W A van de Grind

Universiteit Utrecht, Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands

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Publications (107)170.19 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In his original contribution, Exner’s principal concern was a comparison between the properties of different aftereffects, and particularly to determine whether aftereffects of motion were similar to those of color and whether they could be encompassed within a unified physiological framework. Despite the fact that he was unable to answer his main question, there are some excellent—so far unknown—contributions in Exner’s paper. For example, he describes observations that can be related to binocular interaction, not only in motion aftereffects but also in rivalry. To the best of our knowledge, Exner provides the first description of binocular rivalry induced by differently moving patterns in each eye, for motion as well as for their aftereffects. Moreover, apart from several known, but beautifully addressed, phenomena he makes a clear distinction between motion in depth based on stimulus properties and motion in depth based on the interpretation of motion. That is, the experience of movement, as distinct from the perception of movement. The experience, unlike the perception, did not result in a motion aftereffect in depth.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · i-Perception
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The responses of retinal ganglion and LGN cells to drifting gratings were analyzed as inputs to a motion detector. A cortical motion-detector that correlates spike trains from cells at separate locations must integrate these input signals over time in order to detect their similarity. An algorithm was developed to compute optimal integration times for extracting temporal information from the obtained spike trains. Optimal integration times ranged from 5 to 100 msec, decreasing as the temporal frequency of a drifting grating increased. As expected, firing rates increased with contrast, but optimal integration times generally were independent of both contrast and firing rate. The temporal structure of these retinal and LGN spike trains constrains the motion sensitivity of cortical cells receiving this input. Thus, the temporal limitations of these input signals should also constrain human motion discrimination. We examined this hypothesis psychophysically by measuring minimum stimulus durations required for human observers to discriminate motion directions. The stimuli were foveal Gabor patches containing a drifting grating (sigma = 10arcmin, SF = 3c/deg, TF = 0.5-20Hz, contrast = 4.6-92%, vertically oriented, random starting phase). Observers discriminated left vs. right motions. Duration thresholds ranged from 4 to 80 msec, decreasing with increases in temporal frequency and independent of contrast. These psychophysical thresholds behaved the same way as the optimal integration times computed from the neural spike trains. Evidently, the temporal thresholds for motion discrimination follow the limits imposed by the temporal structure of spike trains early in the visual system.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2010 · Journal of Vision
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The issue of the existence of planes-understood as the carriers of a nexus of straight lines-in the monocular visual space of a stationary human observer has never been addressed. The most recent empirical data apply to binocular visual space and date from the 1960s (Foley, 1964). This appears to be both the first and the last time this basic issue was addressed empirically. Yet the question is of considerable conceptual interest. Here we report on a direct empirical test of the existence of planes in monocular visual space for a group of sixteen experienced observers. For the majority of these observers monocular visual space lacks a projective structure, albeit in qualitatively different ways. This greatly reduces the set of viable geometrical models. For example, it rules out all the classical homogeneous spaces (the Cayley-Klein geometries) such as the familiar Luneburg model. The qualitatively different behavior of experienced observers implies that the generic population might well be inhomogeneous with respect to the structure of visual space.
    Full-text · Article · May 2010 · Acta psychologica
  • M.J.M. Lankheet · W.A. Van De Grind
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Summary Much work has been described comparing relative timing of different features, mostly motion and color or motion and a flash. Here we study the timing relations of pairs of motion stimuli and pairs of motion and flicker or motion and flashes. In a two-alternative forced choice task we measured thresholds for detecting asynchrony, providing estimates for shifts in subjective simultaneity as well as the window of synchronicity. Windows of synchronicity varied for different combinations of motion direction. Comparing different velocities or different contrast levels revealed large shifts in subjective synchronicity. Contrast effects were much larger for motion reversals than for luminance flicker, indicating a major influence on motion mechanisms. Our results are compatible with the hypothesis of a flexible, high-level brain program for timing analysis. Temporal resolution of this program is limited. Differences in the processing of separate motion characteristics should be taken into account in cross-feature comparisons involving visual motion information. Results for motion reversals versus luminance flashes did not reveal a clear differential shift in time. Large differences within the motion system and the lack of a differential latency between motion reversals and flashes suggest that the flash-lag effect may be largely caused by instant spatial remapping of positional information for moving objects. We show that spatial extrapolation does not necessarily result in overshoot errors when the motion stops.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2010
  • Wim van de Grind
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Is the position of a moving target "predicted"? I argue that we should regard moving targets as the natural (veridical) position references. Motion is probably perceptually absolute, whereas position and time are relative quantities, as in physics. According to this view, processing delays are incorporated in the abstract local signs of motion signals. The flash-lag effect is one case in point.
