimal antibacterial and clinical efficacy. These subcomponents differ in their fatty acid and amino acid composition and, as such, the lipophilic and protein binding characteristics differ between components. This has therapeutic implications for critically ill patients, as the volume of distribution of the teicoplanin A2 and polymyxin E analogues at the onset of an intravenous infusion may impact on expected pharmacokinetics and influence outcome.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · International journal of antimicrobial agents
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Teicoplanin is an antibiotic made by fermentation in which a glycopeptide core is substituted by different fatty acids. The chemical structure and proportion of the various components are strictly dependent on the production process (Actinoplanes sp strain, cell culture conditions and downstream process). Thus, a relevant variability can be introduced from different manufacturers. Interchangeability or substitution among the originator and the generic products of teicoplanin injections is under debate with respect to pharmaceutical similarity. In fact, depending on the manufacturer, the six major components of teicoplanin show different quantitative distributions compared to that of the originator. The European Pharmacopoeia fixed an undifferentiated upper limit for the component content. A statistical approach is required for comparing complex products. In this paper the use of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) as a tool for identifying the pharmaceutical equivalence among teicoplanin products from different sources was explored. The results obtained show that PCA can distinguish the differing origin of this biological drug.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · International Journal of Pharmaceutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, a nasal powder of the antidiuretic peptide desmopressin (DDAVP) formulated as chimera agglomerates was studied to improve drug bioavailability and provide a flexible drug product. Firstly, DDAVP was spray-dried along with mannitol and lecithin to produce primary microparticles capable of instantaneous dissolution in water. The chimera agglomerates were spontaneously formed by mechanically vibrating the microparticles on two stacked sieves. Agglomerate formation and strength were favored by the presence of lecithin. Drug content and dissolution rate remained unmodified after agglomeration. However, owing to the agglomerate larger size, powder flowability was greatly improved in comparison with the original microparticles, allowing accurate powder dosing into the nasal delivery device. DDAVP in vitro permeation across excised rabbit nasal mucosa from the agglomerates was significantly higher than that obtained from a commercial liquid nasal spray. In rats, intranasal DDAVP agglomerates allowed for efficient administration with almost 80% of the loaded powder emitted from the device into the animal nose. The administration of DDAVP agglomerates induced a significant reduction in urine production. Moreover, the antidiuretic effect of agglomerates did not significantly differ from the one induced by an intravenous injection of DDAVP at a ten-fold lower dose.
No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · International Journal of Pharmaceutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We propose a potential antiparkinsonian prodrug DP-L-A(2A)ANT (2) obtained by amidic conjugation of dopamine (1) via a succinic spacer to a new triazolo-triazine A(2A) adenosine receptor (AR) antagonist A(2A)ANT (3). The affinity of 2 and its hydrolysis products-1, 3, dopamine-linker DP-L (4) and A(2A)ANT-linker L-A(2A)ANT (5)-was evaluated for hA(1), hA(2A), hA(2B) and hA(3) ARs and rat striatum A(2A)ARs or D(2) receptors. The hydrolysis patterns of 2, 4 and 5 and the stabilities of 1 and 3 were evaluated by HPLC analysis in human whole blood and rat brain homogenates. High hA(2A) affinity was shown by compounds 2 (K(i) = 7.32 ± 0.65 nM), 3 (K(i) = 35 ± 3 nM) and 5 (K(i) = 72 ± 5 nM), whose affinity values were similar in rat striatum. These compounds were not able to change dopamine affinity for D(2) receptors but counteracted the CGS 21680-induced reduction of dopamine affinity. DP-L (4) was inactive on adenosine and dopaminergic receptors. As for stability studies, compounds 4 and 5 were not degraded in incubation media. In human blood, the prodrug 2 was hydrolyzed (half-life = 2.73 ± 0.23 h) mainly on the amidic bound coupling the A(2A)ANT (3), whereas in rat brain homogenates the prodrug 2 was hydrolyzed (half-life > eight hours) exclusively on the amidic bound coupling dopamine, allowing its controlled release and increasing its poor stability as characterized by half-life = 22.5 ± 1.5 min.
