- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Early colonisation of oral surfaces by periodontal pathogens presents a significant risk factor for subsequent development of destructive disease affecting tissues that support the dentition. The aims of the present study were to establish the age-dependent relationship between sub-gingival profiles of 22 Prevotella species/phylotypes in children, adolescents and adults from an isolated Aboriginal community and, further, to use this information to identify Prevotella species that could serve as microbial risk indicators.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to obtain diverse profiles of Prevotella species associated with gingival sites in an isolated Aboriginal and an urban community by phylogenetic analysis and to establish patterns of association of identified Prevotella species in gingival sites. Species/phylotypes identified from the phylogenetic analysis of near full-length Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA gene sequences cloned from subgingival plaque samples obtained from an Aboriginal community were compared with those from an ethnically diverse urban metropolitan population suffering from periodontal disease. Specific primer sets were designed and validated for 22 distinct Prevotella species from the 24 species/phylotypes identified from both populations. Within the isolated Aboriginal community, gingival sites in adults were colonised by a mean of 15 different Prevotella species. Prevotella sp. oral clone P4PB24, Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella oralis, Prevotella denticola and Prevotella sp. strain P4P62 had the highest association with increasing probing depth in diseased sites (p < 0.05). P. intermedia and Prevotella sp. oral clone P4PB24, the Prevotella species significantly associated with increasing probing depth in diseased gingival sites and also strongly associated with P. gingivalis load (p < 0.05) in diseased gingival sites, showed significant correlation for co-colonisation (r = 0.6). Prevotella sp. oral clone B31FD, showing strong association with P. gingivalis load (p < 0.05) in diseased gingival sites, showed no significant correlation for co-colonisation with any other Prevotella species. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of Prevotella species associated with gingival sites for the informative evaluation of the epidemiology of infection by this genus.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies identified nine genes with increased expression in Streptococcus mutans biofilms of which six possessed putative ComX promoter sequences and were homologous to competence-induced genes in Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus gordonii and Bacillus subtilis. As competence increases in biofilms, a study was undertaken into the roles that these biofilm-induced genes might play in transformation. Only five of the nine gene deletions had a significant effect on transformation efficiency. Deletion of the genes for recombinase A, recA, DNA processing protein, dprA and single-stranded DNA-binding protein, ssbA, produced results comparable with those from other bacteria, supporting the contention that these proteins have similar functions in S. mutans competence. The uncharacterized genes SMU.769 and SMU.836 produced results in variance to deletion mutants of putative homologues in S. pneumoniae. Deletion of SMU.769 reduced chromosomal transformation 2.3-fold. SMU.769 belongs to a family of conserved genes induced by the competence-stimulating peptide and which have no established function. In contrast, deletion of SMU.836 reduced transformation of both plasmid and chromosomal DNA to <3%. Homology searches suggested that Smu.836 belongs to a family of competence-induced peptidoglycan hydrolases with a conserved enzyme domain and a species-variable cell-binding domain for which the best characterized member is the choline-binding protein D, CbpD, of S. pneumoniae.