    No preview · Article · May 2008 · Behavioral and Brain Sciences
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    Ildikó Vajda · Bart G Borghuis · Wim A van de Grind · MARTIN J.M. LANKHEET
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Temporal interactions in direction-sensitive complex cells in area 18 and the posteromedial lateral suprasylvian cortex (PMLS) were studied using a reverse correlation method. Reverse correlograms to combinations of two temporally separated motion directions were examined and compared in the two areas. A comparison to the first-order reverse correlograms allowed us to identify nonlinear suppression or facilitation due to pairwise combinations of motion directions. Results for area 18 and PMLS were very different. Area 18 showed a single type of nonlinear behavior: similar directions facilitated and opposite directions suppressed spike probability. This effect was most pronounced for motion steps that followed each other immediately and decreased with increasing delay between steps. In PMLS, the picture was much more diverse. Some cells exhibited nonlinear interactions, that were opposite to those in area 18 (facilitation for opposite directions and suppression for similar ones), while the majority did not show a systematic interaction profile. We conclude that nonlinear second-order reverse correlation characteristics reveal different functional properties, despite similarities in the first-order reverse correlation profiles. Directional interactions in time revealed optimal integration of similar directions in area 18, but motion opponency--at least in some cells--in PMLS.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2006 · Visual Neuroscience
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    Wim van de Grind
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: De biologie ontwikkelt zich razendsnel en heeft veel technologische spin-off. Eén van de gevolgen is dat mensen hun irrationele toekomstangsten minder op de natuur- en scheikunde of techniek projecteren maar steeds meer op de biologie en biotechnologie. Creationisme en intelligent ontwerp zijn gericht tegen de evolutietheorie. Anderen vinden neurobiologisch onderzoek van de ‘geest’ een bedreiging van de menselijke waardigheid of ageren tegen het ‘biologiseren’ van hersenziekten. Zelfs wordt wel eens de hoop uitgesproken dat er nog iets overblijft wat niet wetenschappelijk geanalyseerd kan worden.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2006
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    Ildikó Vajda · Martin J M Lankheet · Wim A van de Grind
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The spatio-temporal requirements for direction selectivity were studied in two extrastriate motion processing areas in the cat, area 18 and the posteromedial lateral suprasylvian cortex (PMLS). Direction, velocity and pixel size of random pixel arrays (RPA) were adjusted for each neuron and direction selectivity was measured as a function of step size and delay for a given optimal velocity. A subset of direction selective complex cells in area 18 was tuned to intermediate step size and delay combinations rather than the smoothest motion (band-pass cells). Other area 18 complex cells responded best to the smallest value of step size and delay (low-pass cells). Tuning varied with the pixel size of the RPA. Cells with tuning for smaller pixels favoured a preference for non-smooth motion. Area 18 cells with lower spatial resolution showed larger optimal and maximal step sizes. For a subset of the cells in area 18, we measured direction selectivity for extensive step-delay combinations, covering multiple velocities. Results showed that most cells were tuned to narrow range of step-delay combinations, and that the optimal step size was independent of temporal delay. Direction selective complex cells in PMLS were tuned to larger pixel sizes than those in area 18, although the distributions did overlap. In contrast to area 18, PMLS cells preferred the smoothest motion, irrespective of RPA pixel size.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2005 · Vision Research
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    Wim van de Grind
    Preview · Article · Sep 2004 · Perception
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    Ildikó Vajda · Martin J M Lankheet · Bart G Borghuis · Wim A van de Grind
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Visual latencies and temporal dynamics of area 18 and PMLS direction-selective complex cells were defined with a reverse correlation method. The method allowed us to analyze the time course of responses to motion steps, without confounding temporal integration effects. Several measures of response latency and direction tuning dynamics were quantified: optimal latency (OL), latency of first and last significant responses (FSR, LSR), the increase and decrease of direction sensitivity in time, and the change of direction tuning in time. FSR, OL and LSR values for PMLS and area 18 largely overlapped. The small differences in mean latencies (3-4 ms for FSR and OL and 11.9 ms for the LSR) were not statistically significant. All cells in area 18 and the vast majority of cells in PMLS showed no systematic changes in preferred direction (monophasic neurons). In PMLS 5 out of 41 cells showed a reversal of preferred direction after approximately 56 ms relative to their OL (biphasic neurons). Monophasic cells showed no systematic changes in direction tuning width during the interval from FSR to LSR. In both areas, development of direction sensitivity was significantly faster than return to the non-direction sensitive state, but no significant difference was found between the two areas. We conclude that, for the monophasic type of direction-selective complex cells, the dynamics of primary motion processing are highly comparable for area 18 and PMLS. This suggests that motion information is predominantly processed in parallel, presumably based on input from the fast conducting thalamocortical Y-pathway.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2004 · Cerebral Cortex
