[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The type of anti-reflux procedure to be used as an adjunct to laparoscopic Heller's cardiomyotomy (LHCM) in Achalasia cardia is controversial. We compared Angle of His accentuation and Dor fundoplication in a randomized controlled trial.
From May 2010 to October 2013, 62 patients undergoing LHCM were randomized to receive either Dor fundoplication (Dor group) or Angle of His accentuation (AOH group) as an anti-reflux procedure. Symptomatic outcome was evaluated using modified Mellow and Pinkas scale for dysphagia and modified DeMeester's score for regurgitation and heartburn. Achalasia-specific quality-of-life (QOL) questionnaire was used to assess quality of life. The primary outcome was symptomatic relief and the secondary outcome was postoperative heartburn. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software.
All the procedures were completed laparoscopically with no mortality. Morbidity was similar in the two groups (6.4 %). Median operative time was higher in Dor group (170 vs 130 min). At a median follow-up of 21 months relief of dysphagia, regurgitation, and heartburn was seen in 87, 90.3, and 90.3 % patients in Dor group versus 93.5, 96.7, and 77.4 % in AOH group patients with significant improvement in symptom scores. Improvement was similar in both groups with no statistically significant difference in the symptom scores (p = 0.48 for dysphagia, p = 0.37 for regurgitation, and p = 0.19 for heartburn). The QOL improved in both groups [62.3 to 12.3 (p = 0.02) in Dor group and 63.9-13 (p = 0.02) in AOH group] with no statistically significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.96). There was no statistically significant difference in the postoperative heartburn between the two groups (p = 0.19).
Laparoscopic Heller's cardiomyotomy with either Angle of His accentuation or Dor fundoplication leads to similar improvement in symptoms and quality of life.
No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Surgical Endoscopy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Giant cell tumor (GCT) is primarily a bone neoplasm. Rare origin of the tumor from soft tissues has been reported. Involvement of mediastinum by GCT is even rarer. We herein describe an interesting case of huge mediastinal tumor in a young man. Radiologically, no primary osseous lesion was present throughout the body. Morphologically, tumor resembles osseous GCT with increased mitotic activity. Hence, the case was diagnosed as soft tissue GCT of low malignant potential at the rare site of mediastinum. To the best of our knowledge, the present case is the fourth reported case. Pathologists and clinicians need to be aware of the rare diagnosis of GCT in mediastinum and should carefully evaluate the clinical and radiological findings.
No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · International Journal of Surgical Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies pertaining to trans fatty acids (TFA), which have been implicated in development of chronic diseases, are more relevant in developing countries where nutrition transition is changing traditional habits and practices. Measuring TFA is an arduous task because of the need for fat biopsies. This study identifies a tissue, which can be easily accessed for analytical measurement of trans fatty acid. In this cross-sectional study, fatty acid in adipose tissue, cheek epithelium, and blood samples were assessed by gas chromatography. Spearman correlation coefficient was computed to study the correlation of fatty acid distribution among the three tissues. The correlation coefficient of total trans fatty acid between cheek epithelium and serum was 0.30 (P < 0.02) and between cheek epithelium and adipose tissue was 0.33 (P < 0.019). This study is the first to report trans fatty acid profile in cheek epithelium giving scope for utilizing the cheek epithelium as a tissue for objective assessment of trans fatty acid intake.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sentinel lymph node biopsy shows promise as a minimally invasive technique that samples the first echelon (station) of nodes to predict the need for more extensive neck dissection. This paper discusses the accuracy and feasibility of sentinel node and “station II node” biopsy for predicting the status of neck in 20 patients of oral cancer. We identified sentinel node in these patients. The next higher-order nodes, that is, second echelon of nodes known as “station II nodes” were delineated by further injecting 0.1 ml of isosulfan blue dye in sentinel lymph node. Identification rate for station I nodes was 95 %. Station II nodes were identified in 84 % of patients. One patient had false negative station I node. Station II node status was false negative in two patients. “Station I and station II concept” is feasible in early-stage tumors of oral cavity.
No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Indian Journal of Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Role of (18 [F] fluorine-18-labeled 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose [FDG] positron emission tomography-computed tomography [PET-CT]) in the evaluation of axillary lymph node involvement in T1T2N0 breast cancer and compare results with sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB).
A total of 37 patients of proven T1T2N0 breast cancer were included in the study. Patients with past history of breast surgery, T3T4 disease, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and pregnant patients were excluded from the study. Pre-operative FDG PET-CT was performed followed by sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy with blue dye or combined technique.
