[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nerve enlargement has early been recognized in CIDP and plexus MRI hypertrophy has been reported in typical CIDP cases. Our aim is to determine plexus MRI value in the diagnosis of CIDP with an initial atypical presentation, which, up to now, has not been demonstrated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To compare the natural history of Familial transthyretin amyloid polyneuropathies (FAP) due to the Val30Met, Ser77Tyr and Ile107Val mutations in France with the classical Portuguese Val30Met FAP.
We compared 84 French patients with a control group of 110 Portuguese patients carrying the Val30Met mutation also living in France, all referred to and followed at the French National FAP Reference Center from 1988 to 2010. Clinical examination, functional and walking disability scores, nerve conduction studies and muscle biopsies are reported. We also conducted a comprehensive literature review in order to further determine the range of phenotypic expression.
By comparison with Portuguese Val30Met FAP, French Ile107Val, Ser77Tyr and LateVal30Met FAP showed more rapid and severe disease progression: onset of gait disorders was three times more rapid (p<0.0001), the rate of modified Norris test decline was up to 40 times faster in Ile107Val patients (p<0.0001). Median survival was much shorter in Ile107Val and LateVal30Met FAP (p=0.0005). Other distinctive features relative to the Portuguese patients included atypical clinical presentations, demyelination on nerve conduction studies (p=0.0005), difficult identification of amyloid deposits in nerve and muscle biopsies.
Ile107Val and LateMet30 mutations are associated with the most debilitating and severe FAP ever described, with rapid onset of tetraparesis and shorter median survival. It could be explained by the frequent large-fibers involvement, associated demyelination and more severe axonal loss. These findings have major implications for genetic counseling and patient management as new therapeutic options are being assessed in clinical trials (TTR gene silencing). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Annals of Neurology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to correlate histological features and molecular characteristics in anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (AOs).
The histological characteristics of 203 AO patients, enrolled in the French national network POLA, were analyzed. The genomic profiles of 191 cases were studied using genomic arrays. IDH mutational status was assessed by immunohistochemistry and direct sequencing.
1p/19q codeletion was present in 79% of cases and was associated with alpha-internexin expression (P < 10(-4)), IDH1/2 mutation (P < 10(-4)), chromosome 4 loss (P < 10(-3)), and better overall survival (P < 10(-4)). Based on mitotic index, microvascular proliferation (MVP), and necrosis, 3 groups of 1p/19q codeleted AOs were identified: (group 1) AO with more than 5 mitoses per 10-HPF, no MVP, and no necrosis; (group 2) AO with MVP and no necrosis; and (group 3) AO with MVP and necrosis. Compared with group 1, groups 2 and 3 AOs had a higher mean Ki-67 proliferation index and a higher rate of 9p and 9q losses. Compared with group 2, group 3 AOs had a higher number of chromosomal alterations including chromosome 4 loss. In the subgroup of 157 1p/19q codeleted AOs, chromosomal instability was associated with shorter progression-free survival (P = .024) and shorter overall survival (P = .023).
The present study shows that oligodendrogliomas with classic histological features remain a molecularly heterogeneous entity and should be stratified according to 1p/19q status because of its major prognostic relevance. Moreover, 1p/19q codeleted AOs are also heterogeneous. Interestingly, mitotic index, MVP, and necrosis help to classify them into 3 groups associated with distinct genomic alterations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The association of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease with renal dysfunction is uncommon but has long been recognized in several families. Recently, mutations in the INF2 gene, which encodes inverted formin-2, were identified in patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and a dominant intermediate form of CMT (CMTDIE, OMIM #614455). We describe the pathologic lesions of nerve biopsies from 6 patients with INF2-related CMTDIE. There were 4 females and 2 males; ages were from 12 to 47 years; durations between neuropathy onset and biopsy were from 2 to 37 years. Clinical phenotypes were similar to those seen in other forms of CMT disease, but there was always an associated proteinuria (and later renal failure). Motor median nerve conduction velocities were in the range of intermediate CMT disease. Pathologic lesions suggested chronic demyelination and remyelination associated with progressive axonal loss. By electron microscopy, we observed unusual whorl-like proliferations of flattened Schwann cell cytoplasm and anomalies of unmyelinating Schwann cell cytoplasm with supernumerary elongated extensions similar to those described in CMT4C. We also observed abnormal accumulation of β-actin in the cytoplasm of Schwann cells. Our results suggest that these lesions reflect a global disorder of the actin cytoskeleton in Schwann cells and that CMTDIE is the first peripheral nerve disorder associated with a Schwann cell actinopathy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Non-syndromic arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) is characterized by multiple congenital contractures