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: If a motion aftereffect (MAE) for given adaptation conditions has a duration T s, and the eyes are closed after adaptation during a waiting period tw=T s before testing, an unexpected MAE of a 'residual' duration TrT s is experienced. This effect is called 'storage' and it is often quantified by a storage factor sigma=TrT/T, which can reach values up to about 0.7-0.8. The phenomenon and its name have invited explanations in terms of inhibition of recovery during darkness. We present a model based on the opposite idea, that an effective test stimulus quickens recovery relative to darkness or other ineffective test stimuli. The model is worked out in mathematical detail and proves to explain 'storage' data from the literature, on the static MAE (sMAE: an MAE experienced for static test stimuli). We also present results of a psychophysical experiment with moving random pixel arrays, quantifying storage phenomena both for the sMAE and the dynamic MAE (dMAE: an MAE experienced for a random dynamic noise test stimulus). Storage factors for the dMAE are lower than for the sMAE. Our model also gives an excellent description of these new data on storage of the dMAE. The term 'storage' might therefore be a misnomer. If an effective test stimulus influences all direction tuned motion sensors indiscriminately and thus speeds up equalization of gains, one gets the storage phenomenon for free.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2004 · Vision Research
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    Chris Muller · Martin J M Lankheet · Wim A Van De Grind
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied the low-level interactions between motion coherence detection and binocular correlation detection. It is well-established that e.g. depth information from motion parallax and from binocular disparities is effectively integrated. The question we aimed to answer is whether such interactions also exist at the very first correlation level that both mechanisms might have in common. First we quantitatively compared motion coherence detection and binocular correlation detection using similar stimuli (random pixels arrays, RPAs) and the same noise masking paradigm (luminance signal to noise ratio, LSNR). This showed that human observers are much more sensitive to motion than to binocular correlation. Adding noise therefore has a much stronger effect on binocular correlation than on motion detection. Next we manipulated the shape of the stimulus aperture to equalize LSNR thresholds for motion and binocular correlation. Motion sensitivity could be progressively reduced by shortening the length of the motion path, while keeping the aperture area constant. Changing the shape of the aperture did not affect binocular correlation sensitivity. A 'balanced' stimulus, one with equal strengths of motion and binocular correlation signals was then used to study the mutual interactions. In accordance with previous results, motion was found to greatly facilitate binocular correlation. Binocular correlation, however did not facilitate motion detection. We conclude that interactions are asymmetrical; fronto-parallel motion is primarily detected monocularly and this information can then be used to facilitate binocular correlation, but binocular correlation cannot improve motion sensitivity.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2004 · Vision Research
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Viewing-distance invariance of visual perception has evolutionary advantages, but it is of necessity limited by spatial and temporal resolution. Even within these resolution limits viewing-distance invariance might not be perfect or even good, but there are remarkably few studies of its precise limits. Here we ask to what extent viewing-distance invariance holds for motion aftereffects (MAEs). There are (at least) two different MAEs: one can be seen on a static test pattern (sMAE) and is tuned to low speeds, the other only becomes manifest on a dynamic noise test stimulus (dMAE) and is sensitive to higher adaptation speeds. We show that each of these MAEs has a limited viewing-distance invariance, the dMAE only for higher screen-speeds and the sMAE only for lower screen-speeds. In both cases upper angular-speed limits shift to higher values for smaller viewing-distances (lower spatial frequencies, larger fields). This upper limit is constant, independent of viewing distance, if expressed in terms of screen-speed. On the other hand the lower speed limit is fixed in angular-speed and variable in screen-speed terms. Explanations for these findings are provided. We show that there is no fixed optimum viewing-distance or optimum angular stimulus-size for either of the two MAEs.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2003 · Vision Research