No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Molecular Pharmaceutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aspirin and its prodrug obtained as conjugate with vitamin C (AA-Asp) were evaluated on human retinal pigment epithelium (HRPE) cells to investigate their ability to interact with the ascorbate transporter SVCT2 and their cellular uptake. Furthermore, stability in physiological fluids of these compounds was investigated. Transport and inhibition assays were performed by adding [14C]AA and the unlabeled compounds to plated HRPE cells. Intracellular accumulation was measured by incubating HRPE cells with the compounds, followed by HPLC analysis. For kinetic experiments, aspirin and AA-Asp were incubated in phosphate buffer, human plasma and whole blood. Aspirin was taken up into HRPE cells even though it was not able to interact with SVCT2; AA-Asp resulted as a competitive inhibitor of AA-transport weakly taken up into HRPE cells. AA- Asp resulted as a prodrug of aspirin when incubated in whole blood, but not when incubated in plasma: in this case the main metabolic product was salicylic acid.
No preview · Article · Dec 2009 · Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the research was to study a new cidofovir/sucralfate drug product to be used as a spray for treating the mucosal and/or skin lesions. The product, i.e., a water suspension of sucralfate (15% w/w) and cidofovir (1% w/w), combines the potent antiviral activity of the acyclic nucleoside phosphonate cidofovir ((S)-1-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]cytosine) and the wound healing properties of sucralfate gel (sucrose octasulphate basic aluminum salt). The product was characterized in vitro with respect to compatibility between drug and carrier, spray particle size, spray deposition, drying kinetics, and drug content and release. An interaction between the two active substances was found. The interaction between sucralfate and cidofovir was counteracted by introducing sodium dihydrogen phosphate (16% w/w) in the preparation. The spray formulation containing cidofovir/sucralfate gel painted the skin and dried quickly to a scab, remaining firmly adhered to the lesions. The therapeutic paint was tested in vivo on lambs infected with orf virus by treating the animals with different cidofovir/sucralfate formulations (0.5% or 1% cidofovir + sucralfate 15% + NaH(2)PO(4) 16% w/w) and with sucralfate gel suspension alone as control. The treatment with formulations containing cidofovir and phosphate salt for four consecutive days resulted in a rapid resolution of the lesions, with scabs containing significantly lower amounts of viable virus when compared with untreated lesions and lesions treated with sucralfate suspension alone.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nasal spray products containing desmopressin acetate (DDAVP) were tested in vitro to evaluate the effect of the contained preservatives on drug permeation across rabbit nasal mucosa. Experiments were performed using Franz-type diffusion cells with rabbit nasal mucosa as model barrier. Transport profiles obtained in comparison with a preservative-free solution evidenced that in the presence of preservatives DDAVP permeation in vitro always increased (p<0.05), although at different extents (chlorobutanol<benzalkonium<sorbate). While for benzalkonium structural damage of the mucosa could occur decreasing its barrier properties, the effect of sorbate on drug transport was further investigated, being less studied. After having found that sorbate permeated together with DDAVP, the hypothesis that the two compounds formed an ion pair in solution with improved permeability was made. Additional experiments with aqueous test solutions reconstructed ad hoc containing desmopressin and varying sorbate concentrations confirmed the enhancing effect of sorbate, which however resulted to be independent of sorbate concentration. In conclusion, preservatives significantly enhanced desmopressin permeation in vitro across rabbit nasal mucosa with different mechanisms. If a correlation existed between these data and in vivo DDAVP bioavailability after nasal administration, this could strengthen the safety concerns related to the use of this medication in adults and children.
