[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Laparoscopic techniques are difficult to master, especially for surgeons who did not receive such training during residency. To help urologists master challenging laparoscopic skills, a unique 5-day mini-residency (M-R) program was established at the University of California, Irvine. The first 101 participants in this program were evaluated on their laparoscopic skills acquisition at the end of the 5-day experience.
Two urologists are accepted per week into 1 of 4 training modules: (1) ureteroscopy/percutaneous renal access; (2) laparoscopic ablative renal surgery; (3) laparoscopic reconstructive renal surgery; and (4) robot-assisted prostatectomy. The program consists of didactic lectures, pelvic trainer and virtual reality simulator practice, animal and cadaver laboratory sessions, and observation or participation in human surgeries. Skills testing (ST) simulating open, laparoscopic, and robotic surgery is assessed in all of the M-R participants on training days 1 and 5. Tests include ring transfer, suture threading, cutting, and suturing. Performance is evaluated by an experienced observer using the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill (OSATS) scoring system. Statistical methods used include the paired sample t test and analysis of variance at a confidence level of P<or=0.05.
Between July 2003 and June 2005, 101 urologists participated in the M-R program. The mean participant age was 47 years (range, 31 to 70). The open surgical format had the highest ST scores followed by the robotic and then the laparoscopic formats. The final ST scores were significantly higher than the initial ST scores (P<0.05) for the laparoscopic (58 vs. 52) and the robotic (114 vs. 95) formats. Open surgical ST scores did not change significantly during the training program (191 vs. 194) (P=0.17).
Laparoscopic and robotic ST scores, but not open ST scores, improved significantly during this intensive 5-day M-R program. The robotic ST scores demonstrated greater improvement than did the laparoscopic ST scores, suggesting that the transfer of laparoscopic skills may be improved using the robotic interface.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2008 · JSLS: Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons / Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We compared healing after laparoscopic cystotomy using fibrin glue, sutures, or a combination to determine whether fibrin glue can obviate the need for sutures and whether there is any detriment when glue is used in the presence of sutures.
In 24 Yorkshire pigs, a 3.5 cm vertical cystotomy was created laparoscopically and repaired as follows: Group 1--no closure; group 2--fibrin glue closure; group 3--suture repair; group 4--combined fibrin glue and suture repair. All animals had a Foley catheter for 1 week. In each group, three animals were harvested at 1 week (acute) and three animals were harvested at 6 weeks (chronic).
Acute: Group 1--all pigs had an unhealed defect that leaked when evaluated by cystography. Groups 2, 3, 4--mean leak pressures were 80, 97, and 60 cm H(2)O (P = 0.36), respectively. Mean bladder capacity was not significantly different between groups. Chronic: No leakage seen on a cystogram at 1 week; at 6 weeks, bladders were filled at > or =95 to 100 cm H(2)O without leakage. Histologically, there was more inflammation in the acute group v chronic group pigs. In the acute group pigs repaired with glue or suture + glue, there was more inflammation and less epithelial continuity than in the suture alone group. At 6 weeks, there was no difference between groups.
Fibrin glue provoked an intense inflammatory response that might have delayed healing acutely, resulting in a lower burst pressure in both scenarios in which it was used (i.e., alone or in combination with sutures). However, by 6 weeks, there did not seem to be any difference between groups either clinically or histopathologically.
No preview · Article · Feb 2008 · Journal of Endourology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assist practicing urologists incorporate laparoscopic urology into their practice, a 5-day mini-residency (M-R) program with a mentor, preceptor, and proctor experience was established at the University of California, Irvine, and we report the initial results.
Thirty-two urologists underwent laparoscopic ablative (n=17) or laparoscopic reconstructive (n=15) training, including inanimate model skills training, animal laboratory, and operating room observation. A questionnaire was mailed 1 to 15 months (mean, 8 months) after their M-R program, and responses were reviewed.
A 100% response rate was achieved. The mean M-R participant age was 49 years (range 31 to 70 years). The majority of the participants (72%) had laparoscopic experience during residency training and had performed between 5 and 15 laparoscopic cases before attending the M-R program. Within 8 months after M-R, 26 participants (81%) were practicing laparoscopic surgery. Participants were performing laparoscopic radical nephrectomy (p=0.008), nephroureterectomy (p<0.0005), and pyeloplasty (p=0.008) at substantially higher rates after training. At the same time, fewer of the M-R participants were performing hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery after training (p=0.008) compared with before the M-R. Ninety-two percent of the participants indicated that they would recommend this training program to a colleague.
A 5-day intensive laparoscopic ablative and reconstructive surgery course seems to encourage postgraduate urologists, already familiar with laparoscopy, to successfully expand the scope of their procedures to include more complex laparoscopic techniques such as nephrectomy, nephroureterectomy, and pyeloplasty into their clinical practice.
No preview · Article · Nov 2006 · Journal of the American College of Surgeons