[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Background: Endothelial dysfunction is vascular phenomenon that plays an important role in atherosclerosis development. With the purpose of improving the prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic diseases, the searching for accurate, practical and cheaper methods for evaluating endothelial function have become of interest. Objectives: Verify the potential of Peripheral Perfusion Index from pulse oximetry (IPP) as a method of endothelial dysfunction evaluation in patients with atherosclerotic diseases. Methods: There were recruited 18 control patients and 24 patients with atherosclerotic diseases under optimized treatment, in basic health units. The values of IPP were evaluated before and after an endothelial-dependent stimulus, the reactive hyperemia. The values of IPP were also evaluated in period which the major contribution of Nitric Oxide (NO) for the vasodilation occurs (IPP90-120). The results of IPP were discussed using the literature and estimating their diagnostic and prognostic potential Results: The endothelium-dependent vasodilatory response measured by IPP was significantly lower in patients with atherosclerosis compared to control group, since 45 seconds after reactive hyperemia. Also, the values of IPP90-120 were significantly lower in patients with atherosclerosis [35% (4 - 53%) vs 73% (55 - 169%); p<0,001]. Similarly, the IPP values were lower in atherosclerosis group when it was separated by gender. Conclusion: The results of this study, in association with the low cost of pulse oximeter, suggest a good potential for IPP as an endothelial dysfunction evaluation method. New studies must be done in order to clarify this potential and possibly contribute with the prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic diseases.
Full-text Article · Feb 2014 · Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Abstract Chrysobalanus icaco L. is a medicinal plant popularly known in Brazil as "Grageru" or "Abageru." It is used in African and American continents as medicinal food in the treatment of several diseases, including diabetes. This study used phytochemical screening to determine the antioxidant and α-amylase inhibitor activities of the aqueous extract (AECI) of C. icaco, and evaluated its antidiabetic potential in rodents. Phytochemical screening was performed using colorimetric tests with specific reagents. The in vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by the scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picril-hydrazyl. The lethality test and behavioral screening was performed using an oral administration of 5 g/kg of AECI. The AECI antidiabetic potential was evaluated through the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and chronic hypoglycemic test at the doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg (orally). Metformin was used as a reference drug in all tests. Diabetes was induced by injection of alloxan (40 mg/kg; intravenously). Phytochemical screening showed the presence of various compounds, including tannins, flavones, triterpenoids, steroids, saponins, and alkaloids. The in vitro antioxidant test demonstrated that AECI presented potent antioxidant activity. The lethality test and behavioral screening did not show lethality signs. In the OGTT test, AECI administration was not able to inhibit the elevation of glycemia. However, chronically administrated, it was able to cause a significant (P<.05) reduction of glycemia from 335±27 up to 197±15 mg/dL. These results demonstrate that the AECI presents a potential beneficial effect for diabetes.
Full-text Article · Jun 2013 · Journal of medicinal food
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The cardiovascular activity of essential oils has been reported. Some studies showed that the main chemical components of these oils contribute to their pharmacological activity. Therefore, the cardiovascular activity of four monoterpenes and one sesquiterpene was evaluated in the present work. In non-anaesthetized normotensive rats, (+)-alpha-pinene, (-)-beta-pinene, (+/-)-citronellol and (+/-)-linalool (1, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, i.v.) induced hypotension [maximal effect: (-35 +/- 3)%, (-46 +/- 4)%, (-48 +/- 2)% and (-40 +/- 2)%, respectively; n=6] and tachycardia [maximal effect: (13 +/- 4)%, (16 +/- 7)%, (21 +/- 1)% and (19 +/- 3)%, respectively; n=6] while (-)-a-bisabolol (1, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, i.v.) induced hypotension [maximal effect: (-47 +/- 8)%, n=6] and bradycardia [maximal effect: (-57 +/- 3)%]. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that all terpenes tested had hypotensive activity in rats and that the pharmacological effect of the terpene alcohols was more effective than that of the terpene hydrocarbons.
Article · Sep 2010 · Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung C
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Caesalpinia ferrea and Chrysobalanus icaco are plants commonly used by the folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. In this work, the effects of the chronic treatment with aqueous extracts of C. ferrea (AECF) and C. icaco (AECI) on the vascular reactivity of alloxan-induced diabetic rats were evaluated. In rings of mesenteric artery, AECF and AECI were not able to modify the contractions induced by phenylephrine or relaxations induced by carbachol. However, treatment with AECI was able to prevent the potentiation of the relaxations induced by sodium nitroprusside in diabetic rats. In brief,this study found possible benefits of the treatment with C. icaco on the reactivity vascular of diabetic rats.
