Publications (184)773.99 Total impact
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cisplatin-based induction chemotherapy before surgery or irradiation has improved the survival of patients with Stage III nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Encouraged by earlier results with preoperative MVP (cisplatin [120 mg/m(2) or 25 mg/m(2)/week], vinblastine, and mitomycin) for Stage IIIA patients with clinically apparent mediastinal (N2) disease, the authors conducted a Phase II trial of the safety and efficacy of induction MVP400 with the dose intensity of cisplatin doubled from 25 to 50 mg/m(2) per week. From October 1992 to March 1996, 37 patients with Stage IIIA (26) or Stage IIIB (11) NSCLC began the MVP400 induction chemotherapy program. Four doses of cisplatin (100 mg/m(2)), 7 doses of vinblastine, and 2 doses of mitomycin were given over 9 weeks. Patients received either surgery or irradiation after induction treatment. Overall, the response rate was 65% (95% confidence interval, 49-81%) with a complete resection rate of 67%. The median survival was 17 months, with 66% of patients alive at 1 year. Complete resection and Stage IIIA involvement were favorable prognostic indicators for survival. No Stage IIIB patients underwent a complete resection. Myelosuppression was the most common side effect. There were no treatment-related deaths. Although high response and complete resection rates were again demonstrated, results with the MVP400 regimen were not improved over those achieved with MVP regimen tested earlier with Stage IIIA (N2) patients. The authors continue to recommend MVP as an induction chemotherapy regimen for clinical trials.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Distant metastases from carcinomas that arise from the head and neck region are infrequent. The most common site is the lung. To evaluate the results of resection of pulmonary metastases for head and neck cancers, we reviewed our own cases of these metastases. Between November 1966 and March 1995, 83 patients with pulmonary metastases from head and neck cancers underwent 94 thoracic operations. All patients had obtained or had obtainable locoregional control of their primary head and neck cancers. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression models were used to analyze the prognostic factors for survival after metastasectomy. Median age was 53 years (range, 17-77). Fifty-nine were male and 24 were female. Forty-one patients had squamous cell cancers, and 36 had glandular tumors that consisted mostly of thyroid and adenoid cystic carcinomas. The median disease-free interval from the time of treatment of the head and neck primary cancers to the development of pulmonary metastases was 27 months. Sixty-eight (82%) patients had complete resection. Overall operative mortality rate was 2%. Overall actuarial survival rate after metastasectomy was 50% at 5 years. Patients with glandular tumors had a 5-year survival rate of 64% compared with 34% for patients with squamous cell cancers. When the patients with glandular tumors were analyzed according to their histology, patients with adenoid cystic carcinomas had an 84% 5-year survival, but none remained disease-free. Patients with thyroid cancers fared similarly whether they were treated medically or surgically. On multivariate analysis, the adverse prognostic factors for patients with squamous cell cancers were incomplete resection, age greater than 50 years, and disease-free interval less than or equal to 2 years. Approximately 30% of patients with pulmonary metastases from squamous cell cancers of the head and neck who underwent complete resection of all their metastases can expect to achieve long-term survival. The role of pulmonary resection for patients with glandular tumors is unclear.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resection of the sternum can be performed safely and offers the best choice for cure for a primary sternal malignancy. Survival after resection is dependent on the histology and grade of the tumor.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The long-term survival after operation of patients with lung cancer involving the chest wall is known to be related to regional nodal involvement and completeness of resection, but it is not known whether the depth of chest wall involvement or the type of resection (extrapleural or en bloc) affects either the rate of local recurrence or survival. We retrospectively reviewed the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center experience between 1974 and 1993 of 334 patients undergoing surgical exploration for lung cancer involving the chest wall or parietal pleura. Of 334 patients who underwent exploration, 175 had apparently complete (R0) resections, 94 had incomplete (R1 or R2) resections, and 65 underwent exploration without resection. The overall 5-year survival of R0 patients was 32%, of R1 or R2 patients 4%, and of patients undergoing exploration without resection 0%. In the patients undergoing R0 resections, the extent of chest wall involvement was limited to the parietal pleura in 80 patients, and extended into the ribs or soft tissues in 95. The 5-year survival of R0 patients with T3 N0 M0 disease was 49%, T3 N1 M0 disease 27%, and T3 N2 M0 disease 15% (p < 0.0003). Independent of lymph node involvement, a survival advantage was observed in R0 patients if the chest wall involvement was limited to parietal pleura only, rather than invading into the chest wall musculature or ribs. Survival of patients with lung cancer invading the chest wall after resection with curative intent is highly dependent on the extent of nodal involvement and the completeness of resection, and much less so on the depth of chest wall invasion.