[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify risk factors for the development of corneal infiltrative events (CIEs) associated with contact lens wear, and to report other relevant clinical characteristics.
A series of symptomatic contact lens wearers presenting consecutively to a large hospital clinic over a 1-year period were examined. The clinical severity of any CIE was determined with a scoring system, and general and lens-specific information was captured with a questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the association between a range of risk factors and the occurrence of any CIE and the subset of cases categorized as severe keratitis. Three quasi-independent control groups were used for this analysis: hospital, lens-matched, and population. The relationship between clinical severity and the delay in attending the hospital was investigated. The prevalence of symptoms and initial actions taken by patients are reported.
Factors identified as being associated with an increased risk of development of a CIE include: wearing modality/lens type (greatest risk for extended-wear hydrogel lenses of 7.1 vs. daily wear hydrogel lenses), male gender (relative risk 1.4), smoking (1.4), the absence of relevant ocular (1.8) and general health (2.4) problems, and the late winter months (greatest risk in March of 3.6 vs. July). The overall predictive value of these risk factors for a given individual was low. Shorter time delays in hospital attendance were associated with increasing severity of keratitis. Eye soreness was the most common initial symptom (prevalence 69%), and the most frequent initial course of action taken by the patient was lens removal (prevalence 50%).
Risk factors for the development of contact lens keratitis were identified that, although being of limited predictive value for individual patients, highlight general associations that may assist in the management of contact lens wearers. Such risk factors may also assist in the development of a more complete understanding of the etiology of contact-lens-associated CEIs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between the size, location, and clinical severity of corneal infiltrative events (CIEs) associated with contact lens wear.
We examined a series of contact lens wearers, presenting consecutively to a large hospital clinic, who had any form of CIE. The severity of the CIE was quantified using a clinical severity matrix based on scores attributed to each of 10 signs and symptoms. The infiltrate was accurately drawn on a schematic diagram of the ocular surface, and from this, we determined its size (i.e., largest dimension) and distance from the limbus. Cartograms were constructed to illustrate the size and location of the corneal infiltrates according to wearing modality and lens type.
Useable data pertaining to 111 patients were analyzed. A significant positive correlation was found between the distance of the infiltrate from the limbus versus clinical severity (p = 0.002), but not between the distance of the infiltrate from the limbus versus infiltrate size (p = 0.97). The cartograms revealed a tendency for infiltrates to occur in the superior cornea of patients wearing extended wear silicone hydrogel lenses (p = 0.0002) in the central cornea of patients wearing daily wear hydrogel daily disposable lenses (p = 0.007) and in the peripheral cornea of patients wearing daily wear hydrogel (excluding daily disposable) lenses (p = 0.0006).
These data statistically validate the previously held anecdotal notion that CIEs which occur in the peripheral cornea are less clinically severe than those which occur in the central cornea. Consideration of the distribution of CIEs may facilitate a better understanding of the etiology of these events and can serve to alert practitioners as to their likely clinical presentation.
No preview · Article · Jul 2005 · Optometry and Vision Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: To determine the incidence and morbidity (visual loss) of hospital-presenting corneal infiltrative events (CIEs) associated with the wearing of current generation contact lenses.Methods: All contact lens wearers presenting with any form of corneal infiltrate/ulcer to a hospital centre in Manchester, UK, were surveyed in this 12-month, prospective, hospital-based epidemiological study. A clinical severity matrix was used to quantify the overall severity of presenting signs and symptoms. The size of the hospital catchment population and the wearing modalities (daily wear [DW] or extended wear [EW]) and lens types used in that population were estimated from relevant demographic and market data to facilitate the calculation of incidence. We also attempted to ascertain, from their eye care practitioners, the visual acuity (VA) of patients suffering from CIEs prior to and at about six months following attendance at the hospital.Results: During the survey period, 118 patients presented with CIEs of varying severity. The annual incidence (cases per 10,000 wearers) for all wearing modalities and lens types is 21.3 (95 per cent confidence interval 17.8 to 25.5). The incidence of CIEs for each wearing modality and lens type is: DW rigid, 8.6 (3.9 to 18.7); DW hydrogel daily disposable, 14.0 (9.3 to 21.0); DW hydrogel (excluding daily disposable), 20.4 (15.9 to 26.2); DW silicone hydrogel, 55.9 (9.9 to 309.6); EW rigid, zero (0.0 to 1758.8); EW hydrogel, 144.6 (66.4 to 311.8) and EW silicone hydrogel, 118.6 (75.2 to 186.7). The risk of developing a CIE with EW lenses was 8.1 (5.3 to 12.5) times greater than that with DW lenses (p < 0.0001). Although there was no difference between EW hydrogel and EW silicone hydrogel lenses with respect to the risk of developing CIEs, the clinical severity of CIEs was greater with EW hydrogel lenses (p = 0.04). Results of VA for pre-and post-hospital attendance were obtained from 38 patients, none of whom lost more than one line of VA. For the study population, zero patients (95 per cent CI: 0 to 9.2 per cent) suffered a significant loss of VA as a result of developing a CIE.Conclusions: Overall, there is an eight times higher incidence of CIEs in wearers who sleep in contact lenses compared with wearers who use lenses only during the waking hours. For those who choose to routinely or intermittently sleep in soft contact lenses, silicone hydrogels are the lens of first choice because CIEs are less clinically severe with this lens type compared with hydrogel lenses. The rate of significant visual loss as a result of developing a CIE is low.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2005 · Clinical and Experimental Optometry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the incidence of non-severe keratitis (NSK) and severe keratitis (SK) among wearers of current generation contact lenses.
A 12 month, prospective, hospital based epidemiological study was conducted by examining all contact lens wearers presenting with a corneal infiltrate/ulcer to a hospital centre in Manchester. A clinical severity matrix was used to differentiate between NSK and SK, based on the severity of signs and symptoms. The size of the hospital catchment population and the wearing modalities (daily wear (DW) or extended wear (EW)) and lens types being used were estimated from relevant demographic and market data.
During the survey period, 80 and 38 patients presented with NSK and SK, respectively. The annual incidences (cases per 10,000 wearers) for each wearing modality and lens type were: DW rigid--NSK 5.7, SK 2.9; DW hydrogel daily disposable--NSK 9.1, SK 4.9; DW hydrogel (excluding daily disposable)--NSK 14.1, SK 6.4; DW silicone hydrogel--NSK 55.9, SK 0.0; EW rigid--NSK 0.0, SK 0.0; EW hydrogel--NSK 48.2, SK 96.4; EW silicone hydrogel--NSK 98.8, SK 19.8. The difference in SK between EW hydrogel and EW silicone hydrogel was significant (p = 0.04).
A clinical severity matrix has considerable utility in assessing contact lens related keratitis. There is a significantly higher incidence of SK in wearers who sleep in contact lenses compared with those who only use lenses during the waking hours. Those who choose to sleep in lenses should be advised to wear silicone hydrogel lenses, which carry a five times decreased risk of SK for extended wear compared with hydrogel lenses.
Full-text · Article · May 2005 · British Journal of Ophthalmology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Like other lens types, the new generation of silicone hydrogel contact lenses can be associated with a spectrum of ocular complications. Most tend to be very minor, but serious and sight-threatening complications can occur. We present four such cases with microbial keratitis following extended wear of these lenses. Cultures were positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa in three cases and all three of these suffered lasting visual impairment. We describe our findings and discuss possible risk factors.