- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) have demonstrated clinical benefits which have led to the recent FDA approval of KADCYLA® and ADCETRIS®. Most ADCs that are currently in clinical use or development, including ADCETRIS®, are produced by chemical conjugation of a toxin via either lysine or cysteine residues, inevitably leading to heterogeneous products with variable drug-to-antibody ratios (DARs). Here, we describe the in vitro and in vivo characterization of four novel ADCs that are based on the anti-CD30 antibody cAC10, which has the same polypeptide backbone as ADCETRIS®, and compare the results with the latter. Bacterial transglutaminase (BTG) was exploited to site-specifically conjugate derivatives of monomethyl auristatin E (all comprising a cleavable linker) to the glutamines at position 295 and 297 of cAC10, thereby yielding homogeneous ADCs with a DAR of 4. In vitro cell toxicity experiments using two different CD30-positive cell lines (Karpas 299 and Raji-CD30+) revealed comparable EC50-values for ADCETRIS® (1.8±0.4 and 3.6±0.6 ng/ml, respectively) and the four cAC10-based ADCs (2.0±0.4 to 4.9±1.0 ng/ml). Quantitative time-dependent in vivo biodistribution studies (3-96 h p.i.) in normal and xenografted (Karpas 299 cells) SCID mice were performed with a selected 125I-radioiodinated cAC10 ADC and compared with 125I-ADCETRIS®. The chemo-enzymatically conjugated, radioiodinated ADC showed higher tumor uptake (17.84±2.2 %ID/g 24 h p.i.) than 125I-ADCETRIS® (10.5± 1.8 %ID/g 24 h p.i.). Moreover, 125I-ADCETRIS® exhibited higher non-targeted liver and spleen uptakes. In line with these results, the maximum tolerated dose of the BTG-coupled ADC (> 60 mg/kg) was significantly higher than that of ADCETRIS® (18 mg/kg) in rats. These results suggest that homogenous ADCs display improved pharmacokinetics and better therapeutic indexes compared to chemically modified ADCs with variable DARs.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphoantigens (PAgs) activate Vγ9Vδ2 T lymphocytes, inducing their potent and rapid response in vitro and in vivo. However, humans and nonhuman primates that receive repeated injections of PAgs progressively lose their Vγ9Vδ2 T cell response to them. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of this in vivo desensitization, we analyzed the transcriptome of circulating Vγ9Vδ2 T cells from macaques injected with PAg. We showed that three PAg injections induced the activation of the PPARα pathway in Vγ9Vδ2 T cells. Thus, we analyzed the in vitro response of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells stimulated with a PPARα agonist. We demonstrated that in vitro PPARα pathway activation led to the inhibition of the BrHPP-induced activation and proliferation of human Vγ9Vδ2 T cells. Since the PPARα pathway is involved in the antigen-selective desensitization of human Vγ9Vδ2 T cells, the use of PPARα inhibitors could enhance cancer immunotherapy based on Vγ9Vδ2 T cells.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In human blood, 1% to 5% of lymphocytes are gammadelta T cells; they mostly express the gammadelta T-cell receptor (TCR)Vgamma9, recognize nonpeptide phosphoantigens (PAgs) produced by microbes and tumor cells, and mediate different modes of lytic activities directed against tumor target cells. Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) mediated by cytolytic lymphoid cells is essential for the clinical activity of anticancer monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), but whether PAgs affect ADCC by gammadelta T cells is unknown. Here we report that, in association with the CD20(+)-specific mAb rituximab (RTX), the synthetic PAg bromohydrin pyrophosphate (BrHPP) increased TCRVgamma9(+) cell binding to CD20(+) lymphoma cells in vitro. This combination activated phospho-ZAP70 and phospho-ERK1/2 signaling in TCRVgamma9(+) cells and strongly enhanced their ADCC activity. We obtained similar results with BrHPP in the context of the mAbs alemtuzumab and trastuzumab. Furthermore, BrHPP enhanced RTX-mediated depletion of CD20(+) cells in vitro from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy subjects and enhanced ADCC by gammadelta T cells from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. In cynomolgus macaques, a regimen combining RTX, BrHPP, and IL2 activated TCRVgamma9(+) lymphocytes and enhanced B-cell depletion from blood and lymph nodes. Thus, the combination with BrHPP PAg is able to improve the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy by therapeutic mAbs.