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine (in survivors of 5 years after resection of their lung cancer) whether age, sex, histologic condition, and age have any influence on furthering survival beyond 5 years. From 1973 to 1989, 686 patients were alive and well 5 years after complete resection of their lung cancers. Survival analysis was carried out with only deaths from lung cancer treated as deaths. Deaths from other causes were treated as withdrawals. Multivariate Cox regression was used to test the relationship of survival to age, sex, histologic condition, and stage. The population in this study had the following characteristics at the time of operation: The male/female ratio was 1.38:1, and the median age was 61 years. The histologic condition of their lung cancer was adenocarcinoma in 412 patients, squamous cell in 244 patients, large cell carcinoma in 29 patients, and small cell carcinoma in 1 patient. The stage of the disease was stage IA in 263 patients, IB in 261 patients, IIA in 12 patients, IIB in 68 patients, and IIIA in 82 patients. The extent of resection was a lobectomy or bilobectomy in 579 patients, pneumonectomy in 55 patients, and wedge resection or segmentectomy in 52 patients. A recurrence or a new lung primary occurrence was considered as failure to remain free of lung cancer. The median follow-up on all patients was 122 months from initial treatment. Of the 686 patients, 26 patients experienced the development of late recurrence and 36 new cancers, beyond 5 years. Overall survival for 5 additional years after a 5-year check point was 92.4%. Likewise, survival by nodal status was 93% for N0 tumors, 95% for N1 tumors, and 90% for N2 tumors. Survival by stage was 93% for stage I tumors and 91% for stage II or IIIA tumors. In patients with surgically treated lung cancer, neither age, sex, histologic condition, nor stage is a predictor of the risk of late recurrence or new lung cancer. The only prognostic factor appears to be the survival of the patient free of lung cancer for 5 years from the initial treatment, with a resultant favorable outlook to remain well for 10 or more years.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. The role of surgery in patients with pulmonary metastatic germ cell tumors has been evolving since the 1970s. To evaluate the results of pulmonary resection, we reviewed our 28-year experience.Methods. Between July 1967 and May 1995, 157 patients with testicular germ cell tumors underwent pulmonary resections for suspected metastases. Their clinical and pathological data were reviewed. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression models were used to analyze prognostic factors for survival after resection of metastatic disease.Results. All patients were male with median age of 27 years (range 15–65). Complete resection was accomplished in 155 (99%) patients. Viable carcinoma was present in 44% (70) of the patients. Forty-one (26%) patients had metastases to other sites after pulmonary metastasectomy. The overall actuarial survival 5 years after pulmonary resection was 68% for the entire group and 82% for patients diagnosed after 1985. On multivariate analysis, the adverse prognostic factors were metastases to nonpulmonary visceral sites (p = 0.0069) and the presence of viable carcinoma in the resected specimen (p < 0.0001).Conclusions. With current chemotherapy regimens, almost 85% of the patients with testicular germ cell tumors undergoing complete resection of their pulmonary metastases can be expected to achieve long-term survival.