[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic polymorphisms in the human MDM2 gene are suggested to be a tumor susceptibility marker and a prognostic factor for cancer. It has been reported that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) c.309T>G in the MDM2 gene attenuates the tumor suppressor activity of p53 and accelerates tumor formation in humans.
In this study, to detect the SNP c.309T>G in the MDM2 gene, we have developed a new SNP detection method, named "Duplex SmartAmp," which enabled us to simultaneously detect both 309T and 309G alleles in one tube. To develop this new method, we introduced new primers i.e., nBP and oBPs, as well as two different fluorescent dyes that separately detect those genetic polymorphisms.
By the Duplex SmartAmp method, the genetic polymorphisms of the MDM2 gene were detected directly from a small amount of genomic DNA or blood samples. We used 96 genomic DNA and 24 blood samples to validate the Duplex SmartAmp by comparison with results of the conventional PCR-RFLP method; consequently, the Duplex SmartAmp results agreed totally with those of the PCR-RFLP method. Thus, the new SNP detection method is considered useful for detecting the SNP c.309T>G in the MDM2 gene so as to judge cancer susceptibility against some cellular stress in the clinical setting, and also to handle a large number of samples and enable rapid clinical diagnosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 2009, a pandemic (pdm) influenza A(H1N1) virus infection quickly circulated globally resulting in about 18,000 deaths around the world. In Japan, infected patients accounted for 16% of the total population. The possibility of human-to-human transmission of highly pathogenic novel influenza viruses is becoming a fear for human health and society.
To address the clinical need for rapid diagnosis, we have developed a new method, the "RT-SmartAmp assay", to rapidly detect the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus from patient swab samples. The RT-SmartAmp assay comprises both reverse transcriptase (RT) and isothermal DNA amplification reactions in one step, where RNA extraction and PCR reaction are not required. We used an exciton-controlled hybridization-sensitive fluorescent primer to specifically detect the HA segment of the 2009 pdm influenza A(H1N1) virus within 40 minutes without cross-reacting with the seasonal A(H1N1), A(H3N2), or B-type (Victoria) viruses.
We evaluated the RT-SmartAmp method in clinical research carried out in Japan during a pandemic period of October 2009 to January 2010. A total of 255 swab samples were collected from outpatients with influenza-like illness at three hospitals and eleven clinics located in the Tokyo and Chiba areas in Japan. The 2009 pdm influenza A(H1N1) virus was detected by the RT-SmartAmp assay, and the detection results were subsequently compared with data of current influenza diagnostic tests (lateral flow immuno-chromatographic tests) and viral genome sequence analysis. In conclusion, by the RT-SmartAmp assay we could detect the 2009 pdm influenza A(H1N1) virus in patients' swab samples even in early stages after the initial onset of influenza symptoms. Thus, the RT-SmartAmp assay is considered to provide a simple and practical tool to rapidly detect the 2009 pdm influenza A(H1N1) virus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: β2 and β3 adrenergic receptors (β2AR, β3AR) and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) have been considered as candidate genes for obesity. Although each polymorphism of β3AR Trp64Arg, β2AR Arg16Gly and UCP1 -3826A>G is known to be associated with obesity, the interaction among these polymorphisms is not fully understood. We analyzed β3AR Trp64Arg, β2AR Arg16Gly and UCP1 -3826A>G polymorphisms by the Smart Amplification Process 2 in 222 Japanese subjects without the medication of hypertension, dyslipidemia or diabetes, and investigated the association between the physical and metabolic characteristics and the combination of these polymorphisms. In analysis of the genotypes combination, only the carriers of both β2AR Arg/Arg and UCP1 G/G genotypes had significantly higher waist to hip ratio (p=0.014). In analysis of the alleles combination, a significant difference was observed in waist to hip ratio among the groups stratified by the carrying number of the alleles of β3AR Arg, β2AR Arg and UCP1 G (p=0.026), and the waist to hip ratio was significantly higher in the carriers of four and five risk alleles than in the carriers from zero to three risk alleles (p=0.005). The present study demonstrated the interaction among β3AR Trp64Arg, β2AR Arg16Gly and UCP1 -3826A>G for the accumulation of visceral fat.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The presence of EGFR mutations is correlated with a positive therapeutic response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors; therefore, the accurate detection of EGFR mutations is crucial when deciding appropriate therapeutic strategies. Recently, the rapid and sensitive assay smart amplification process version 2 (SmartAmp2) was developed. However, this method can only detect one type of mutation in EGFR exon 19; therefore, we applied the PNA technology to the SmartAmp2 assay to develop PNA-clamp SmartAmp2 for the detection of many types of deletions in EGFR exon 19, in a single reaction. This new assay was evaluated using 172 clinical samples. Thirty-nine (22.7%) samples were found to have deletions by PNA-clamp SmartAmp2; whereas 30 (17.4%) and 38 (22.1%) tumors were found to have deletions by direct sequencing and PNA-enriched sequencing, respectively. Three cases, in which we detected mutations with PNA-clamp SmartAmp2, but not with direct sequencing, were treated with gefitinib, and all cases showed a partial therapeutic response. Using clinical samples, we demonstrated that PNA-clamp SmartAmp2 can detect various types of mutations in EGFR exon 19 in a relatively short time and with high sensitivity. This method detected small amounts of mutant DNA and identified patients for whom clinical information was previously unavailable from other tests. This test may contribute to the administration of efficient therapeutic strategies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus infection quickly circulated worldwide in 2009. In Japan, the first case was reported in May 2009, one month after its outbreak in Mexico. Thereafter, A(H1N1) infection spread widely throughout the country. It is of great importance to profile and understand the situation regarding viral mutations and their circulation in Japan to accumulate a knowledge base and to prepare clinical response platforms before a second pandemic (pdm) wave emerges.