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We introduce the motion reverse correlation method (MRC), a novel stimulus paradigm based on a random sequence of motion impulses. The method is tailored to investigate the spatio-temporal dynamics of motion selectivity in cells responding to moving random dot patterns. Effectiveness of the MRC method is illustrated with results obtained from recordings in both anesthetized cats and an awake, fixating macaque monkey. Motion tuning functions are computed by reverse correlating the response of single cells with a rapid sequence of displacements of a random pixel array (RPA). Significant correlations between the cell's responses and various aspects of stimulus motion are obtained at high temporal resolution. These correlations provide a detailed description of the temporal dynamics of, for example, direction tuning and velocity tuning. In addition, with a spatial array of independently moving RPAs, the MRC method can be used to measure spatial as well as temporal receptive field properties. We demonstrate that MRC serves as a powerful and time-efficient tool for quantifying receptive field properties of motion selective cells that yields temporal information that cannot be derived from existing methods.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2003 · Journal of Neuroscience Methods
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We introduce the motion reverse correlation method (MRC), a novel stimulus paradigm based on a random sequence of motion impulses. The method is tailored to investigate the spatio-temporal dynamics of motion selectivity in cells responding to moving random dot patterns. Effectiveness of the MRC method is illustrated with results obtained from recordings in both anesthetized cats and an awake, fixating macaque monkey. Motion tuning functions are computed by reverse correlating the response of single cells with a rapid sequence of displacements of a random pixel array (RPA). Significant correlations between the cell's responses and various aspects of stimulus motion are obtained at high temporal resolution. These correlations provide a detailed description of the temporal dynamics of, for example, direction tuning and velocity tuning. In addition, with a spatial array of independently moving RPAs, the MRC method can be used to measure spatial as well as temporal receptive field properties. We demonstrate that MRC serves as a powerful and time-efficient tool for quantifying receptive field properties of motion selective cells that yields temporal information that cannot be derived from existing methods.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2003 · Journal of Neuroscience Methods
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    W.A van de Grind · M J M Lankheet · R Tao
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Strength of the motion aftereffect (MAE) is most often quantified by its duration, a high-variance and rather 'subjective' measure. With the help of an automatic gain-control model we quantitatively relate nulling-thresholds, adaptation strength, direction discrimination threshold, and duration of the dynamic MAE (dMAE). This shows how the nulling threshold, a more objective two-alternative forced-choice measure, relates to the same system property as MAE-durations. Two psychophysical experiments to test the model use moving random-pixel-arrays with an adjustable luminance signal-to-noise ratio. We measure MAE-duration as a function of adaptation strength and compare the results to the model prediction. We then do the same for nulling-thresholds. Model predictions are strongly supported by the psychophysical findings. In a third experiment we test formulae coupling nulling threshold, MAE-duration, and direction-discrimination thresholds, by measuring these quantities as a function of speed. For the medium-to-high speed range of these experiments we found that nulling thresholds increase and dMAE-durations decrease about linearly, whereas direction discrimination thresholds increase exponentially with speed. The model description then suggests that the motion-gain decreases, while the noise-gain and model's threshold increase with speed.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2003 · Vision Research
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    Ran Tao · Martin J M Lankheet · Wim A van de Grind · Richard J A van Wezel
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is well established that motion aftereffects (MAEs) can show interocular transfer (IOT); that is, motion adaptation in one eye can give a MAE in the other eye. Different quantification methods and different test stimuli have been shown to give different IOT magnitudes, varying from no to almost full IOT. In this study, we examine to what extent IOT of the dynamic MAE (dMAE), that is the MAE seen with a dynamic noise test pattern, varies with velocity of the adaptation stimulus. We measured strength of dMAE by a nulling method. The aftereffect induced by adaptation to a moving random-pixel array was compensated (nulled), during a brief dynamic test period, by the same kind of motion stimulus of variable luminance signal-to-noise ratio (LSNR). The LSNR nulling value was determined in a Quest-staircase procedure. We found that velocity has a strong effect on the magnitude of IOT for the dMAE. For increasing speeds from 1.5 deg s(-1) to 24 deg s(-1) average IOT values increased about linearly from 18% to 63% or from 32% to 83%, depending on IOT definition. The finding that dMAEs transfer to an increasing extent as speed increases, suggests that binocular cells play a more dominant role at higher speeds.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2003 · Perception
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlike simple cells, complex cells of area 18 give a directionally selective response to motion of random textures, indicating that they may play a special role in motion detection. We therefore investigated how texture motion, and especially its velocity, is represented by area 18 complex cells. Do these cells have separable spatial and temporal tunings or are these nonseparable? To answer this question, we measured responses to moving random pixel arrays as a function of both pixel size and velocity, for a set of 63 directionally selective complex cells. Complex cells generally responded to a fairly wide range of pixel sizes and velocities. Variations in pixel size of the random pixel array only caused minor changes in the cells' preferred velocity. For nearly all cells the data much better fitted a model in which pixel size and velocity act separately, than a model in which pixel size and velocity interact so as to keep temporal-frequency sensitivity constant. Our conclusion is that the studied population of special complex cells in area 18 are true motion detectors, rather than temporal-frequency tuned neurons.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2002 · Visual Neuroscience
