S C Tiwari

All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Dilli, NCT, India

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Publications (126)350.47 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background & objectives: HIV/AIDS patients may have renal involvement also, however, Indian data are sparse. The present study was done to find the spectrum of renal diseases in HIV/AIDS patients in north India. Methods: In this prospective pilot study, HIV positive patients aged >18 yr were screened for renal involvement [serum creatinine >1.5 mg% and/or significant proteinuria (>500 mg /day)]. Patients who were positive on screening were followed up prospectively and underwent kidney biopsy if indicated. Results: A total of 526 patients were screened, of these, 91 (17.3%) were found to have renal involvement. Group A (Treatment naïve) comprised 392 patients who were not on antiretroviral treatment (ART) and group B (patients on ART) comprised 134 patients. More patients (74/392, 18.9%) in group A had renal involvement as compared to patients in group B (17/134, 12.7%). Of the 91 patients with renal involvement, 26 were followed up and underwent kidney biopsy. Thirteen patients had only proteinuria and another 13 had renal dysfunction with or without proteinuria. Most common histological diagnosis was mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (mes PGN) (10/26). Two patients had collapsing FSGS (focal segmental glomerulosclerosis) and three patients had immune complex glomerulonephritis. Seven patients had acute kidney injury, whom six totally recovered from their renal function. All patients with mesPGN tolerated angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors well. There was mixed response of collapsing FSGS to steroids. Both patients with MPGN (membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis) did well on low dose of steroid and ART. Interpretation & conclusions: Renal involvement was found to be common in HIV positive patients (17.3%). A low occurrence of renal involvement found in patients already on ART suggests some renoprotective effect of ART. Our preliminary results showed that collapsing FSGS was not rare in Indian HIV positive population, but classical HIV associated nephropathy was not seen. Longitudinal studies with robust study design and large sample size need to be done to confirm the findings.
    No preview · Article · May 2013 · The Indian Journal of Medical Research
  • D. Bhowmik · S.C. Tiwari
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    ABSTRACT: Hemodialysis in India has improved by leaps over the last two decades. However there is a long way to go. There is still late diagnosis, late referral of kidney patients and issues remain of accessibility to hemodialysis centres along with finances. Intensive public, patient and primary care physician education, government backing and induction of more trained personnel will make hemodialysis a successful RRT modality in India.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Journal International Medical Sciences Academy
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated important nontraditional cardiovascular risk factors, endothelial function and oxidative stress (OS) among stable peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Their association with carotid intimal medial thickness (CIMT) was also assessed. Thirty-eight adult patients (13 diabetics, 20 males) on PD for >6 months and 15 age and sex-matched controls were studied. Duration of dialysis (DOD), residual urine output (UO), weekly Kt/V urea, detailed biochemical and lipid profile were noted. OS was measured by serum concentration of antioxidants; vitamin C and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and pro-oxidant; thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). High-resolution ultrasonography was used to determine CIMT and flow-mediated dilatation of brachial artery [endothelium-dependent dilatation (EDD)] and dilatation subsequent to nitrate spray [endothelium-independent dilatation (EID)]. Mean age, DOD, UO and Kt/V of study population were 49.3 ± 11.6 years, 19.4 ± 11.8 months, 508.2 ± 422.9 ml/day and 1.73 ± 0.24, respectively. As compared to controls PD patients had higher CIMT (0.46 ± 0.05 vs 0.50 ± 0.07 mm, P = 0.003) and TBARS (1.5 ± 0.4 vs 5.1 ± 2.3 nM/ml, P < 0.001) but lower Vitamin C (1.7 ± 0.3 vs 0.6 ± 0.2 mg%, P < 0.001), FRAP (990.8 ± 78.1 vs 328.7 ± 183.5 μM/L, P < 0.001) and EDD (26.2 ± 5.4 vs 9.8 ± 4.6 %, P < 0.001). TBARS correlated positively with DOD and negatively with hemoglobin. Vitamin C and FRAP correlated positively with serum albumin. EDD correlated positively with UO, Kt/V and hemoglobin. CIMT correlated negatively with Kt/V and hemoglobin. Among themselves CIMT correlated negatively with EDD and vitamin C. EDD correlated positively with vitamin C, while FRAP correlated positively with vitamin C and negatively with TBARS. PD patients have higher OS, poorer endothelial function and higher structural atherosclerosis. These parameters are closely linked to each other, hemoglobin, DOD, residual UO, serum albumin and small solute clearances.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2011 · Indian Journal of Nephrology
  • Source
    P Singh · A Khaira · A Sharma · A K Dinda · S C Tiwari
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    ABSTRACT: A 34-year-old man presented with polymerase chain reaction-positive pleuropulmonary tuberculosis with asymptomatic subnephrotic proteinuria and microscopic haematuria. He was diagnosed to have IgA nephropathy on renal biopsy. The patient was started on a four-drug anti-tuberculous therapy. Healing of the pleuropulmonary lesions along with disappearance of proteinuria and haematuria were seen both at one month and six months post-treatment, with no relapse of renal symptoms at one-year follow-up.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2009 · Singapore medical journal
  • S K Agarwal · S C Tiwari
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in patients on hemodialysis and renal transplantation (RT) usually has an unfavorable course. Lamivudine is a synthetic nucleoside analog with a potent action on HBV replication. There is limited data on lamivudine in renal transplant patients with HBV infection and no published report from India. Present study reports on lamivudine therapy in these patients. Patients with HBV infection taken for RT were included. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg), HBV-DNA, and liver biopsy before RT were done in all patients. Lamivudine was given in the dose of 50 mg daily during the dialysis and 100 mg daily following successful transplant. Response was evaluated at one year. Of the 739 adult RTs during study period, 35 (4.7%) had HBV infection. Mean age of patients was 30.7 +/- 9.8 (16-55 years) and 88.5% were males. Four (11.4%) patients had HCV coinfection. HCV was not treated in any patient. All patients were HBsAg and HBV-DNA positive, while 27 (77%) were HBeAg positive. Mean ALT was 77.8 +/- 90 IU/dl; 11 (31.4%) patients had normal ALT. Mean liver biopsy grade was 5.2 +/- 1.5 (3-9) and stage was 0.7 +/- 0.6 (0-2). At one year following transplantation, ALT was normal in 27 (77%) cases, HBV-DNA undetectable in 16 (45.7%), HBeAg and HBsAg seroconversion in 8 (22.8%), and 3 (8.6%) cases, respectively. All patients tolerated the drug without any significant side effects. Treatment with lamivudine in dialysis and renal transplant patients is well tolerated and safe with efficacy comparable to patients with normal renal function.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2009 · Indian Journal of Nephrology
  • C Lal · A Gupta · A Khaira · S C Tiwari