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary sarcomas of the mediastinum are rare, and data concerning treatment and results of therapy are sparse. To assess presentation, management, prognostic factors, and survival in mediastinal sarcomas. We reviewed our experience with 47 patients with the diagnosis of primary sarcoma of the mediastinum. Data were collected from a computerized institutional database and medical records. Survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method and comparisons of survival by log rank test. The median age of 47 patients with mediastinal sarcoma was 39 years (range 2.5 to 69 years), with a male/female ratio of 1.6. The most common complaints were chest/shoulder pain (38%) and dyspnea (23%). The most common tumor types were malignant peripheral nerve tumor (26%), spindle cell sarcoma (15%), leiomyosarcoma (9%), and liposarcoma (9%). Operation was the primary treatment modality in 72% of cases (n = 34); 22 sarcomas (47%) were completely resected. The overall 5-year survival was 32%. High-grade lesions had a significantly decreased survival (5-year survival = 27%) compared with low-grade tumors (5-year survival = 66%) (p = 0.05). The overwhelming factor determining survival was the ability to completely resect the tumors (5-year survival 49% for complete resection; 3-year survival 18% for incomplete or no resection) (p = 0.0016). Despite complete resection, local recurrence occurred in 64% of cases. Because the overall survival for patients with mediastinal sarcomas is 32% and the local recurrence is 64% for tumors completely resected, aggressive adjuvant therapy should continue to be systematically explored.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thymic carcinomas are currently staged by Masaoka classification, a staging system for thymomas. We retrospectively evaluated surgical patients with thymic carcinoma to determine prognostic factors and to evaluate the usefulness of Masaoka staging in this disease. Our computerized tumor registry yielded 118 patients with thymoma. Review of pathologic material revealed 43 cases of thymic carcinoma. Collection of data was by review of hospital and physician charts and telephone contact with patients. Analysis of prognostic factors was performed in patients undergoing complete resection by the method of Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression. Between 1949 and 1993, 43 patients underwent surgery for thymic carcinoma. Overall survival was 65% at 5 years and 35% at 10 years. Overall recurrence was 65% at 5 years and 75% at 10 years. On univariate analysis, survival was not dependent on age, sex, tumor size, or Masaoka stage but was dependent on innominate vessel invasion. By multivariate analysis, survival was dependent only on innominate vessel invasion. Patients with thymic carcinoma have a high rate of recurrence. Tumor invasion of the innominate vessels is associated with a particularly poor prognosis. Although Masaoka staging is useful in staging patients with thymoma, it does not appear to predict outcome for patients with thymic carcinoma.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Surgical treatment of pulmonary metastases dates back to the late 19th century. However, for the ensuing 50 years, the number of cases operated upon were few. Since the 1960s, the eligibility of patients for resection of pulmonary metastases has broadened. Neither the number of lesions nor the length of the disease-free interval excludes a patient from resection provided the primary tumor has been treated adequately and the patient can tolerate the resection. Resection of pulmonary metastases is predicated on the absence of effective treatment of nonoperative means and the ability to safely and completely resect all tumor and yet conserve sufficient lung tissue to provide a good quality of life. Major areas of controversy that remain are the number of metastases amenable to complete resection, the disease-free interval, the applicability by tumor type, and the role of chemotherapy. The data published to date suggest that pulmonary resection for metastases can improve overall survival with minimal morbidity and mortality.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Surgical treatment is offered to all patients with stage I or II disease and to specific groups of patients with stage III or IV disease. Cisplatin based on regimens of induction chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy have proven to be valuable in stage IIIA (N2) disease. We now recommend induction therapy on an investigational basis to most patients with stage I or II tumors and to all those with stage IIIA tumors, when the 5 year survival is anticipated to be less than 50% with conventional therapy. Many new chemotherapy agents effective in advanced stage lung cancer are currently integrated into this multimodality approach in hopes of further improvement in tumor control and survival.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the normal findings at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the postpneumonectomy space (PPS), and to evaluate the utility of MRI in detection of recurrent tumor in the postpneumonectomy chest, 32 MRI scans were performed in 31 patients at varying time intervals after pneumonectomy. Eleven patients also had 12 computed tomography (CT) scans performed at the same time to evaluate possible tumor recurrence. Of the 32 scans, 5 demonstrated complete obliteration of the fluid containing PPS, and 4 showed gas in the PPS; the remainder (n = 23) demonstrated persistence of fluid-filled spaces of varying size. The presence of a fibrotic rim of tissue was constant. In 11 patients with clinically suspected tumor recurrences, both CT and MRI were obtained: the two modalities performed with similar accuracy in diagnosing tumor recurrence at 16 sites; CT detected opposite-lung metastatic nodules not seen on MRI in one patient, and a rib metastasis described as "indeterminate" on MRI in a second patient. MRI detected a focus of recurrence in the PPS that was indeterminate on CT. There is considerable variability in the amount of fluid seen in the PPS on MRI. CT remains the procedure of choice for routine follow-up or in suspected tumor recurrence in the postpneumonectomy patient; MRI can be helpful if the CT scan is nondiagnostic or equivocal.