SLN was identified in 32 of 37 patients with an identification rate of 86.48% (32/37). With combined technique SLN identification rate was 100% (6/6) while with blue dye alone; it was 83.8% (26/31). Among 37 patients, 16 had axillary metastases of which 12 had macrometastases and four had micrometastases detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Of 12 patients with axillary macrometastases, skip metastases were present in two patients in whom SLN was negative and in two patients SLN was not identified, but axillary dissection showed metastases. PET-CT had shown sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value and positive predictive value of 56%, 90%, 73%, and 81.8%, respectively. IHC of SLN detected four patients with micrometastases upstaging the disease by 11% (4/37).
Because FDG PET-CT has a high specificity in the evaluation of axillary lymph node involvement in T1T2N0 breast cancer patients according to the results of this study if FDG PET-CT is positive in axillary lymph nodes, axillary lymph node dissection may be considered instead of SLNB.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The DNA methylation mediated by specific DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), results in the epigenetic silencing of multiple genes which are implicated in human breast cancer. We hypothesized that the natural compounds modulate the expression of DNMTs and their associated proteins in the breast cancer cell lines and affect the methylation mediated gene silencing.
The DNMTs transcript expression was analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the tumors and the adjacent normal breast tissues of the patients with invasive ductal breast carcinoma. We tested the hypothesis that the natural compounds, viz., epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), genistein, withaferin A, curcumin, resveratrol, and guggulsterone, have demethylation potential. To investigate this hypothesis, we analyzed the DNMTs expression at the transcript levels, followed by the analysis of DNMT1 and its associated proteins (HDAC1, MeCP2, and MBD2).
The increased DNMTs transcripts expression, viz., DNMT1, DNMT3a, and DNMT3b, in the breast cancer tissues suggest involvement of the DNMTs in the breast carcinogenesis. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the treatment with natural compounds, viz., EGCG, genistein, withaferin A, curcumin, resveratrol, and guggulsterone, resulted in a significant decrease in the transcript levels of all the DNMTs investigated. Importantly, these natural compounds decreased the protein levels of DNMT1, HDAC1, and MeCP2.
Our results demonstrate that the natural compounds, EGCG, genistein, withaferin A, curcumin, resveratrol, and guggulsterone, have the potential to reverse the epigenetic changes. Moreover, their lack of toxicity makes these natural compounds promising candidates for the chemoprevention of the breast cancer. In-depth future mechanistic studies aimed to elucidate how these compounds affect the gene transcription are warranted.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Journal of Breast Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Congenital agenesis of the parotid gland is rare, and its association with accessory parotid tissue is even rarer. We report an unusual case of unilateral agenesis of the left parotid gland associated with pleomorphic adenoma of the left accessory parotid gland. To best of our knowledge, this is only the second such published case in the literature.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES
It is generally believed that Heller's cardiomyotomy (HCM) cannot improve dysphagia in patients with marked dilatation and axis deviation or sigmoid oesophagus. Conventional management for sigmoid oesophagus has been oesophagectomy. We report our surgical experience in the management of 8 patients with sigmoid oesophagus with laparoscopic HCM.METHODS
Eight patients with sigmoid oesophagus were retrospectively identified and their records were reviewed for symptomatic outcome evaluation following laparoscopic HCM with an antireflux procedure. Preoperative and postoperative, oesophageal and respiratory symptoms and quality of life scoring of achalasia were recorded.RESULTSThe mean age was 35.5 (range 25-57) years. Males and females were equally distributed. All patients had dysphagia as their chief presenting complaint. The median duration of dysphagia was 55 (range 18-180) months. All the patients had a poor quality of life. Four patients also had chronic cough. All 8 patients underwent laparoscopic HCM with an antireflux procedure. The mean duration of operation was 203.7 min. There were no mortalities and no major postoperative complications. At a median follow-up of 19.5 (range 6-45) months, there was a significant improvement of dysphagia and regurgitation scores with P-values of 0.014 and 0.008, respectively. Quality of life also significantly (P = 0.005) improved post-surgery. Chronic cough resolved in all the 4 patients (100%) following cardiomyotomy.CONCLUSIONS
Laparoscopic HCM with an antireflux procedure provides significant symptom relief in patients with sigmoid oesophagus and may be considered as the first-line treatment option in such patients. Oesophagectomy should be reserved for patients with a failed cardiomyotomy.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with achalasia have respiratory symptoms due to chronic microaspiration. Achalasia can lead to radiological and functional changes in the lung. We studied the effect of either balloon dilatation or laparoscopic Heller's cardiomyotomy on the reversal of these changes in the lung.
Thirty patients with achalasia were included in this study. Oesophageal symptoms and pulmonary symptoms were recorded. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) were done at baseline and at the end of 6 months. High-resolution computed tomography of the chest was performed prior to treatment and repeated 6 months after treatment if found abnormal at the initial evaluation.
