[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MicroRNA (miR) are important regulators of gene expression, and aberrant miR expression has been linked to oncogenesis; however, little is understood about their contribution to lung tumorigenesis. Here, we determined that miR-31 is overexpressed in human lung adenocarcinoma and this overexpression independently correlates with decreased patient survival. We developed a transgenic mouse model that allows for lung-specific expression of miR-31 to test the oncogenic potential of miR-31 in the lung. Using this model, we observed that miR-31 induction results in lung hyperplasia, followed by adenoma formation and later adenocarcinoma development. Moreover, induced expression of miR-31 in mice cooperated with mutant KRAS to accelerate lung tumorigenesis. We determined that miR-31 regulates lung epithelial cell growth and identified 6 negative regulators of RAS/MAPK signaling as direct targets of miR-31. Our study distinguishes miR-31 as a driver of lung tumorigenesis that promotes mutant KRAS-mediated oncogenesis and reveals that miR-31 directly targets and reduces expression of negative regulators of RAS/MAPK signaling.
Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · The Journal of clinical investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 30% of patients whose indolent follicular lymphoma transforms to aggressive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) have poor survival. Reliable predictors of follicular B-cell lymphoma transformation to DLBCL are lacking, and diagnosis of those that will progress is challenging. microRNA (miRNA), which regulate gene expression, have critical functions in the growth and progression of many cancers and contribute to the pathogenesis of lymphoma. Using five paired samples from patients that presented with follicular lymphoma and progressed to DLBCL, we identified specific miRNA differentially expressed between the two. Specifically, miR-17-5p levels were low in follicular lymphoma and increased as the disease transformed. In contrast, miR-31 expression was high in follicular lymphoma and decreased as the lymphoma progressed. These results were confirmed in additional unpaired cases of low-grade follicular lymphoma (n=13) and high-grade follicular lymphoma grade 3 or DLBCL (n=17). Loss of miR-31 expression in DLBCL was not due to deletion of the locus. Changes in miR-17-5p and miR-31 were not correlated with immunophenotype, genetics, or status of the MYC oncogene. However, increased miR-17-5p expression did significantly correlate with increased expression of TP53 protein, which is indicative of mutant TP53. Two pro-proliferative genes, E2F2 and PI3KC2A, were identified as direct mRNA targets of miR-31, suggesting that these may contribute to follicular lymphoma transformation. Our results indicate that changes in miR-31 and miR-17-5p reflect the transformation of follicular lymphoma to an aggressive large B-cell lymphoma and may, along with their targets, be viable markers for this process.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Relapse of adenocarcinoma, the most common non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), is a major clinical challenge to improving survival. To gain insight into the early molecular events that contribute to lung adenocarcinoma relapse, and taking into consideration potential cell type specificity, we used stringent criteria for sample selection. We measured miRNA expression only from flash frozen stage I lung adenocarcinomas, excluding other NSCLC subtypes. We compared miRNA expression in lung adenocarcinomas that relapsed within two years to those that did not relapse within three years after surgical resection prior to adjuvant therapy. The most significant differences in mRNA expression for recurrent tumors compared to non-recurrent tumors were decreases in miR-106b*, -187, -205, -449b, -774* and increases in miR-151-3p, let-7b, miR-215, -520b, and -512-3p. A unique comparison between adjacent normal lung tissue from relapse and non-relapse groups revealed dramatically different miRNA expression, suggesting dysregulation of miRNA in the environment around the tumor. To assess patient-to-patient variability, miRNA levels in the tumors were normalized to levels in matched adjacent normal lung tissue. This analysis revealed a different set of significantly altered miRNA in tumors that recurred compared to tumors that did not. Together our analyses elucidated miRNA not previously linked to lung adenocarcinoma that likely have important roles in its development and progression. Our results also highlight the differences in miRNA expression in normal lung tissue in adenocarcinomas that