A total of 253 swab samples were collected from patients with influenza-like illness in the Osaka, Tokyo, and Chiba areas both in May 2009 and between October 2009 and January 2010. We analyzed partial sequences of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of the 2009 pdm influenza virus in the collected clinical samples. By phylogenetic analysis, we identified major variants of the 2009 pdm influenza virus and critical mutations associated with severe cases, including drug-resistance mutations.
Our sequence analysis has revealed that both HA-S220T and NA-N248D are major non-synonymous mutations that clearly discriminate the 2009 pdm influenza viruses identified in the very early phase (May 2009) from those found in the peak phase (October 2009 to January 2010) in Japan. By phylogenetic analysis, we found 14 micro-clades within the viruses collected during the peak phase. Among them, 12 were new micro-clades, while two were previously reported. Oseltamivir resistance-related mutations, i.e., NA-H275Y and NA-N295S, were also detected in sporadic cases in Osaka and Tokyo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The application of isothermal amplification technologies is rapidly expanding and currently covers different areas such as infectious disease, genetic disorder and drug dosage adjustment. Meanwhile, many of such technologies have complex reaction processes and often require a fine-tuned primer set where existing primer design tools are not sufficient. We have developed a primer selection system for one important primer, the turn-back primer (TP), which is commonly used in loop-mediated amplification (LAMP) and smart amplification process (SmartAmp). We chose 78 parameters related to the primer and target sequence, and explored their relationship to amplification speed using experimental data for 1344 primer combinations. We employed the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) method for parameter selection and estimation of their numerical coefficients. We subsequently evaluated our prediction model using additional independent experiments and compared to the LAMP primer design tool, Primer Explorer version4 (PE4). The evaluation showed that our approach yields a superior primer design in isothermal amplification and is robust against variations in the experimental setup. Our LASSO regression analysis revealed that availability of the 3'- and 5'-end of the primer are particularly important factors for efficient isothermal amplification. Our computer script is freely available at: http://gerg.gsc.riken.jp/TP_optimization/.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Nucleic Acids Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In DNA amplification, the initial step of copying a target sequence from the template DNA--the so-called intermediate product generation step--is very important. In examining the turn-back primer (TP)-dependent isothermal DNA amplification (TIA) method, we determined the actual time point of intermediate product generation by extrapolating dsDNA amplification curves. Our results indicate that intermediate product creation is the rate-limiting step in TIA, and good TP design is advantageous for improving the intermediate production process.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: International mortality and frequency rates for breast cancer have been associated with the wet type of human earwax. It was recently found that earwax type is determined by a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), 538G>A (Gly180Arg), in ABCC11. The G allele determines the wet type of earwax as a Mendelian trait with a dominant phenotype. The present study examined the association between the frequency rate of breast cancer and the frequency of the G allele of ABCC11.
Using blood samples from patients with invasive breast cancer (n = 270) and control volunteers (n = 273), the 538G>A SNP in ABCC11 was genotyped using the SmartAmp method.
The frequency of the G allele in breast cancer patients was higher than that in healthy controls. The odds ratio for the genotypes (G/G+G/A) to develop breast cancer was estimated to be 1.63 (p-value = 0.026), suggesting that the G allele in ABCC11 is associated with breast cancer risk.
This study showed that Japanese women with wet earwax have a higher relative risk of developing breast cancer than those with dry earwax. The ABCC11 SNPs that determine these phenotypes should be further investigated in order to obtain insights into the mechanisms by which breast cancer develops and progresses.
