[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Only a limited number of studies have investigated the correlation between haematocrit (HCT) and mortality in the general population, and few of those studies have had data on a wide range of low and high levels of HCT. We investigated the association between baseline HCT and mortality in a prospective cohort study of 49,983 adult subjects in Iran with a broad spectrum of HCT values.
Data on socio-demographic and life-style factors, past medical history, and levels of HCT were collected at enrollment. During a mean follow-up of 5 years (follow-up success rate ~99%), 2262 deaths were reported. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals.
There was a U-shaped relationship between categories of HCT and mortality in both sexes: both low and high levels of HCT were associated with increased overall mortality and mortality from cardiovascular disease. The U-shaped relationship persisted after several sensitivity analyses were done, including analyses restricted to non-smokers and non-users of opium; analyses excluding deaths from accidents and other external causes as well as deaths of persons with self-reported ischemic heart disease at the baseline interview for the study; and analyses excluding the first 2 years of follow-up. Self-reported past medical history and lack of data about lipids and other cellular blood components were the major limitations of the study.
Low and high levels of HCT are associated with increased mortality in the general population. The findings in the present study can be of particular importance for low- and middle-income countries in which a substantial proportion of the population lives with suboptimal levels of HCT.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · International Journal of Epidemiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the association between opium use and subsequent risk of death.
Prospective cohort study.
The Golestan Cohort Study in north-eastern Iran collected detailed validated data on opium use and other exposures at baseline. Participants were enrolled between January 2004 and June 2008 and were followed to May 2011, with a follow-up success rate of over 99%.
50,045 participants aged 40-75 at baseline.
Mortality, all cause and major subcategories.
17% (n = 8487) of the participants reported opium use, with a mean duration of 12.7 years. During the follow-up period 2145 deaths were reported. The adjusted hazard ratio for all cause mortality associated with ever use of opium was 1.86 (95% confidence interval 1.68 to 2.06). Opium consumption was significantly associated with increased risks of deaths from several causes including circulatory diseases (hazard ratio 1.81) and cancer (1.61). The strongest associations were seen with deaths from asthma, tuberculosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (11.0, 6.22, and 5.44, respectively). After exclusion of people who self prescribed opium after the onset of major chronic illnesses, the associations remained strong with a dose-response relation.
Opium users have an increased risk of death from multiple causes compared with non-users. Increased risks were also seen in people who used low amounts of opium for a long period and those who had no major illness before use.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of major risk factors of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the world is on the rise, and it is expected that this incidence and prevalence, particularly in developing countries, will continue to increase. Using data on urinary sediment and microalbuminuria, we aimed to estimate the prevalence of CKD in northeast Iran.
In a cross-sectional study, the prevalence of CKD in a sample of 1557 regionally representative people, aged ≥ 18 years, was analyzed. CKD was determined based on glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and microalbuminuria. Life style data, urine and blood samples were collected. Urine samples without any proteinuria in the initial dipstick test were checked for qualitative microalbuminuria. If the latter was positive, quantitative microalbuminuria was evaluated.
1557 subjects with a mean age of 56.76 ± 12.04 years were enrolled in this study. Based on the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) equation, 137 subjects (8.89%) were categorized as CKD stages III-V. Based on urine abnormalities, the prevalence of combined CKD stages I and II was 10.63%, and based on macro- and microalbuminuria it was 14.53%. The prevalence of CKD was significantly associated with sex, age, marital status, education, diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HTN), ischemic heart disease (IHD), waist to hip ratio, myocardial infarction (MI), and cerebrovascular accident (CVA).
CKD and its main risk factors are common and represent a definite health threat in this region of Iran. Using and standardizing less expensive screening tests in low resource countries could be a good alternative that may improve the outcome through early detection of CKD.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Archives of Iranian medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of end-stage renal disease is increasing worldwide. Earlier studies reported high prevalence rates of obesity and hypertension, two major risk factors of chronic kidney disease (CKD), in Golestan Province, Iran. We aimed to investigate prevalence of moderate to severe CKD and its risk factors in the region.
Questionnaire data and blood samples were collected from 3591 participants (≥18 years old) from the general population. Based on serum creatinine levels, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated.
High body mass index (BMI) was common: 35.0% of participants were overweight (BMI 25-29.9) and 24.5% were obese (BMI ≥30). Prevalence of CKD stages 3 to 5 (CKD-S3-5), i.e., GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2), was 4.6%. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for the risk of CKD-S3-5 associated with every year increase in age was 1.13 (1.11-1.15). Men were at lower risk of CKD-S3-5 than women (OR = 0.28; 95% CI 0.18-0.45). Obesity (OR = 1.78; 95% CI 1.04-3.05) and self-reported diabetes (OR = 1.70; 95% CI 1.00-2.86), hypertension (OR = 3.16; 95% CI 2.02-4.95), ischemic heart disease (OR = 2.73; 95% CI 1.55-4.81), and myocardial infarction (OR = 2.69; 95% CI 1.14-6.32) were associated with increased risk of CKD-S3-5 in the models adjusted for age and sex. The association persisted for self-reported hypertension even after adjustments for BMI and history of diabetes (OR = 2.85; 95% CI 1.77-4.59).