do and do not recur. Most notably, our data identified those miRNA that distinguish early stage tumors likely to relapse prior to treatment and miRNA that could be further studied for use as biomarkers for prognosis, patient monitoring, and/or treatment decisions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While previous studies reported aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), little is known about which miRNAs play central roles in NSCLC's pathogenesis and its regulatory mechanisms. To address this issue, we presented a robust computational framework that integrated matched miRNA and mRNA expression profiles in NSCLC using feed-forward loops. The network consists of miRNAs, transcription factors (TFs), and their common predicted target genes. To discern the biological meaning of their associations, we introduced the direction of regulation. A network edge validation strategy using three independent NSCLC expression profiling data sets pinpointed reproducible biological regulations. Reproducible regulation, which may reflect the true molecular interaction, has not been applied to miRNA-TF co-regulatory network analyses in cancer or other diseases yet. We revealed eight hub miRNAs that connected to a higher proportion of targets validated by independent data sets. Network analyses showed that these miRNAs might have strong oncogenic characteristics. Furthermore, we identified a novel miRNA-TF co-regulatory module that potentially suppresses the tumor suppressor activity of the TGF-β pathway by targeting a core pathway molecule (TGFBR2). Follow-up experiments showed two miRNAs (miR-9-5p and miR-130b-3p) in this module had increased expression while their target gene TGFBR2 had decreased expression in a cohort of human NSCLC. Moreover, we demonstrated these two miRNAs directly bind to the 3' untranslated region of TGFBR2. This study enhanced our understanding of miRNA-TF co-regulatory mechanisms in NSCLC. The combined bioinformatics and validation approach we described can be applied to study other types of diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1) is a predominantly nuclear protein that suppresses metastasis in multiple human and murine carcinoma cell lines. BRMS1 interacts with several nuclear proteins including SIN3:HDAC chromatin remodeling complexes that are involved in repressing transcription. However, recent reports suggest BRMS1 may function in the cytoplasm. BRMS1 has two predicted nuclear localization sequences (NLS) that are located near the C-terminus (amino acids 198-205 and 238-244, NLS1 and NLS2 respectively). We hypothesized that nuclear localization sequences of BRMS1 were essential for BRMS1 mediated metastasis suppression. Replacement of NLS2 with NLS1 (BRMS1(NLS1,1)), truncation at 238 (BRMS1(ΔNLS2)), or switching the location of NLS1 and NLS2 (BRMS1(NLS2,1)) did not affect nuclear localization; but, replacement of NLS1 with NLS2 (BRMS1(NLS2,2)) or truncation at 197 (BRMS1(ΔNLS) which removes both NLS) promoted cytoplasmic localization. MDA-MB-231 human metastatic breast cancer cells transduced with BRMS1(NLS1,1), BRMS1(NLS2,2) or BRMS1(NLS2,1) were evaluated for metastasis suppression in an experimental xenograft mouse model. Interestingly, while NLS2 was not necessary for nuclear localization, it was found to be important for metastasis suppression since BRMS1(NLS2,2) suppressed metastasis by 85%. In contrast, BRMS1(NLS2,1) and BRMS1(NLS1,1) did not significantly suppress metastasis. Both BRMS1 and BRMS1(NLS2,2) co-immunoprecipitated with SIN3A in the nucleus and cytoplasm; however, BRMS1(NLS1,1) and BRMS1(NLS2,1) were associated with SIN3A in the nucleus only. Moreover, BRMS1 and BRMS1(NLS2,2), but not BRMS1(NLS1,1) and BRMS1(NLS2,1), down-regulated the pro-metastatic microRNA, miR-10b. Together, these data demonstrate an important role for NLS2 in the cytoplasm that is critical for metastasis suppression and is distinct from nuclear localization.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Morbidity and mortality of breast cancer patients are drastically increased when primary tumor cells are able to spread to distant sites and proliferate to become secondary lesions. Effective treatment of metastatic disease has been limited; therefore, an increased molecular understanding to identify biomarkers and therapeutic targets is needed. Breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1) suppresses development of pulmonary metastases when expressed in a variety of cancer types, including metastatic mammary carcinoma. Little is known of Brms1 function throughout the initiation and progression of mammary carcinoma. The goal of this study was to investigate mechanisms of Brms1-mediated