The mean age of the patients was 30.97 years and mean duration of symptoms was 22.5 months. Fifteen patients (50%) had respiratory symptoms, nocturnal cough being the commonest symptom in 13 (43.3%). Thirteen patients (43.3%) had parenchymal lung changes on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Eight patients (28.5%) had functional abnormalities in the lungs in the form of restrictive airway disease. Nineteen patients opted for Laproscopic Heller's cardiomyotomy, while 11 patients underwent pneumatic dilatation. Six months after treatment, the respiratory symptoms resolved in all except two patients (13.3%). Four patients (66.6%) with active lung changes at HRCT showed resolution at 6 months. There was improvement in functional parameters on PFT evaluation with normalization of PFT in one patient.
Pulmonary symptoms as well as radiological and functional abnormalities are common in patients with achalasia. Treatment in the form of pneumatic dilatation or Lap cardiomyotomy improves pulmonary symptoms.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Identification of biomarkers for monitoring efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients is of utmost importance in individual tailoring of treatment and save from toxicity due to non-effective drugs. We hypothesized that methylation of circulating tumor-specific DNA may reflect changes in tumor burden in response to chemotherapy and help stratify responders from non-responders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of methylation changes in circulating DNA to monitor treatment response of breast cancer patients. Six consecutive sera samples collected from 30 breast cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy were analyzed for methylation status of a panel of five genes namely, BRCA1, MGMT, GSTP1, Stratifin, and MDR1. Among these five genes, BRCA1 methylation frequency was different among responders and non-responders groups. The correlation coefficients between total gene methylation with initial chemotherapy and tumor volume reduction were R (2) = 0.8 and R (2) = 0.05 in the responders and non-responders groups, respectively. Our findings warrant further development of this approach for monitoring response in patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine concordance of promoter hypermethylation of ERβ (estrogen receptor β) and RARβ2 (retinoic acid receptor β2) in tumor and circulating DNA of Indian breast cancer patients and their association with clinicopathologic parameters and disease prognosis.
ERβ and RARβ2 methylation was analyzed by methylation-specific PCR in the tumors and circulating DNA of 100 patients with invasive ductal breast carcinoma. Promoter hypermethylation was associated with the expression of the encoded protein in tumors by immunohistochemistry, and their prognostic utility was explored in a follow-up study.
Significant correlation was observed between promoter hypermethylation of ERβ (r = + 0.77; p ≤ 0.001) and RARβ2 (r = + 0.85; p ≤ 0.001) in tumors and paired sera. No association was found between ERβ and RARβ2 promoter hypermethylation and loss of protein expression. Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed loss of ERβ expression, and RARβ2 promoter hypermethylation was associated with poor overall survival (OS) (p = 0.03, p = 0.001). Breast cancer patients showing concurrent hypermethylation of ERβ and RARβ2 had a significantly shorter median OS (p = 0.02), underscoring that hypermethylation of these two genes may serve as an adverse prognosticator for breast carcinoma.
Methylation status of ERβ and RARβ2 in serum could potentially be used to predict invasive ductal breast carcinoma. Furthermore, concurrent ERβ and RARβ2 methylation as well as loss of ERβ expression may serve as a good prognostic marker.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Annals of Surgical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We carried out retrospective analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in 48 infiltrating ductal breast cancer patients who had dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCEMRI; Group I) and in 53 patients (Group II) for whom DCEMRI data were not available. Twenty-three patients of Group I showed no necrosis (Group Ia), while in 25 patients, both viable (nonnecrotic) and necrotic tumor areas (Group Ib) were observed on DCEMRI. T1-weighted, fat-suppressed and short inversion recovery images were used to identify the viable and necrotic tumor areas in Group II patients, and necrosis was not seen in 11 patients (Group IIa), while 42 (Group IIb) showed both viable and necrotic tumor areas. The ADCs of the necrotic area of Group Ib (1.79±0.30 ×10(-3) mm(2)/s) and Group IIb (1.83±0.40 ×10(-3) mm(2)/s) patients were similar and significantly higher (P<.01) compared to the ADCs of the viable tumor area of Group Ia (0.96±0.21 ×10(-3) mm(2)/s) and Group IIa (0.90±0.17 ×10(-3) mm(2)/s) patients. Proton MR spectroscopy (MRS) data were also available in these patients, and the ADC values were retrospectively determined from the voxel from which MR spectrum was obtained. These values were compared with the ADC obtained for the viable and necrotic areas of the tumor. ADC of the MRS voxel was similar to that obtained for the viable tumor area in patients of both groups. This interesting observation reveals the potential utility of using ADC values to identify viable tumor area for positioning of voxel for MRS in the absence of DCEMRI data.
No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Magnetic Resonance Imaging