resulting from reduced fetal mobility. Genetic mapping and whole exome sequencing were performed in 31 multiplex and/or consanguineous undiagnosed AMC families. Although this approach identified known AMC genes, we here report pathogenic mutations in two new genes. Homozygous frameshift mutations in CNTNAP1 were found in four unrelated families. Patients showed a marked reduction in motor nerve conduction velocity (<10 m/sec) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of sciatic nerve in the index cases revealed severe abnormalities of both nodes of Ranvier width and myelinated axons. CNTNAP1 encodes CASPR, an essential component of node of Ranvier domains which underly saltatory conduction of action potentials along myelinated axons, an important process for neuronal function. A homozygous missense mutation in Adenylate Cyclase 6 gene (ADCY6) was found in another family characterized by a lack of myelin in the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) as determined by TEM. Morpholino knockdown of the zebrafish orthologs led to severe and specific defects in peripheral myelin in spite of the presence of Schwann cells. ADCY6 encodes a protein that belongs to adenylate cyclase family responsible for the synthesis of cAMP. Elevation of cAMP can mimic axonal contact in vitro and upregulates myelinating signals. Our data indicate an essential and so far unknown role of ADCY6 in PNS myelination likely through the cAMP pathway. Mutations of genes encoding proteins of Ranvier domains or involved in myelination of Schwann cells are responsible for novel and severe human axoglial diseases.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Human Molecular Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Domino liver transplantation (DLT) has become an accepted procedure designed to address problems with organ limited supply. However, cases of acquired amyloid neuropathy are increasingly being recognized following this procedure. Until now, only one patient had undergone liver retransplantation and follow-up findings were not reported. We describe the case of a 72-year-old patient with partial recovery from acquired amyloid neuropathy following retransplantation with a deceased donor 7 years after DLT performed for end-stage liver disease. His clinical and paraclinical improvement is described, and the impact of this case on the indication for a domino procedure and the challenges linked to retransplantation are discussed.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · American Journal of Transplantation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: Familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) is typically a predominantly sensory and autonomic neuropathy with progressive and late motor involvement leading to death within 10 years. Recently, prognosis was transformed with liver transplantation. Methods: We report an atypical sporadic pure motor and bulbar neuropathy initially mistaken for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in a 50-year-old Malian man. Results: The diagnostic procedure of this clinical purely motor and bulbar neuropathy disclosed amyloid deposits on nerve biopsy which led to the identification of a new Val93Met mutation of transthyretin. This case was also remarkable by its slow progression. Conclusions: This report confirms the motor phenotype of TTR-FAP. That should be considered in the differential diagnosis of motor neuron diseases in order to start accurate therapy.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Amyloid: the international journal of experimental and clinical investigation: the official journal of the International Society of Amyloidosis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Tafamidis, which slows the progression of early stages of Met30 transthyretin (TTR) familial amyloidosis polyneuropathy (FAP) in more advanced cases.
The study was a prospective, non-randomized controlled trial carried out at the French national reference centre for FAP with follow-up at 1 year. Thirty-seven consecutive Met30-TTR-FAP patients were enrolled between December 2009 and July 2011, with NIS-LL (Neuropathy Impairment Score-lower limbs) > 10 and Karnofsky score > 60. Their mean (SD) age was 56.4 (19) years. Seventy-seven per cent of patients had a walking disability. Seven patients (19%) were withdrawn for adverse effects. The primary study outcome measurements, planned before data collection began, were NIS-LL and NIS-UL (upper limbs) scores and disability scores.
Of the 37 patients entered into the study, 29 were evaluated at 6 months and 13 at 12 months. During the first 6 months of treatment, the mean progression of NIS-LL score was 4.8 and was similar to that during the period before treatment. Among the 45% of patients without NIS-LL progression, the NIS-UL score worsened in 55%. During the first year, 55% deteriorated with respect to disability and 38% with respect to NIS only; only two patients (7%) remained stable. Four (out of 20; 20%) patients who were previously stage 1 reached stage 2 (walking with aid) after this period. Two out of nine patients who were initially normotensive developed orthostatic hypotension. There were a total of 19 adverse events, including four febrile urinary tract infections and three severe diarrhoeas, with faecal incontinence in two.
In most patients with advanced Met30 TTR-FAP, Tafamidis is not able to stop disease progression, in respect of both NIS-LL and disability. Other anti-amyloid medicines should be assessed in this context.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · European Journal of Neurology