metastasis suppression in transgenic mice that express Brms1 using polyoma middle T oncogene-induced models. Brms1 expression did not significantly alter growth of the primary tumors. When expressed ubiquitously using a β-actin promoter, Brms1 suppressed pulmonary metastasis and promoted apoptosis of tumor cells located in the lungs but not in the mammary glands. Surprisingly, selective expression of Brms1 in the mammary gland using the MMTV promoter did not significantly block metastasis nor did it promote apoptosis in the mammary glands or lung, despite MMTV-induced expression within the lungs. These results strongly suggest that cell type-specific over-expression of Brms1 is important for Brms1-mediated metastasis suppression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) regulates cellular homeostasis by propagating signaling molecules, exchanging cellular metabolites, and coupling electrical signals. In cancer, cells exhibit altered rates of GJIC which may play a role in neoplastic progression. K(ATP) channels help maintain membrane polarity and linkages between K(ATP) channel activity and rates of GJIC have been established. The mechanistic relationship has not been fully elucidated. We report the effects of treatment with multiple K(ATP) antagonist compounds on GJIC in metastatic cell lines demonstrating an increase in communication rates following treatment with compounds possessing specificities towards the SUR2 subunit of K(ATP). These effects remained consistent using cell lines with different expression levels of SUR1 and SUR2, suggesting possible off target effects on GJIC by these compounds.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1) suppresses metastasis of multiple tumor types without blocking tumorigenesis. BRMS1 forms complexes with SIN3, histone deacetylases and selected transcription factors that modify metastasis-associated gene expression (e.g., EGFR, OPN, PI4P5K1A, PLAU). microRNA (miRNA) are a recently discovered class of regulatory, noncoding RNA, some of which are involved in neoplastic progression. Based on these data, we hypothesized that BRMS1 may also exert some of its antimetastatic effects by regulating miRNA expression. MicroRNA arrays were done comparing small RNAs that were purified from metastatic MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435 and their nonmetastatic BRMS1-transfected counterparts. miRNA expression changed by BRMS1 were validated using SYBR Green RT-PCR. BRMS1 decreased metastasis-promoting (miR-10b, -373 and -520c) miRNA, with corresponding reduction of their downstream targets (e.g., RhoC which is downstream of miR-10b). Concurrently, BRMS1 increased expression of metastasis suppressing miRNA (miR-146a, -146b and -335). Collectively, these data show that BRMS1 coordinately regulates expression of multiple metastasis-associated miRNA and suggests that recruitment of BRMS1-containing SIN3:HDAC complexes to, as yet undefined, miRNA promoters might be involved in the regulation of cancer metastasis.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · International Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cancer metastasis requires the coordinate expression of multiple genes during every step of the metastatic cascade. Molecules that regulate these genetic programs have the potential to impact metastasis at multiple levels. BReast cancer Metastasis Suppressor 1 (BRMS1) suppresses metastasis by inhibiting multiple steps in the cascade through regulation of many protein-encoding, metastasis-associated genes as well as metastasis-regulatory microRNA, termed metastamiR. In this Feature, we will highlight connections between BRMS1 biology and regulation of metastamiR.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite advancements in knowledge from more than a century of metastasis research, the genetic programs and molecular mechanisms required for cancer metastasis are still incompletely understood. Genes that specifically regulate the process of metastasis are useful tools to elucidate molecular mechanisms and may become markers and/or targets for antimetastatic therapy. Recently, several noncoding regulatory RNA genes, microRNA (miRNA), were identified, which play roles in various steps of metastasis, some without obvious roles in tumorigenesis. Understanding how these metastasis-associated miRNA, which we term metastamir, are involved in metastasis will help identify possible biomarkers or targets for the most lethal attribute of cancer: metastasis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1) expression in breast cancers and the efficacy of BRMS1 as a prognostic indicator, BRMS1 expression was assessed in two sets of breast cancer tissues.