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: The International Registry of Lung Metastases was established in 1991 to assess the long-term results of pulmonary metastasectomy. Methods: The Registry has accrued 5206 cases of lung metastasectomy, from 18 departments of thoracic surgery in Europe (n = 13), the United States (n = 4) and Canada (n = 1). Of these patients, 4572 (88%) underwent complete surgical resection. The primary tumor was epithelial in 2260 cases, sarcoma in 2173, germ cell in 363, and melanoma in 328. The disease-free interval was 0 to 11 months in 2199 cases, 12 to 35 months in 1857, and more than 36 months in 1620. Single metastases accounted for 2383 cases and multiple lesions for 2726. Mean follow-up was 46 months. Analysis was performed by Kaplan-Meier estimates of survival, relative risks of death, and multivariate Cox model. Results: The actuarial survival after complete metastasectomy was 36% at 5 years, 26% at 10 years, and 22% at 15 years (median 35 months); the corresponding values for incomplete resection were 13% at 5 years and 7% at 10 years (median 15 months). Among complete resections, the 5-year survival was 33% for patients with a disease-free interval of 0 to 11 months and 45% for those with a disease-free interval of more than 36 months; 43% for single lesions and 27% for four or more lesions. Multivariate analysis showed a better prognosis for patients with germ cell tumors, disease-free intervals of 36 months or more, and single metastases. Conclusions: These results confirm that lung metastasectomy is a safe and potentially curative procedure. Resectability, disease-free interval, and number of metastases enabled us to design a simple system of classification valid for different tumor types. (J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1997;113:37-49)
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: From 1930 to 1994, 54 patients with primary malignant tumors of the sternum were seen. Fifty patients were first seen with a mass, and one half of them also had pain in the sternal region. Two patients had no symptoms at presentation. Among 39 solid tumors were 26 chondrosarcomas, 10 osteosarcomas, 1 fibrosarcoma, 1 angiosarcoma, and 1 malignant fibrous histiocytoma. Of these, 25 were low-grade and 14 were high-grade tumors. Among 15 small cell tumors were 8 plasmacytomas, 6 malignant lymphomas, and 1 Ewing's sarcoma. Partial or subtotal sternectomy was done in 37 patients and total sternectomy in 3. Of the remaining 14 patients, 3 had local excision; 10 had external radiation or chemotherapy without operation, or both; and 1 had no treatment. All but one patient treated by wide resection (N = 40) had some form of skeletal reconstruction of the chest wall defect. Thirty-one (78%) underwent repair with Marlex mesh, and in 25 this was combined with methyl methacrylate. The skin edges were closed per primum in 32 patients; 8 required muscle, omentum, or skin flaps. Resection in chondrosarcomas yielded a 5-year survival (Kaplan-Meier) of 80% (median follow-up, 17 years). The 5-year survival in osteosarcomas was 14%. Resection was curative in 64% of low-grade sarcomas but in only 7% of high-grade sarcomas. In small cell tumors, resection and radiation were helpful for local control; all failures were a result of distant metastases. We conclude that primary sarcomas of the sternum though uncommon are potentially curable by wide surgical excision. With rigid prostheses to repair the skeletal defects, the surgical complication rates are low. Overall survival after complete surgical resection is related to tumor histologic type and grade.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recurrence after resection of non-small cell lung carcinoma is generally associated with a poor outcome and is treated with either systemic agents or palliative irradiation. Recently, long-term survival has been reported after resection of isolated brain metastases from non-small cell lung carcinoma, but resection of other metastatic sites has not been explored fully. We have identified 14 patients who had solitary extracranial metastases treated aggressively after curative treatment of their non-small cell lung carcinoma. The histology was squamous carcinoma in 5, adenocarcinoma in 8, and large cell carcinoma in 1. Initially, 3 patients had stage I, 5 stage II, and 6 stage IIIa disease. The sites of