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In earlier studies we used molecular methods to identify the major bacterial consortia associated with advanced dentin caries. These consortia are dominated by bacteria from the families Lactobacillaceae, Streptococcaceae, Veillonellaceae (formerly Acidaminococcaceae), Eubacteriaceae, and Lachnospiraceae from the phylum Firmicutes; Coriobacteriaceae, Bifidobacteriaceae, and Propionibacteriaceae from the phylum Actinobacteria; and Prevotellaceae from the phylum Bacteroidetes, as well as fusobacteria. The phases of infection of vital pulp tissue by dentin microorganisms remain obscure. In the present study, fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed on sections of tissue embedded in resin. Probes for 16S rRNA corresponding to the major taxa of bacteria in carious dentin were used to provide information on the characteristics of pulp infection. Lactobacilli were prominent in 7 of 8 pulps determined to be at a limited stage of infection. Established infection (6 pulps) showed a more complex profile, with lactobacilli persisting in all of the lesions and with invasion of the necrotic regions of tissue by Bacteroidetes, fusobacteria, Lachnospiraceae, and Coriobacteriaceae in particular. Advanced infections (7 pulps) were characterized by mixed anaerobic species, with a strong representation by Coriobacteriaceae and Lachnospiraceae. Lactobacilli were not represented at this stage. Typically, groups of organisms were spatially isolated within the pulp tissue. Analysis indicated that lactobacilli could invade vital pulp tissue to achieve a very high biomass that was not associated with a detectable local inflammatory infiltrate. The findings establish that invasion of the dental pulp can be associated with a pronounced selection from the complex microbial populations within carious dentin, suggesting specific pathogenicity.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Marsupial mammals, born in an extremely atricial state with no functional immune system, offer a unique opportunity to investigate both the developing microbiome and its relationship to that of the mother and the potential influence of this microbiome upon the development of the immune system. In this study we used a well-established marsupial model animal, Macropus eugenii, the tammar wallaby, to document the microbiome of three related sites: the maternal pouch and saliva, and the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of the young animal. We used molecular-based methods, targeting the 16S rDNA gene to determine the bacterial diversity at these study sites. In the maternal pouch, 41 unique phylotypes, predominantly belonging to the phylum Actinobacteria, were detected, while in the saliva, 48 unique phylotypes were found that predominantly belonged to the phylum Proteobacteria. The GIT of the pouch young had a complex microbiome of 53 unique phylotypes, even though the pouch young were still permanently attached to the teat and had only been exposed to the external environment for a few minutes immediately after birth while making their way from the birth canal to the maternal pouch. Of these 53 phylotypes, only nine were detected at maternal sites. Overall, the majority of bacteria isolated were novel species (<97 % identity to known 16S rDNA sequences), and each study site (i.e. maternal pouch and saliva, and the GIT of the pouch young) possessed its own unique microbiome.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A predominant kgp biovar colonized subgingival sites and buccal and tongue mucosa in 45 of 56 adults in an isolated community. The presence of biovars 381, W83, and W83v, but not HG66, correlated with the Porphyromonas gingivalis load at diseased sites. Biovars W83 and W83v poorly colonized tongue and buccal mucosa.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methods for the optimal extraction of genomic DNA for real-time PCR enumeration of oral bacteria using the muramidase, mutanolysin, were developed using a simple in vitro oral flora model comprised of the facultative anaerobic gram-positive bacteria, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus mutans, the gram-positive anaerobe, Parvimonas micra, and the gram-negative anaerobes, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella melaninogenica and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Traditional, as well as more elaborate, methods of quantifying bacterial numbers, including colony counting and estimation of DNA content using 4',6-diamino-2-phenylindole were compared in order to validate the real-time PCR approach. Evidence was obtained that P. gingivalis nuclease activity adversely affected the extraction of double-stranded DNA from this bacterium either alone or when it formed part of a consortium with the other bacteria. This nuclease activity could be overcome by treatment of the bacteria with either 20 mM diethyl pyrocarbonate or 70% ethanol at 4 degrees C overnight. A final purification of the DNA to remove any potential PCR inhibitors was added to the protocol in order to accurately quantify the amount of DNA by real-time PCR and hence the number of bacteria in a sample.