A considerable proportion of inhabitants in Golestan have CKD-S3-5. Screening of individuals with major risk factors of CKD, in order to early detection and treatment of impaired renal function, may be plausible. Further studies on optimal risk prediction of future end-stage renal disease and effectiveness of any screening program are warranted.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our objective was to investigate the effects and tolerability of fixed-dose combination therapy on blood pressure and LDL in adults without elevated blood pressure or lipid levels.
This was a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial in residents of Kalaleh, Golestan, Iran. Following an 8-week placebo run-in period, 475 participants, aged 50 to 79 years, without cardiovascular disease, hypertension or hyperlipidaemia were randomised to fixed-dose combination therapy with aspirin 81 mg, enalapril 2.5 mg, atorvastatin 20 mg and hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg (polypill) or placebo for a period of 12 months. The primary outcomes were changes in LDL-cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and adverse reactions. Analysis was by intention-to-treat basis.
At baseline, there were differences in systolic blood pressure (6 mmHg). Taking account of baseline differences, at 12 months, polypill was associated with statistically significant reductions in blood pressure (4.5/1.6 mmHg) and LDL-cholesterol (0.46 mmol/l). The study drug was well tolerated, but resulted in the modest reductions in blood pressure and lipid levels.
The effects of the polypill on blood pressure and lipid levels were less than anticipated, raising questions about the reliability of the reported compliance. There is a case for a fully powered trial of a polypill for the prevention of cardiovascular disease.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · International Journal of Clinical Practice
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is very high among the Turkmen population of Iran. Family studies suggest a genetic component to the disease. Turkmen are ethnically homogenous and are well suited for genetic studies. A previous study from China suggested that BRCA2 might play a role in the etiology of ESCC. We screened for mutations in the coding region of the BRCA2 gene in the germline DNA of 197 Turkmen patients with ESCC. A nonsense variant, K3326X, was identified in 9 of 197 cases (4.6%) vs 2 of 254 controls (0.8%) (OR=6.0, 95% CI=1.3-28; P=0.01). This mutation leads to the loss of the C-terminal domain of the BRCA2 protein, a part of the region of interaction with the FANCD2 protein. We observed nine other BRCA2 variants in single cases only, including two deletions, and seven missense mutations. Six of these were judged to be pathogenic. In total, a suspicious deleterious BRCA2 variant was identified in 15 of 197 ESCC cases (7.6%).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A pilot study was carried out to evaluate validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), which was designed to be used in a prospective cohort study in a population at high risk for esophageal cancer in northern Iran.
The FFQ was administered four times to 131 subjects, aged 35-65 years, of both sexes. Twelve 24-h dietary recalls for two consecutive days were administered monthly during 1 year and used as a reference method. The excretion of nitrogen was measured on four 24-h urine samples, and plasma levels of beta-carotene, retinol, vitamin C and alpha-tocopherol was measured from two time points. Relative validity of FFQ and 24-h diet recall was assessed by comparing nutrient intake derived from both methods with the urinary nitrogen and plasma levels of beta-carotene, retinol, vitamin C and alpha-tocopherol.
Correlation coefficients comparing energy and nutrients intake based on the mean of the four FFQ and the mean of twelve 24-h diet recalls were 0.75 for total energy, 0.75 for carbohydrates, 0.76 for proteins and 0.65 for fat. Correlation coefficients between the FFQ-based intake and serum levels of beta-carotene, retinol, vitamin C and vitamin E/alpha-tocopherol were 0.37, 0.32, 0.35 and 0.06, respectively. Correlation coefficients between urinary nitrogen and FFQ-based protein intake ranged from 0.23 to 0.35. Intraclass correlation coefficients used to measure reproducibility of FFQ ranged from 0.66 to 0.89.
We found that the FFQ provides valid and reliable measurements of habitual intake for energy and most of the nutrients studied.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2006 · European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the incidence of oesophageal cancer (EC) in the Golestan province of North-East Iran, we invited 1349 rural and urban inhabitants of Golestan province aged 35-80 to undergo extensive lifestyle interviews and to provide biological samples. The interview was repeated on a subset of 130 participants to assess reliability of questionnaire and medical information. Temperature at which tea was consumed was measured on two occasions by 110 subjects. Samples of rice, wheat and sorghum were tested for fumonisin contamination. An active follow-up was carried out after 6 and 12 months. A total of 1057 subjects (610 women and 447 men) participated in this feasibility study (78.4% participation rate). Cigarette smoking, opium and alcohol use were reported by 163 (13.8%), 93 (8.8%) and 39 (3.7%) subjects, respectively. Tobacco smoking was correlated with urinary cotinine (kappa = 0.74). Most questionnaire data had kappa > 0.7 in repeat measurements; tea temperature measurement was reliable (kappa = 0.71). No fumonisins were detected in the samples analysed. During the follow-up six subjects were lost (0.6%), two subjects developed EC (one dead, one alive); in all, 13 subjects died (with cause of death known for 11, 84.6%). Conducting a cohort study in Golestan is feasible with reliable information obtained for suspected risk factors; participants can be followed up for EC incidence and mortality.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2005 · British Journal of Cancer