metastases included extrathoracic lymph nodes (six), skeletal muscle (four), bone (three), and small bowel (one). The median disease-free interval before metastases was 19.5 months (range, 5 to 71 months). Complete surgical resection of the metastatic site was the treatment in 12 of 14 patients. Two patients received only curative irradiation to the metastatic site, with complete response. The overall 10-year actuarial survival (Kaplan-Meier) was 86%. To date, 11 patients are alive and well after treatment of their metastases (17 months to 13 years), 1 has recurrent disease, 1 died of recurrent widespread metastases, and 2 died of unrelated causes. Long-term survival is possible after treatment of isolated metastases to various sites from non-small cell lung carcinoma, but patient selection is critical.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of cisplatin-based induction chemotherapy followed by surgical resection or radiation has improved the poor prognosis of stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In vitro studies indicate that p53 can modulate cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity, but the molecular genetic features determining response or resistance to cisplatin in vivo must be defined. For this reason, tumor specimens from 52 patients with stage IIIA NSCLC entered in a prospective clinical trial of cisplatin-based induction chemotherapy followed by surgical resection were examined for p53 expression by immunohistochemical staining before and after induction chemotherapy. p53 expression was correlated with clinical and pathological response using Fisher's exact test. No correlation was established between p53 expression and clinical response because 47 of the 52 patients studied had a major response. However, a significant association was observed between aberrant p53 expression and resistance to chemotherapy as assessed by pathological response. Only 3 of the 20 patients whose tumors exhibited a high level (+ + to + + + +) of p53 staining experienced a major (+ + + to + + + +) pathological response to chemotherapy. Only 7 of 52 cases examined before and after chemotherapy treatment exhibited a change in the level of p53 expression after cisplatin-based chemotherapy. These results indicate that cisplatin alters p53 expression infrequently and suggest a direct link between aberrant p53 expression and resistance to cisplatin-based chemotherapy in NSCLC.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite complete surgical excision, malignant thymomas often recur with resultant death. We reviewed our series to determine which factors independently predict survival after surgical resection. A retrospective analysis of patients operated on for thymoma between 1949 and 1993 at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center was performed. Clinical data were collected from chart review. Only patients with a pathology report confirming the diagnosis of thymoma were included in this analysis. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were generated and comparisons of survival analyzed by log rank test. Multivariate analysis was performed by the Cox proportional hazard model. One hundred eighteen patients with thymoma underwent operation. There were 86 complete resections (73%), 18 partial resections (15%), and 14 biopsies (12%). By Masaoka staging, 25 patients were stage I (21%), 41 stage II (35%), 43 stage III (36%), and 9 stage IVa (8%). Overall survival was 77% at 5 years and 55% at 10 years. Tumor recurred in 25 (29%) of 86 completely resected thymomas. Stage of disease (p = 0.03) was the only independent prognostic factor affecting recurrence. By multivariate analysis, stage (p = 0.003), tumor size (p = 0.0001), histology (p = 0.004), and extent of surgical resection (p = 0.0006) were independent predictors of long-term survival. Patients with stage I disease require no further therapy after complete surgical resection. Neoadjuvant therapy should be considered for patients with large tumors and invasive disease.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A mediastinal lymph node dissection as opposed to lymph node sampling should be an integral part of the operation in all patients with resectable lung cancers. A systematic mediastinal node dissection affords the most accurate staging and a long-term survival in some patients when the positive regional nodes are also removed. It is safe and easy to do, adds only 20 to 30 minutes to the surgical procedure, and morbidity is minimal. Our reported survival data have been based on the routine use of mediastinal lymph node dissection in conjunction with pulmonary resection. Techniques of lymph node dissection for both right- and left-sided tumors are described along with a historical background of their evolution.
Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
New York City, New York, United States
- • Thoracic Oncology Service
- • Thoracic Service
- • Department of Pathology
Cornell UniversityИтак, New York, United States