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    Wim van de Grind
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The conclusions drawn by Benjamin Libet from his work with colleagues on the timing of somatosensorial conscious experiences has met with a lot of praise and criticism. In this issue we find three examples of the latter. Here I attempt to place the divide between the two opponent camps in a broader perspective by analyzing the question of the relation between physical timing, neural timing, and experiential (mental) timing. The nervous system does a sophisticated job of recombining and recoding messages from the sensorial surfaces and if these processes are slighted in a theory, it might become necessary to postulate weird operations, including subjective back-referral. Neuroscientifically inspired theories are of necessity still based on guesses, extrapolations, and philosophically dubious manners of speech. They often assume some neural correlate of consciousness (NCC) as a part of the nervous system that transforms neural activity in reportable experiences. The majority of neuroscientists appear to assume that the NCC can compare and bind activity patterns only if they arrive simultaneously at the NCC. This leads to a search for synchrony or to theories in terms of the compensation of differences in neural delays (latencies). This is the main dimension of the Libet discussion. Examples from vision research, such as "temporal-binding-by-synchrony" and the "flash-lag" effect, are then used to illustrate these reasoning patterns in more detail. Alternatively one could assume symbolic representations of time and space (symbolic "tags") that are not coded in their own dimension (not time in time and space in space). Unless such tags are multiplexed with the quality message (tickle, color, or motion), one gets a binding problem for tags. One of the hidden aspects of the discussion between Libet and opponents appears to be the following. Is the NCC smarter than the rest of the nervous system, so that it can solve the problems of local sign (e.g., "where is the event"?) and timing (e.g., "when did it occur?" and "how long did it last?") on its own, or are these pieces of information coded symbolically early on in the system? A supersmart NCC appears to be the assumption of Libet's camp (which includes Descartes, but also mystics). The wish to distribute the smartness evenly across all stages of processing in the nervous system (smart recodings) appears to motivate the opponents. I argue that there are reasons to side with the latter group.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2002 · Consciousness and Cognition
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    M J M Lankheet · A.J van Doorn · W.A van de Grind
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied effects of dark adaptation on spatial and temporal tuning for motion coherence detection. We compared tuning for step size and delay for moving random pixel arrays (RPAs) at two adaptation levels, one light adapted (50 cd/m(2)) and the other relatively dark adapted (0.05 cd/m(2)). To study coherence detection rather than contrast detection, RPAs were scaled for equal contrast detection at each luminance level, and a signal-to-noise ratio paradigm was used in which the RPA is always at a fixed, supra-threshold contrast level. The noise consists of a spatio-temporally incoherent RPA added to the moving RPA on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Spatial and temporal limits for coherence detection were measured using a single step pattern lifetime stimulus, in which patterns on alternate frames make a coherent step and are being refreshed. Therefore, the stimulus contains coherent motion at a single combination of step size and delay only. The main effect of dark adaptation is a large shift in step size, slightly less than the adjustment of spatial scale required for maintaining equal contrast sensitivity. A similar change of preferred step size occurs also for scaled stimuli at a light-adapted level, indicating that the spatial effect is not directly linked to dark adaptation, but more generally related to changes in the available low-level spatial information. Dark-adaptation shifts temporal tuning by about a factor of 2. Long delays are more effective at low luminance levels, whereas short delays no longer support motion coherence detection. Luminance-invariant velocity tuning curves, as reported previously [Lankheet, M.J.M., van Doorn, A.J., Bouman, M.A., & van de Grind, W.A. (2000) Motion coherence detection as a function of luminance in human central vision. Vision Research, 40, 3599-3611], result from recruitment of different sets of motion detectors, and an adjustment of their temporal properties.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2002 · Vision Research

Publication Stats

2k Citations
170.19 Total Impact Points


  • 1968-2008
    • Universiteit Utrecht
      • • Helmholtz Institute
      • • Division of Zoological Medicine
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 1994-1995
    • Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Utrecht
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 1987
    • University of Amsterdam
      • Laboratory for Physiology
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands