[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
miRNAs are non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression in a wide range of biological contexts, including a variety of diseases. The present study clarified the role of miR-214-5p in hepatic fibrogenesis using human clinical tissue samples, livers from rodent models, and cultured hepatic stellate cells.
The expression of miR-214-5p and genes that are involved in liver fibrosis were analyzed in hepatitis C virus-infected human livers, rodent fibrotic livers, a human stellate cell line (LX-2), and the cells from intact mouse livers using real-time PCR. The effect of miR-214-5p overexpression in LX-2 cells on cell function was investigated. Twist-1 expression in the liver tissues of mouse models and primary-cultured stellate cells was also analyzed.
miR-214-5p was upregulated in human and mouse livers in a fibrosis progression–dependent manner. miR-214-5p expression increased during the culture-dependent activation of mouse primary stellate cells and was significantly higher in stellate cells than in hepatocytes. The overexpression of miR-214-5p in LX-2 cells increased the expression of fibrosis-related genes, such as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, α-smooth muscle actin, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. TGF-β stimulation induced miR-214-5p in LX-2 cells. Twist-1 was increased in fibrotic mouse livers and induced during mouse stellate cell activation.
miR-214-5p may play crucial roles in the activation of stellate cells and the progression of liver fibrosis. Twist-1 may regulate miR-214-5p expression in the liver, particularly in stellate cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies have suggested that interferons (IFNs) have an antifibrotic effect in the liver independent of their antiviral effect although its detailed mechanism remains largely unknown. Some microRNAs have been reported to regulate pathophysiological activities of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). We performed analyses of the antiproliferative effects of IFNs in HSCs with special regard to microRNA-195 (miR-195). We found that miR-195 was prominently down-regulated in the proliferative phase of primary-cultured mouse HSCs. Supporting this fact, IFN-β induced miR-195 expression and inhibited the cell proliferation by delaying their G1 to S phase cell cycle progression in human HSC line LX-2. IFN-β down-regulated cyclin E1 and up-regulated p21 mRNA levels in LX-2 cells. Luciferase reporter assay revealed the direct interaction of miR-195 with the cyclin E1 3'UTR. Overexpression of miR-195 lowered cyclin E1 mRNA and protein expression levels, increased p21 mRNA and protein expression levels, and inhibited cell proliferation in LX-2 cells. Moreover miR-195 inhibition restored cyclin E1 levels that were down-regulated by IFN-β. In conclusion, IFN-β inhibited the proliferation of LX-2 cells by delaying cell cycle progression in G1 to S phase, partially through the down-regulation of cyclin E1 and up-regulation of p21. IFN-induced miR-195 was involved in these processes. These observations reveal a new mechanistic aspect of the antifibrotic effect of IFNs in the liver.
No preview · Article · Oct 2011 · Journal of Cellular Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytoglobin (Cygb) is a recently discovered vertebrate globin with molecular characteristics that are similar to myoglobin. To study the biological function of Cygb in vivo, we generated Cygb knockout mice and investigated their susceptibility to N,N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced tumorigenesis. Four-week-old male mice were administered DEN in drinking water at a dose of 25 ppm for 25 weeks or 0.05 ppm for 36 weeks. Cygb deficiency promoted the DEN-induced development of liver and lung tumors. All Cygb(+/-) and Cygb(-/-) mice treated with 25-ppm DEN exhibited liver tumors, compared with 44.4% of their wild-type counterparts. Lung tumors were present only in Cygb-deficient mice. More than 40% of Cygb(-/-) mice developed liver and lung tumors at the nontoxic dose of DEN (0.05 ppm), which did not induce tumors in wild-type mice. Cygb loss was associated with increased cancer cell proliferation, elevated extracellular signal-regulated kinase and Akt activation, overexpression of IL-1β, IL-6, Tnfα, and Tgfβ3 mRNAs, and hepatic collagen accumulation. Cygb-deficient mice also exhibited increased nitrotyrosine formation and dysregulated expression of cancer-related genes (cyclin D2, p53, Pak1, Src, Cdkn2a, and Cebpa). These results suggest that Cygb deficiency induces susceptibility to cancer development in the liver and lungs of mice exposed to DEN. Thus, globins such as Cygb will shed new light on the biological features of organ carcinogenesis.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · American Journal Of Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression through imperfect base pairing with the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of target mRNA. We studied the regulation of alpha 1 (I) collagen (Col1A1) expression by miRNAs in human stellate cells, which are involved in liver fibrogenesis. Among miR-29b, -143, and -218, whose expressions were altered in response to transforming growth factor-beta1 or interferon-alpha stimulation, miR-29b was the most effective suppressor of type I collagen at the mRNA and protein level via its direct binding to Col1A1 3'UTR. miR-29b also had an effect on SP1 expression. These results suggested that miR-29b is involved in the regulation of type I collagen expression by interferon-alpha in hepatic stellate cells. It is anticipated that miR-29b will be used for the regulation of stellate cell activation and lead to antifibrotic therapy.