No preview · Article · Dec 2008 · European journal of pharmaceutical sciences: official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) has neuronal anti-ischemic properties, but it is not absorbed into the brain from the bloodstream, where it shows poor stability and induces side effects. Microparticulate drug delivery systems designed for CPA nasal administration and constituted by mannitol or chitosan, were prepared by spray-drying and characterized. Mannitol-lecithin microparticles showed high CPA dissolution rate, whereas chitosan microparticles controlled its release rate. In vitro mucoadhesion studies indicated that CPA-loaded chitosan microparticles had higher mucoadhesive properties compared to mannitol particles. Ex vivo studies on sheep nasal mucosa showed that mannitol microparticles promoted CPA permeation across the mucosa, whereas chitosan microparticles controlled CPA permeation rate in comparison with CPA raw material. In vivo studies were carried out on rats. No CPA was detected in rat cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain sections after intravenous administration. In contrast, after nasal administration of loaded microparticles CPA was found in the CSF at concentrations ranging from high nM to microM values and up to two order of magnitude higher than those obtained at systemic level. CPA was also found in the olfactory bulb at concentrations around 0.1 ng/mg of tissue. These results can open new perspectives for the employment of CPA against brain damages following stroke.
No preview · Article · Nov 2008 · Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Poly[(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylamide-co-(hydroxyethylmethacrylate))] [poly(NIPAAm-co-AAm-co-HEMA)] copolymer was synthesized as a new thermoresponsive material possessing a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) around 37 °C in phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, at a solution concentration of 1%, w/v. The influence of polymer concentration on LCST was determined by cloud point measurements and by microcalorimetric analysis. The copolymer was transformed in hydrogel microspheres by suspension reticulation of OH groups with glutaraldehyde. The volume phase transition temperature (VPTT) of microspheres was determined by a new approach, which involves measurement of the increase in concentration of a blue dextran (BD) solution at different temperatures in the presence of dry microspheres. The minimum BD concentration that gives reliable and reproducible results was determined to be 1 mg/ml. However, the higher is the concentration of BD in solution the smaller is the error. Contrary to solution of the linear polymer which displays a sharp phase transition temperature, the dependence of water regain of the hydrogel with temperature lasts from 4 °C to 50 °C.
No preview · Article · Aug 2007 · European Polymer Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously demonstrated that dopamine conjugation to glucose allows it to induce therapeutic effects against Parkinson's disease after intravenous administration. In this paper we demonstrate that, unlike dopamine, the prodrug glu-dopamine is a transportable substrate of glucose transporters. Towards this, the effect of glucose-conjugation on the affinity and uptake of dopamine have been assessed in vitro, using human retinal pigment epithelium (HRPE) cells. Glucose transporter-mediated uptake was measured using [(3)H]3-O-methylglucose ([(3)H]3-O-MG) as the tracer. The uptake was found to be rapid and hyperbolically related to its concentrations (K(t)=7.8+/-1.2mM and V(max)=54+/-2 nmol/min mg protein). Inhibition experiments showed that dopamine was able to interact with glucose carriers only when conjugated to glucose (IC(50)=2.6+/-0.6mM). HPLC analysis of HRPE cell extracts showed that both dopamine and the prodrug permeate the cell, but only the uptake of the prodrug is inhibitable by glucose. This confirms that glucose transporters mediate the transport of the prodrug glu-dopamine, but not of dopamine. HRPE cells is therefore proposed as a promising model for in vitro studies involving the glucose transporter-mediated transport of drugs and their conjugates.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2007 · International Journal of Pharmaceutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this work is to safely transport bioadhesive microspheres loaded with DNA to intestine and to test their bioadhesive properties. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) microspheres were prepared by dispersion reticulation with glutaraldehyde and further aminated. These microspheres were firstly loaded with plasmid DNA by electrostatic interactions and then entrapped in cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) microcapsules for gastric protection. The entrapped PVA microspheres do not have enough force by swelling to produce the rupture of CAB shell, therefore the resistance of microcapsules was weakened by incorporating different amount of the pH/thermosensitive polymer (SP) based on poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-methyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) (NIPAAm-co-MM-co-MA). This polymer is insoluble in gastric juice at pH 1.2 and 37 degrees C, but quickly solubilized in intestinal fluids (pH 6.8 and pH 7.4). Therefore, DNA loaded PVA microspheres were not expelled in acidic media but were almost entirely discharged in small intestine or colon. The integrity of DNA after entrapment was tested by agarose gel electrophoresis indicating that no DNA degradation occurs during encapsulation. The percentage of adhered microspheres on the mucus surface of everted intestinal tissue was 65+/-18% for aminated PVA microspheres without DNA and almost 50+/-15% for those loaded with DNA. Non-aminated PVA microspheres display the lowest adhesive properties (33+/-12%). In conclusion DNA loaded microspheres were progressively discharged in intestine. The integrity of DNA was not modified after entrapment and release, as proved by agarose gel electrophoresis. Both loaded and un-loaded aminated microspheres display good bioadhesive properties.