    No preview · Article · Jun 2009 · The Medical journal of Malaysia
  • VS Reddy · S Guleria · A Gupta · VK Bansal · S Mahajan · D Bhowmik · R Sagar · SC Tiwari

    No preview · Article · Mar 2009

  • No preview · Article · Mar 2009

  • No preview · Article · Mar 2009
  • Source
    A Khaira · V Gupta · A Gupta · S Mahajan · D Bhowmik · S C Tiwari
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    ABSTRACT: A 19 years male presented with fever, oliguria and purpuric lesions involving both hands. The patient was diagnosed as a case of purpura fulminans with disseminated intravascular coagulation due to complicated falciparum malaria. The case is presented to sensitize the physicians to keep malaria as a differential in cases of fever with purpura fulminans.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2008 · The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
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    ABSTRACT: The safety and efficacy of tacrolimus in transplantation are well established. However, tacrolimus (Pan Graf) has only been available in India for the last 2 years. We conducted this study to assess the safety and efficacy of tacrolimus in living related kidney transplantation. Herein we have reported our experience with tacrolimus as de novo therapy in a living related renal transplant program. One hundred fifty-five consecutive recipients of living donor renal allografts were included in this study after consent and ethical clearance. Immunosuppression consisted of tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil or azathioprine, and steroids. The dose of tacrolimus was adjusted according to levels done on a regular basis. All patients were followed for periods ranging from 3 to 33 months. All episodes of graft dysfunction were evaluated by a graft biopsy. We evaluated the effects of this regimen on the incidence of graft rejection, graft survival, patient survival, and new onset diabetes mellitus. Six patients were diabetic prior to transplantation and 9 patients were hepatitis C virus (HCV) positive. There were 137 male and 18 female patients. The incidence of acute rejection was 3.87%; 17.93% developed new onset diabetes mellitus; and 77.7% of HCV-positive patients and 14.07% of HCV-negative patients developed posttransplantation diabetes mellitus. The patient survival at the current follow-up was 94.19%. This generic form of tacrolimus is a safe, effective immunosuppressant in living related renal transplantation.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2008 · Transplantation Proceedings
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    ABSTRACT: Panniculitis may result due to various etiologies. In post-transplant immunosuppressed patients infection is the foremost cause of panniculitis. We present 2 cases of fungal panniculitis in renal transplant recipients. The first patient presented with non-tender firm erythematous plaques on the left thigh. Biopsy showed panniculitis with cryptococci. Subsequent investigations revealed the presence of cryptococcal antigens in the blood, urine, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. There was no evidence of cryptococcal meningitis. The second patient complained of subcutaneous nodules on the trunk and right thigh. Biopsy of one of the nodules showed panniculitis with histoplasma. This patient had been treated earlier (inadequately) for disseminated histoplasmosis. Both the cases responded well to conventional amphotericin B therapy. Their renal functions remained stable.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2008 · Transplant Infectious Disease
  • Meenakshi Arora · Reetakshi Arora · S C Tiwari · Nibhriti · L M
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    ABSTRACT: Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a heterogeneous group of disorders with respect to aetiology, morphology, clinical course and response to treatment. The present study assessed the expression of complement receptor 1 (CR1), decay accelerating factor (DAF) and membrane inhibitor of reactive lysis (CD59) on the erythrocytes of FSGS patients using flow cytometry compared with their expression on the erythrocytes of minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) patients. Significantly reduced expression of CR1, DAF and CD59 was observed on the erythrocytes of FSGS patients compared with the reduced expression of CR1 and enhanced expression of DAF on the erythrocytes of MCNS patients. A significant inverse relationship was demonstrated between CR1 expression and proteinuria levels in FSGS patients (r = 0.55, P < 0.01). A follow-up study of 12 patients with FSGS after immunosuppressive therapy showed that the levels of complement regulatory proteins are significantly increased when the disease goes into remission. However, in patients not responding to immunosuppressive therapy, levels of these proteins remained low. MCNS patients showed significant increases in CR1 and decreases in DAF expression during remission of the disease.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2008 · Nephrology

  • No preview · Article · Jul 2008
  • A Khaira · V Gupta · A Gupta · S Mahajan · D Bhowmik · S C Tiwari
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    ABSTRACT: A 19-year-old male presented with fever, oliguria and purpuric lesions involving both hands. The patient was diagnosed as a case of purpura fulminans with disseminated intravascular coagulation due to complicated Falciparum malaria. The case is presented to sensitize the physicians to keep malaria as a differential in cases of fever with purpura fulminans.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2008 · The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India

  • No preview · Article · Jul 2008 · Transplantation
  • Rajiv Yadav · S N Mehta · A Kumar · S Guleria · V Seenu · S C Tiwari
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    ABSTRACT: Eighteen adult males with end stage renal disease (ESRD) were studied to determine the serum levels of gonadotropins (LH and FSH), prolactin (PRL) and testosterone. All of the patients were studied longitudinally while undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (HD) and six months after renal transplantation. Prior to transplantation, significantly high levels of gonadotropins and PRL were observed. During HD the serum testosterone levels tended to be subnormal in most of the uremic patients and low normal in some of the subjects. Renal transplantation led to a significant improvement (P < 0.05) in serum testosterone. Elevated gonadotropin and PRL levels observed in patients on HD returned to the normal range in most of the patients after successful renal transplantation.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2008 · International Urology and Nephrology
  • D Bhowmik · S C Tiwari

    No preview · Article · Mar 2008 · The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
  • Source
    D Bhowmik · C S Pandav · S C Tiwari
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    ABSTRACT: It is estimated that 10-15% of the population has chronic kidney disease (CKD), resulting in significant health expenditure, which is largely met by out-of-pocket by the patient in India. However, the seriousness of this public health problem has remained largely under-recognized so far. Luckily the preventive measures are simple and not difficult to implement. Public health strategies are essential to control the burgeoning problem. Lifestyle modifications can reduce the incidence of obesity, hypertension and diabetes. These diseases account for a significant proportion of CKD cases. Active involvement of the primary care physicians is vital for early detection of CKD with retardation of its progress, since nephrologists do not see the patients in the early stages. The role of community health specialists is essential to organize health education programs and screening camps, form active patient support groups; and incorporate the prevention program in the various tiers of the health-care system. Availability of optimal nephrology services in peripheral hospitals can rehabilitate most cases of end-stage renal disease, and also prevent the illegal organ trade, which keeps rearing its ugly head at regular intervals in India.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2008 · Indian journal of public health
  • D Bhowmik · S C Tiwari
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is fast becoming a bane for the present civilization, as a result of sedentary lifestyle, atherogenic diet, and a susceptible thrifty genotype. The concept of metabolic syndrome, which is a constellation of metabolic disturbances, has crystallized over the last 80 years with the aim of identifying those at greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. These patients have visceral obesity and insulin resistance characterized by hypertyriglyceridemia. Recently, it has been realized that they are also at an increased risk of chronic renal disease. Release of adipocytokines leads to endothelial dysfunction. There is also activation of systemic and local renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, oxidative stress, and impaired fibrinolysis. This leads to glomerular hyperfiltration, proteinuria, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), and ultimately end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Treatment consists of lifestyle modifications along with optimal control of blood pressure, blood sugar and lipids. Metformin and thiazolidenidiones reduce insulin resistance; while angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers reduce proteinuria and have a renoprotective effect. Exciting new medical therapies on the horizon include rimonabant a cannabinoid receptor type 1 antagonist, soy proteins, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonist. Bariatric surgery for morbid obesity has also been shown to be effective in treating metabolic syndrome.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2008 · Indian Journal of Nephrology

Publication Stats

767 Citations
350.47 Total Impact Points


  • 1983-2013
    • All India Institute of Medical Sciences
      • • Department of Nephrology
      • • Department of Biochemistry
      • • Department of Pathology
      • • Department of Medicine
      New Dilli, NCT, India
  • 1996
    • AIIMS Bhopal All India Institute of Medical Sciences
      Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India