No preview · Article · Dec 2010 · Anticancer research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent evidence indicates that the presence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) or KRAS mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) can predict the response of the tumor to gefinitib. However, it is difficult to detect these mutations using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues because the fixation process and aging can damage the DNA. In this study, we describe our work in adapting the Smart Amplification Process version 2 (SmartAmp2) to detect EGFR or KRAS mutations in DNA extracted from FFPE tissues. We were able to detect these mutations in 37 (97%) of 38 FFPE lung cancer tissue samples within 60 minutes with the SmartAmp2 assay and to confirm the correlation between EGFR mutations in FFPE tissues and gefitinib responsiveness. All mutations had previously been confirmed in the 38 samples using DNA extracted from frozen tissues. Electrophoresis results indicated that PCR analysis was not reliable for DNA extracted from FFPE tissue when primers with a long amplicon (>300 bp) were used. This study confirms that the SmartAmp2 assay is suitable for use with DNA extracted from FFPE as well as frozen tissues.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · The Journal of molecular diagnostics: JMD
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: After the outbreak in Mexico in April last year, the 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus spread among humans worldwide. We have developed a SmartAmp2-based method to detect the 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus. The method comprises reverse transcriptase and isothermal DNA amplification reactions in one step, where RNA extraction and PCR reaction are not required. Application of the SmartAmp2-based method utilizing an exciton-controlled hybridization-sensitive fluorescent primer enabled us to specifically detect the HA segment of the 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus within 40 min. The clinical usefulness of this method has been evaluated by clinical studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Folding primer (FP), together with turn-back primer (TP) and boost primer (BP), is one of the major components of SmartAmp2, a rapid amplification-based method for SNP detection. FP has a unique design where the annealing region is combined with a tail that can fold back. FP tails can be classified as either "strong" or "weak", depending on the melting temperature and free energy of the hairpin structure. We report that FP tails affect the amplification process differently; by changing the FP concentration, we can increase the amplification reaction speed with "strong tails". Unlike "strong tails", concentration change of FP with "weak tails" did not show significant impact on the amplification speed. The comparative analyses using gel electrophoresis demonstrate that the FP type and FP ratio in the reaction change the amplification pattern. The above observations can be used to optimize the reaction and manipulate the reaction speed of SmartAmp2.
No preview · Article · May 2009 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polymorphisms of the CYP2C9 (cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily C, polypeptide 9) gene (CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3) and the VKORC1 (vitamin K epoxide reductase complex, subunit 1) gene (-1639G>A) greatly impact the maintenance dose for the drug warfarin. Prescreening patients for their genotypes before prescribing the drug facilitates a faster individualized determination of the proper maintenance dose, minimizing the risk for adverse reaction and reoccurrence of thromboembolic episodes. With current methodologies, therapy can be delayed by several hours to 1 day if genotyping is to determine the loading dose. A simpler and more rapid genotyping method is required.
We developed a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-detection assay based on the SMart Amplification Process version 2 (SMAP 2) to analyze CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3, and VKORC1 -1639G>A polymorphisms. Blood from consenting participants was used directly in a closed-tube real-time assay without DNA purification to obtain results within 1 h after blood collection.
We analyzed 125 blood samples by both SMAP 2 and PCR-RFLP methods. The results showed perfect concordance.