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gammadelta-T-lymphocytes contribute to innate immunity and are selectively activated by nonpeptide phosphorylated molecules (so-called phosphoantigens) produced by organisms responsible for causing a broad range of infectious diseases. gammadelta-T-cells are also activated by synthetic phosphoantigens and are cytotoxic to tumor cells. Here we report the synthesis, NMR characterization, and comparative biological evaluation of new pyrophosphate, phosphonate, and pyrophosphonate monoesters whose structures correspond to isosteric analogues and stereoisomers of the highly potent isoprenoid metabolite ( E)-1-hydroxy-2-methylbut-2-enyl 4-diphosphate called HDMAPP (hydroxy-dimethyl-allyl pyrophosphate). Both pyrophosphate and pyrophosphonate series elicit promising gammadelta-T-cell stimulatory responses in vitro, the pyrophosphonate ester (C-HDMAPP) being by far more stable than its parent pyrophosphate ester (HDMAPP) with improved ADMET properties and a similar pharmacodynamic profile based on in vivo studies in nonhuman primate. In both series, we found that E-stereoisomers are the most active derivatives and that Z-stereoisomers show very marginal bioactivity levels. These results indicate that the use of bioisosteric analogues of HDMAPP may represent promising new leads for immunotherapy.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphoantigens are mycobacterial non-peptide antigens that might enhance the immunogenicity of current subunit candidate vaccines for tuberculosis. However, their testing requires monkeys, the only animal models suitable for gammadelta T cell responses to mycobacteria. Thus here, the immunogenicity of 6-kDa early secretory antigenic target-mycolyl transferase complex antigen 85B (ESAT-6-Ag85B) (H-1 hybrid) fusion protein associated or not to a synthetic phosphoantigen was compared by a prime-boost regimen of two groups of eight cynomolgus. Although phosphoantigen activated immediately a strong release of systemic Th1 cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha), it further anergized blood gammadelta T lymphocytes selectively. By contrast, the hybrid H-1 induced only memory alphabeta T cell responses, regardless of phosphoantigen. These latter essentially comprised cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for Ag85B (on average + 430 cells/million PBMC) and few IFN-gamma-secreting cells (+ 40 cells/million PBMC, equally specific for ESAT-6 and for Ag85B). Hence, in macaques, a prime-boost with the H-1/phosphoantigen subunit combination induces two waves of immune responses, successively by gammadelta T and alphabeta T lymphocytes.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vgamma9Vdelta2(+) cells represent the major population of gammadelta T cells in primate blood and react in an MHC-unrestricted fashion to a set of low m.w. nonpeptide phosphoantigens. Two types of structurally related agonists have been discovered so far: the natural phosphoantigens (hydroxydimethyl allyl-pyrophosphate or isopentenyl-pyrophosphate (IPP)) acting directly on Vgamma9Vdelta2(+) TCR and aminobisphosphonates, which block the mevalonate pathway in target cells, leading to accumulation of natural phosphoantigens that in turn activate Vgamma9Vdelta2(+) cells. We demonstrate in the cynomolgus monkey that Vgamma9Vdelta2 can be manipulated in vivo with bromohydrin pyrophosphate (BrHPP)/Phosphostim, a potent synthetic agonist for which the mechanism of action is similar to natural phosphoantigens. Although of very short half-life, injection of BrHPP leads to strong activation of Vgamma9Vdelta2, inducing production of a high level of Th1 cytokines. Combination of BrHPP with low-dose rhIL-2 induces specific amplification of effector-memory peripheral Vgamma9Vdelta2 in blood in a dose-dependant manner. This transient response returns to baseline within 10-15 days. Successive infusions of BrHPP and rhIL-2 induce less vigorous expansions, suggesting a progressive exhaustion of the response. As no toxicity is detected with or without IL-2, this scheme represents a promising immunotherapeutic strategy for induction of systemic Th1 cytokines and massive expansion of gammadelta T cell subset with antitumor and anti-infectious properties.