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2009 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, we describe the production of transgenic silkworms expressing a recombinant mouse mAb in their cocoons. Two transgenic lines, L- and H-, were generated that carried cDNAs encoding the L- and H-chains of a mouse IgG mAb, respectively, under the control of the enhancer-linked sericin-1 promoter. Cocoon protein analysis indicated that the IgG L- or H-chain was secreted into the cocoons of each line. We also produced a transgenic line designated L/H, which carried both cDNAs, by crossing the L- and H-lines. This line efficiently produced the recombinant mAb as a fully assembled H(2)L(2) tetramer in its cocoons, with negligible L- or H-chain monomer and H-chain dimer production. Thus, the H(2)L(2) tetramer was synthesized in, and secreted from, the middle silk gland cells. Crossing of the L/H-line with a transgenic line expressing a baculovirus-derived trans-activator produced a 2.4-fold increase in mAb expression. The recombinant mAb was extracted from the cocoons with a buffer containing 3 m urea and purified by protein G affinity column chromatography. The antigen-binding affinity of the purified recombinant mAb was identical to that of the native mAb produced by a hybridoma. Analysis of the structure of the N-glycans attached to the recombinant mAb revealed that the mAb contained high mannose-, hybrid- and complex-type N-glycans. By contrast, insect-specific paucimannose-type glycans were not detected. Fucose residues alpha-1,3- and alpha-1,6-linked to the core N-acetylglucosamine residue, both of which are found in insect N-glycans, were not observed in the N-glycans of the mAb.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously, we established a method to produce recombinant proteins (r-proteins) in cocoons of germline transgenic silkworms, and showed that a step(s) in post-transcription processes was rate-limiting in obtaining a high yield of r-proteins. In this study, we examined whether the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of the polyhedrin gene (pol) of nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) has a translational enhancer activity in the r-protein expression by middle silk gland (MSG) cells of silkworm Bombyx mori (Bm). Sericin 1 gene (ser1) promoter-driven transformation vectors were constructed in which pol5'-UTRs of NPVs isolated from four different species, Bm, Spodoptera frugiperda, Ectropis oblique, and Malacosoma neustria, were each placed upstream of a reporter gene. Transient expression assays in MSGs showed that these pol5'-UTRs all enhanced the protein expression of reporter genes, and the pol5'-UTR of Bm NPV (pol5'-UTR/Bm) was the most effective among them. Thus, transgenic silkworms were generated, which bore the ser1 promoter-driven His-tagged secretory EGFP (sEGFP-His) gene under the control of pol5'-UTR/Bm. The synthesis of sEGFP-His proteins in MSGs of the transgenic worms was approximately 1.5-fold higher than that in those bearing null vectors. However, its mRNA expression levels were 67% of the control worms, indicating that the pol5'-UTR/Bm specifically enhanced the translational level. In conclusion, pol5'-UTR/Bm increased the yield of r-protein production in transgenic silkworms by enhancing the translational activity and this 5'-UTR could be useful for the mass production of r-proteins in germline transgenic silkworms.
No preview · Article · Jun 2008 · Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A silk thread of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, is composed of the insoluble inner fibroin and the hydrophilic outer sericin layer, which are synthesized in the posterior and middle silk gland (MSG), respectively. This study aimed to develop a novel sericin 1 gene (ser1) promoter-driven recombinant expression system using transgenic silkworms, in which recombinant proteins are synthesized in MSG and secreted into the sericin layer. To obtain a high level of gene expression, we tested whether a baculovirus-derived enhancer, hr3, and a trans-regulator, IE1, are capable of stimulating the transcriptional activity of the ser1 promoter, using a transient gene expression system. The results showed that hr3 and IE1 cooperatively increased the ser1 promoter activity more than 30-fold. Then, transgenic silkworms were generated which expressed the EGFP with the signal peptide in MSG under the control of the hr3-linked ser1 promoter and IE1 gene. The silkworms exclusively secreted the EGFP into the sericin layer of cocoons as predicted. The expressed EGFP was extractable from cocoons through a simple procedure with neutral pH buffer solution. The expression system developed in this study enables us to produce recombinant proteins in bulk that can be easily extracted and purified.
No preview · Article · Sep 2007 · Transgenic Research