No preview · Article · May 2007 · European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) microspheres were prepared by dispersion reticulation with glutaraldehyde and further aminated. These microspheres were firstly loaded with diclofenac (DF) and then entrapped in cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) microcapsules by an o/w solvent evaporation technique for intestinal delivery of drug. The encapsulated PVA microspheres due to their low swelling degree in intestinal fluids, do not have enough force to produce the disruption of CAB shell, therefore different amounts of succinoylated pullulan microspheres (SP-Ms) (exchange capacity up to 5.2 meq/g) were co-encapsulated. The SP-Ms do not swell in acidic pH, but swell up to 20-times in intestinal fluids causing the rupture of CAB shell and facilitating the escape of loaded PVA microspheres.
No preview · Article · Mar 2007 · International Journal of Pharmaceutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study the preparation, characterization and activity of cationic liposomes containing the secretory form of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein B (gB1s) or two related polylysine rich peptides, namely DTK1 and DTK2, were described. The immunotherapeutic potential of these HSV antigens containing liposomes was examined with a rabbit ocular model of HSV-1 infection. Our study indicates that the liposomes (i) are able to encapsulate quantitatively gB1s and around 30% the DTK peptides, (ii) are characterized by dimensions compatible with ocular applications and (iii) can release the peptide comparably to the free solution. In addition, neutralization studies demonstrated that an anti-DTK specific polyclonal antiserum can inhibit HSV-1 infection, indicating that such peptides could be a good immunogen/antigen in an anti-HSV vaccine formulation. Although the vaccination protocol did not induce protection against the eye disease, a significative protection against a lethal ocular challenge was detectable together with the absence of reactivation episodes from latency on the survived animals. In this respect, the use of cationic liposomes coupled to gB1s and DTK peptides, as a local ocular vaccine, could represent an interesting approach in order to obtain a possible efficacy in protecting animals against a subsequent HSV-1 ocular challenge.
No preview · Article · Aug 2006 · International Journal of Pharmaceutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prodrug 5'-octanoyl-CPA (Oct-CPA) of the antiischemic N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) has been encapsulated by nanoprecipitation in poly(lactic acid) nanoparticles, which have been recovered by gel-filtration, ultra-centrifugation or dialysis. We have analysed how different surfactants and purification methods can influence the nanoparticle characteristics. The particle sizes have been obtained by scanning electron microscope, whereas a SdFFF system was employed to detect their distributions. The Oct-CPA release from nanoparticles and stabilities in human blood of free and encapsulated prodrug have been analysed by HPLC techniques. The effects of nanoparticles on CPA interaction toward adenosine A1 receptor (its action site) have been analysed using radiolabelled drugs. The smallest nanoparticles and the best degree of homogeneity have been obtained using sodium cholate; the best recovery has been achieved by dialysis, whereas gel-filtration and ultra-centrifugation have induced the greatest removal of surfactants. The release of Oct-CPA was better controlled from the nanoparticles obtained using Pluronic F68 and purified by gel-filtration or ultra-centrifugation. Similarly, these nanoparticles better increased the stability of the prodrug in human blood. In particular, the nanoparticles purified by ultra-centrifugation induced a strong stability to a fraction of the encapsulated Oct-CPA. Any interference by unloaded nanoparticles has been registered for CPA-adenosine A1 receptor interaction.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2006 · International Journal of Pharmaceutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Caffeine is the most widely used drug in the world and acts mainly through antagonism of the effects mediated by the adenosine receptor subtypes A1, A2A, A2B and A3. We determined whether repeated caffeine administration at different doses and for different periods of time (400 or 600 mg/day for 1 week and 400 mg/day for 2 weeks) alters human neutrophil A2A adenosine receptor density and function. Saturation binding assays showed an increase in affinity (K(D)) and density (B(max)) of A2A adenosine receptors after caffeine intake. These changes were accompanied by increases in cAMP accumulation and decreases in superoxide anion production after stimulation of the A2A receptor subtype using the agonist 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA). Binding and functional changes of A2A receptors returned to baseline after 48 h of caffeine withdrawal. The findings are consistent with a potential anti-inflammatory effect of caffeine mediated by neutrophil A2A receptors.