Epithelial cells from 36 frozen samples of breast cancers and corresponding normal breast were collected by laser capture microdissection and assessed for BRMS1 by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. BRMS1 was also evaluated by immunohistochemistry in a tissue microarray of 209 breast cancers and correlated with indicators of prognosis [estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), ErbB2, p53, p27(Kip1), Bcl2 and Ki-67].
BRMS1 mRNA and protein were higher in 94 and 81%, respectively, of breast cancers than in corresponding normal epithelium. BRMS1 localization was predominantly nuclear, but 60-70% of cancers also exhibited cytoplasmic immunostaining. Breast cancers with lower nuclear than cytoplasmic BRMS1 (nuclear score - cytoplasmic score < or =0; 11% of cancers) had lower ER, lower PR and higher Ki-67 expression. There was also a trend toward poorer overall survival in this group of cancers, but this was only of borderline significance (p = 0.073). In Cox proportional hazards models, loss of nuclear BRMS1 was not a significant predictor of overall survival.
Loss of nuclear BRMS1 was associated with ER-negative cancers and a high rate of proliferation, but was not an independent indicator of prognosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1) is a predominantly nuclear protein that differentially regulates expression of multiple genes, leading to suppression of metastasis without blocking orthotopic tumor growth in multiple human and murine cancer cells of diverse origins. We hypothesized that miR-146 may be involved in the ability of BRMS1 to supress metastasis because miR-146 expression is altered by BRMS1 and because BRMS1 and miR-146 are both associated with decreased signaling through the nuclear factor-kappaB pathway. BRMS1 significantly up-regulates miR-146a by 6- to 60-fold in metastatic MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435 cells, respectively, and miR-146b by 40-fold in MDA-MB-435 as measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Transduction of miR-146a or miR-146b into MDA-MB-231 down-regulated expression of epidermal growth factor receptor, inhibited invasion and migration in vitro, and suppressed experimental lung metastasis by 69% and 84%, respectively (mean +/- SE: empty vector = 39 +/- 6, miR-146a = 12 +/- 1, miR-146b = 6 +/- 1). These results further support the recent notion that modulating the levels of miR-146a or miR-146b could have a therapeutic potential to suppress breast cancer metastasis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical studies evaluating the mRNA expression level of the BRMS1 metastasis suppressor in the progression of breast cancer have not been consistent. The purpose of this study was to characterize endogenous BRMS1 mRNA and protein in a model of the progression of breast cancer. BRMS1 protein expression was evaluated in the genetically related MCF10 cell lines representing 'normal' breast epithelial cells (MCF10A), pre-malignant breast disease (MCF10AT), comedo ductal carcinoma in situ (MCF10DCIS.com), and metastatic carcinoma (MCF10CAa.1 and MCF10CAd.1alpha) with two antibodies that recognize distinct epitopes in the BRMS1 protein. Nuclear expression of the characteristic *35 kDa BRMS1 protein was detected in all cell lines. Because BRMS1 was expressed in the metastatic MCF10 variants, the BRMS1 exons were sequenced to scan for possible genetic mutations. BRMS1 was wild-type with the exception of a synonymous T/C transition in exon 7. However, alternatively spliced variants were detected by RT-PCR. Two variants, BRMS1.v2 and BRMS1.v4 were only detected in the MCF10A and AT cell lines, while BRMS1 and BRMS1.v3 were detected in all lines. These results demonstrate that expression of the characteristic *35 kDa BRMS1 protein is not sufficient to prevent metastasis. The differential expression of alternative splice variants suggests caution should be taken when evaluating BRMS1 mRNA in clinical samples.
Preview · Article · Nov 2008 · Clinical and Experimental Metastasis