The results validate the accuracy of the SMAP 2 for determination of SNPs critical to personalized warfarin therapy. SMAP 2 offers speed, simplicity of sample preparation, the convenience of isothermal amplification, and assay-design flexibility, which are significant advantages over conventional genotyping technologies. In this example and other clinical scenarios in which genetic testing is required for immediate and better-informed therapeutic decisions, SMAP 2-based diagnostics have key advantages.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2009 · Clinical Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously, the smart amplification process version 2 (SMAP-2) was developed to detect mutations from tissue and in crude cell lysates and has been used for rapid diagnosis of specific somatic mutations with single-nucleotide precision. The purpose of this study was to develop a rapid and practical method to detect cancer and metastasis in specimens using the SMAP-2 assay. We developed modified SMAP-2 assays that enabled detection of any change in a single codon using a single assay. Rapid SMAP-2 screening assays are suitable for routine clinical identification of critical amino acid substitutions such as codon 12 mutations in KRAS. Primers bracketing the first two nucleotides of KRAS codon 12 were designed so that all possible alleles would be amplified by the SMAP-2 assay. In combination with the peptide nucleic acid (PNA) with exact homology to the wild-type allele, our assay amplified all mutant alleles except for the wild-type sequence. With this new assay design (termed PNA-clamp SMAP-2), we could detect KRAS mutations within 60 minutes, including sample preparation. We compared results from PNA-clamp SMAP-2 assay, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, and direct sequencing of clinical samples from pancreatic cancer patients and demonstrated perfect concordance. The PNA-clamp SMAP-2 method is a rapid, simple, and highly sensitive detection assay for cancer mutations.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2008 · Journal of Molecular Diagnostics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a previous study, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) diagnostic system named the SMart Amplification Process version 2 (SMAP 2) was reported, which enabled rapid gene diagnostics from crude samples such as whole blood. The asymmetric primer design and use of Taq MutS were reported as innovative background suppression technologies employed by SMAP 2, but Taq MutS is known to display differential affinities for various mismatch combinations, and hence may not be entirely effective for all possible applications. To address this issue we developed another approach using a competitive probe (CP) to enhance background suppression technology instead of Taq MutS. CP is a 3'-end aminated oligonucleotide that competes with 3'-end of a discrimination primer or the self-priming elongation site on intermediate product 2 (IM2) for non-target sequences, such as the alternative allele. The preferred hybridization kinetics for the full-match CP on the non-target sequence results in effective background suppression in SMAP 2 assays. By using a CP, we demonstrated the sensitive detection of EGFR gene mutations in purified genomic DNA from mixed cell populations. The CP approach is another tool enhancing the effectiveness and versatility of SMAP 2 assays, expanding its potential applications, and reinforcing its position as a highly effective technology for molecular diagnostics.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A key feature of the smart amplification process version 2 (SMAP-2) is the ability to suppress mismatch amplification by using a unique asymmetric primer design and Thermus aquaticus MutS (Taq MutS). However we report here that use of SMAP-2 for polymorphism determination of the UGT1A1 *28 allele required a further ancillary approach for complete background suppression. The UGT1A1 *28 allele is a microsatellite copy number polymorphism. This is the first reported SMAP-2 assay designed for genotyping genetic variations of microsatellites. We found that by the addition of a primer to the amplification reaction, called a competitive probe (CP), assay specificity could be significantly enhanced. Including sample preparation time and use of a CP-enhanced SMAP-2 assay, we could rapidly detect the UGT1A1 *28 polymorphism within 60 min. To test our method, we compared results from PCR sequencing and the CP-enhanced SMAP-2 assay on 116 human blood samples for UGT1A1 *28 polymorphism and demonstrated perfect concordance. These results illustrate the versatility of SMAP-2 for molecular diagnostics and provide a new approach for enhancing SMAP-2 assay specificity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A positive response to gefitinib in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been correlated to mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene. Previous reports have been based mainly on diagnostic screening by sequencing. However, sequencing is a time-consuming and complicated procedure, not suitable for routine clinical use.
We have developed rapid, simple, and sensitive mutation detection assays based on the SMart Amplification Process (SMAP) and applied it for analyzing EGFR gene mutations in clinical samples. By using SMAP, we can detect mutations within 30 min including sample preparation. To validate the assay system for potential use in clinical diagnostics, we examined 45 NSCLC patients for EGFR mutations using sequencing and SMAP.
The outcomes of the SMAP assay perfectly matched the sequencing results, except in one case where SMAP was able to identify a mutation that was not detected by sequencing. We also evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of SMAP in mutation detection for EGFR. In a serial dilution study, SMAP was able to find a mutation in a sample containing only 0.1% of the mutant allele in a mixture of wild-type genomic DNA. We also could show amplification of mutated DNA with only 30 copies per reaction.
The SMAP method offers higher sensitivity and specificity than alternative technologies, while eliminating the need for sequencing to identify mutations in the EGFR gene of NSCLC. It provides a robust and point-of-care accessible approach for a rapid identification of most patients likely to respond to gefitinib.
No preview · Article · Oct 2007 · Clinical Cancer Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We developed a rapid single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection system named smart amplification process version 2 (SMAP 2). Because DNA amplification only occurred with a perfect primer match, amplification alone was sufficient to identify the target allele. To achieve the requisite fidelity to support this claim, we used two new and complementary approaches to suppress exponential background DNA amplification that resulted from mispriming events. SMAP 2 is isothermal and achieved SNP detection from whole human blood in 30 min when performed with a new DNA polymerase that was cloned and isolated from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius (Aac pol). Furthermore, to assist the scientific community in configuring SMAP 2 assays, we developed software specific for SMAP 2 primer design. With these new tools, a high-precision and rapid DNA amplification technology becomes available to aid in pharmacogenomic research and molecular-diagnostics applications.