No preview · Article · Nov 2005 · Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Effect of temperature and temperature cycling on indomethacin release from poly(NIPAAm-co-AAm-co-HEA) microspheres.
Summary: Despite the large number of publications and patents concerning pH/thermoresponsive polymers, few data are available concerning the preparation of thermoresponsive cross-linked microspheres from preformed polymers. Therefore, N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylamide-co-(2-hydroxyethyl acrylate) copolymers were obtained as a new thermoresponsive material with a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) around 36 °C, in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4, and with a cross-linkable OH group in their structure. The LCST value was determined both by UV spectroscopy and microcalorimetric analysis. These copolymers were solubilised in acidified aqueous solution below their LCST, dispersed in mineral oil, and transformed into stable microspheres by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. The thermoresponsive microspheres were characterised by optical and scanning electron microscopy, degree of swelling, and water retention. The pore dimensions of the microspheres and the retention volumes of some drugs and typical compounds were evaluated at different temperatures by liquid chromatography. Indomethacin, as a model drug, was included in the microspheres by the solvent evaporation method. Finally, the influence of temperature and of temperature cycling on drug release was investigated.
No preview · Article · Oct 2005 · Macromolecular Bioscience
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe the synthesis and activities of a series of pseudopeptides containing an N-aryl-N'-hydroxyalkyl hydrazide core structure to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus protease and viral replication. Of the series, compound Hmb-Leu-N(Bzl)-N(CH2-CH-OH)-rPro-Boc (24) displayed the greatest inhibitory potency (IC50 < 1 microM) and exhibited enzymatic resistance and stability in vitro.
No preview · Article · Jun 2005 · European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a preliminary study concerning the encapsulation modalities in nanoparticles of the anti-ischemic drug N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) and its pro-drug 5'-octanoyl-CPA (Oct-CPA). The release of these compounds and the related pro-drug stability effects in human whole blood have been tested. Moreover, the influence of the delivery systems on CPA interaction toward human adenosine A1 receptor has been analysed. The nanospheres were prepared by nanoprecipitation or double emulsion solvent evaporation method using poly(lactic acid) and recovered by gel filtration or ultracentrifugation or dialysis. Free and encapsulated Oct-CPA was incubated in fresh blood and its stability was analysed with HPLC. Quite spherical nanoparticles with mean diameters ranging between 210+/-50 and 390+/-90 nm were obtained. No encapsulation occurred when CPA was used. Satisfactory results concerning drug content (0.1-1.1% w/w) and encapsulation efficiency (6-56%) were achieved when Oct-CPA was employed. The controlled release of the pro-drug was achieved, being released within a range of 1-4 h, or very slowly, depending on nanoparticle preparations. The hydrolysis rate of Oct-CPA in human whole blood appeared stabilized in human whole blood with modalities related to the release patterns. The presence of all nanoparticle preparations did not interfere with CPA interaction at its action site.