Chapter: Chediak-Steinbrinck-Higashi Syndrome
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cathelicidins are important components of the innate immune system and have been identified in skin and epithelia of a range of mammals. In this study molecular techniques, including RACE-PCR, were used to identify the full cDNA sequence of a cathelicidin gene, MaeuCath8, from the Australian marsupial, the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii. This cathelicidin was not homologous to other such genes previously isolated from a tammar wallaby mammary gland EST library, however, it did contain 4 conserved cysteine residues which characterise the pre-propeptide and had 80% identity with a previously isolated bandicoot cathelicidin. Reverse transcriptase-PCR established the expression profile of MaeuCath8 in a range of tissues, including spleen, thymus, gastrointestinal tract, skin and liver, of the tammar wallaby from birth to adulthood. Expression of MaeuCath8 was observed in spleen and gastrointestinal tract of newborn animals and was observed in most tissues by 7 days post-partum. The results indicate that pouch young could synthesize their own antimicrobial peptides from an early age suggesting that this ability most likely plays a role in protecting the pouch young from infection prior to the development of immunocompetence.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antibodies to the human cathelicidin, hCAP18 have been used to examine epithelial tissues of adult and pouch young marsupials. Immunoreactivity was observed in skin, gastrointestinal tract, lung and mammary node of adults as well as skin, gastrointestinal tract, lung and bone marrow of pouch young. The locations of expression were similar to that reported in human tissues. Although the antibody to hCAP18 is primarily directed at the C-terminal antimicrobial peptide LL37, our observations suggest recognition of a common conserved element of this cathelicidin and lead us to conclude that the epithelial tissues of marsupials are sites of production of cathelicidin. This is consistent with observations in other mammals but is the first report of expression of these compounds in marsupials.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The bacterial diversity of the openings of the urogenital and anal tracts of the adult female tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii, was determined in order to ascertain whether the physical proximity of the openings of these tracts within the cloaca affected the two populations of bacteria. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses of 42 wallabies identified 81 different terminal fragments, indicative of diverse and complex microbiomes at these anatomical locations. Subsequent amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) identified 72 phylotypes from the urogenital tract and 50 from the anal tract. Twenty-two of these phylotypes were common to both tracts. Phylogenetic analysis of sequenced 16S rDNA showed that 83 % of the phylotypes were unidentified species based on the premise that any sequence possessing <97 % homology to a known bacterial species or phylotype was novel. Thus, despite the close proximity of the openings of the urogenital and anal tracts within the cloaca, the two sites retained a diverse range of distinct bacteria, with only a small percentage of overlapping species.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The crystal structure of GcnA, an N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase from Streptococcus gordonii, was solved by multiple wavelength anomalous dispersion phasing using crystals of selenomethionine-substituted protein. GcnA is a homodimer with subunits each comprised of three domains. The structure of the C-terminal alpha-helical domain has not been observed previously and forms a large dimerisation interface. The fold of the N-terminal domain is observed in all structurally related glycosidases although its function is unknown. The central domain has a canonical (beta/alpha)(8) TIM-barrel fold which harbours the active site. The primary sequence and structure of this central domain identifies the enzyme as a family 20 glycosidase. Key residues implicated in catalysis have different conformations in two different crystal forms, which probably represent active and inactive conformations of the enzyme. The catalytic mechanism for this class of glycoside hydrolase, where the substrate rather than the enzyme provides the cleavage-inducing nucleophile, has been confirmed by the structure of GcnA complexed with a putative reaction intermediate analogue, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine-thiazoline. The catalytic mechanism is discussed in light of these and other family 20 structures.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For Indigenous Australian children living in remote communities, onset of otitis media commences within weeks of birth and is associated with early nasopharyngeal colonisation with multiple respiratory bacterial pathogens: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. The high prevalence of eardrum perforation and the failure of standard therapies to cure or prevent OM in this population require urgent attention. The objective of this study was to measure the changes in nasopharyngeal bacterial flora between birth and first episode of otitis media. For 10 randomly selected Indigenous children with early onset otitis media, S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis, S. aureus, and total bacterial load were enumerated in serial nasopharyngeal swabs using real-time quantitative PCR. Between 0 and 3 weeks of age, all 10 infants had bilaterally normal ears. At 3-6 weeks of age, seven of eight infants examined had otitis media. By 6-13 weeks of age, all 10 infants had otitis media. The relative density of respiratory pathogens among total nasopharyngeal flora increased significantly with onset of otitis media, and the majority of children became colonised with the three respiratory pathogens. There was no association between OM onset and S. aureus load. Onset of otitis media between 3 and 6 weeks of life was associated with a significant increase in all major bacterial OM pathogens (S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis), as well as total bacterial load in the nasopharynx. Interventions to prevent acquisition of multiple OM pathogens in the first weeks of life are needed.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Selective culture of human carious dentine for Veillonella strains resulted in the isolation of two strains of a Gram-negative, coccus-shaped bacterium that has not been described previously. Comparative 16S rRNA and dnaK gene sequence analysis indicated that the two strains were homogeneous and comprised a distinct lineage within the genus Veillonella, phylogenetically most closely related to Veillonella rodentium. This was supported by DNA-DNA hybridization, which showed clearly that the two strains were similar and distinct from other Veillonella species, and the production of major cellular fatty acids (C(13 : 0) and C(17 : 1)omega8), which is consistent with other members of the genus Veillonella. Based on these observations, strains RBV81 and RBV106(T) represent a novel species, for which the name Veillonella denticariosi sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain RBV106(T) (=CIP 109448(T) =CCUG 54362(T) =DSM 19009(T)).
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Background Nasal colonisation with otitis media (OM) pathogens, particularly Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis, is a precursor to the onset of OM. Many children experience asymptomatic nasal carriage of these pathogens whereas others will progress to otitis media with effusion (OME) or suppurative OM. We observed a disparity in the prevalence of suppurative OM between Aboriginal children living in remote communities and non-Aboriginal children attending child-care centres; up to 60% and
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Compared with traditional two-dimensional (2D) proteome analysis of Streptococcus mutans grown as a biofilm from a planktonic culture at steady state (Rathsam et al., Microbiol. 2005, 151, 1823-1837), the use of 2D fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) led to a 3-fold increase in the number of identified protein spots that were significantly altered in their level of expression (P < 0.050). Of the 73 identified proteins, only nine were up-regulated in biofilm grown cells. The results supported the previously surmised hypothesis that general metabolic functions were down-regulated in response to a reduction in growth rate in mature S. mutans biofilms. Up-regulation of competence proteins without any concomitant increase in stress-responsive proteins was confirmed, while the levels of glucosyltransferase C (GtfC), involved in glucan formation, O-acetylserine sulfhyrylase (cysteine synthetase A; CsyK), implicated in the formation of [Fe-S] clusters, and a hypothetical protein encoded by the open reading frame, SMu0188, were also up-regulated.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mature biofilm and planktonic cells of Streptococcus mutans cultured in a neutral pH environment were subjected to comparative proteome analysis. Of the 242 protein spots identified, 48 were significantly altered in their level of expression (P<0.050) or were unique to planktonic or biofilm-grown cells. Among these were four hypothetical proteins as well as proteins known to be associated with the maintenance of competence or found to possess a cin-box-like element upstream of their coding gene. Most notable among the non-responsive genes were those encoding the molecular chaperones DnaK, GroEL and GroES, which are considered to be up-regulated by sessile growth. Analysis of the rest of the proteome indicated that a number of cellular functions associated with carbon uptake and cell division were down-regulated. The data obtained were consistent with the hypothesis that a reduction in the general growth rate of mature biofilms of S. mutans in a neutral pH environment is associated with the maintenance of transformation without the concomitant stress response observed during the transient state of competence in bacterial batch cultures.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Real-time PCR analysis of the total bacterial load in advanced carious lesions has shown that the total load exceeds the number of cultivable bacteria. This suggests that an unresolved complexity exists in bacteria associated with advanced caries. In this report, the profile of the microflora of carious dentine was explored by using DNA extracted from 10 lesions selected on the basis of comparable total microbial load and on the relative abundance of Prevotella spp. Using universal primers for the 16S rRNA gene, PCR amplicons were cloned, and approximately 100 transformants were processed for each lesion. Phylogenetic analysis of 942 edited sequences demonstrated the presence of 75 species or phylotypes in the 10 carious lesions. Up to 31 taxa were represented in each sample. A diverse array of lactobacilli were found to comprise 50% of the species, with prevotellae also abundant, comprising 15% of the species. Other taxa present in a number of lesions or occurring with high abundance included Selenomonas spp., Dialister spp., Fusobacterium nucleatum, Eubacterium spp., members of the Lachnospiraceae family, Olsenella spp., Bifidobacterium spp., Propionibacterium sp., and Pseudoramibacter alactolyticus. The mechanisms by which such diverse patterns of bacteria extend carious lesions, including the aspect of infection of the vital dental pulp, remain unclear.
Westmead Millennium InstituteSydney, New South Wales, Australia
Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center New Orleans
New Orleans, Louisiana, United States
- Department of Microbiology, Immunology & Parasitology
University of SydneySydney, New South Wales, Australia