Article · Aug 2010 · LATIN AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: It is essential that each laboratory knows its own set of reference values for healthy animals, according to their species, diet, strain, gender and age. This study aimed to establish reference values of some biochemical, physiological and morphological parameters of rats from the Central Animal Facility of the Federal University of Sergipe. We used male Wistar rats, weighing between 230 and 260 g. We evaluated biochemical (glucose, fructosamine, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL and LDL cholesterol, urea and creatinine), physiological (systolic, diastolic, mean and pulse blood pressure, heart rate and water intake) and morphological (body weight, heart and liver mass index) parameters. With the results of this study it is possible for researches to identify deviations from normal parameters, thus facilitating the standardization of the laboratory animals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: This study has investigated the cardiovascular effects of the Cymbopogon winterianus essential oil (EOCW) in rats. C. winterianus is a plant used in folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension.
For the measurement of haemodynamic and ECG parameters, male Wistar rats under anaesthesia were cannulated in the abdominal aorta and lower vena cava and electrodes were subcutaneously implanted in their paws. For an in-vitro approach, the rats were killed and the superior mesenteric artery was removed and cut into rings (1-2 mm). These rings were then mounted in organ baths containing Tyrode's solution at 37 degrees C and gassed with carbogen.
In rats, EOCW (1-20 mg/kg, i.v.) induced dose-dependent hypotension and tachycardia. These effects were not affected by L-NAME or indometacin, but were partially reduced after atropine administration. EOCW (20 mg/kg only) also induced bradycardia-associated sinoatrial blockade, junctional rhythm, and first-degree atrioventricular block, which was abolished after atropine administration or vagotomy. In arterial rings, EOCW (0.1-3000 microg/ml) induced relaxation of phenylephrine tonus that was not affected by removal of the endothelium. These relaxations were similar to those observed in rings without endothelium precontracted with KCl 80 mm. EOCW was able to antagonize the CaCl(2) (30-300 mum) induced contractions in depolarizing solution (KCl 60 mm).
These results demonstrated that EOCW induced hypotension and vasorelaxation. These effects appeared to be mainly mediated by Ca(+2)-channel blocking. Furthermore, the higher dose of EOCW induced transient bradycardia and arrhythmias due to a cardiac muscarinic activation secondary to a vagal discharge.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Ethanol extract of Maytenus rigida stem bark and its fractions were assessed for antinociceptive activity in tail-flick test in rats. The activity was located in the chloroform, ethyl acetate and aq.methanol fractions. Phytochemical screening revealed that catechin was the only common class of compounds present on the ethanol extract as well as on the active fractions. 4'-Methylepigallocatechin, isolated from the ethyl acetate and aq.methanol fractions, showed antinociceptive effect in the tail-flick test (75 mg/kg; p.o.), which was reversed by the opiate antagonist naloxone (3 mg/kg; i.p.).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Foram investigados os efeitos miorelaxante, antiespasmódico e antinociceptivo do extrato aquoso liofilizado das folhas da Phoradendron piperoides. A toxicidade aguda também foi avaliada. No íleo isolado de cobaio, o extrato aquoso da P. piperoides (0,05 - 2,0 mg/mL) produziu relaxamento de forma concentração-dependente (IC50 = 0,114 mg/mL) e, na concentração de 1,5 mg/mL, reduziu a amplitude das contrações induzidas por carbacol (2 µM), histamina (2 µM) e BaCl2 (0,03 M) em 46,6; 38,6 e 55,3% (p < 0,001), respectivamente. Em camundongos, o extrato aquoso liofilizado (100-400 mg/kg) não reduziu de forma significativa as contorções abdominais induzidas por ácido acético, não modificou o tempo de reação dos animais no teste da formalina e não aumentou o tempo de latência ao calor no teste da placa quente. No ensaio de toxicidade aguda utilizado, não foi detectada a morte de nenhum animal após tratamento com doses de até 5 g/kg (p.o.) do extrato. Em conclusão, os resultados obtidos indicam que o extrato aquoso da P. piperoides apresenta efeito antiespasmódico e baixa toxicidade aguda. O extrato, no entanto, não possui efeito antinociceptivo.
Full-text Article · Sep 2007 · Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The present work evaluated the antinociceptive, miorelaxant and antispasmodic effects as well as the acute toxicity of the aqueous extract from leaves of Phoradendron piperoides. In guinea pig ileum, the plant extract (0.05 - 2.0 mg/kg) decreased the preparations basal tone in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 = 0.114 mg/mL) and it (1.5 mg/mL) reduced (p < 0.001) the contractions induced by carbachol (2 µM), histamine (2 µM) and BaCl2 (0.03M). The extract, at oral doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, did not manifest a significant antinociceptive effect in the writhing, formalin and hot-plate tests. Moreover, no animal deaths were observed in doses up to 5 g/kg. In conclusion, the aqueous extract of Phoradendron piperoides showed no antinociceptive effect and no acute toxicity in mice. Indeed, it revealed miorelaxant and antispasmodic activities that are probably miogenic and not specific for neurotransmitters.
Article · Sep 2007 · Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Caesalpinia ferrea is a plant very used in the folk medicine for treatment of several diseases, such as diabetes. This study investigated the cardiovascular effects of the aqueous extract from stem bark of C. ferrea (AECF). In non-anesthetized rats, AECF (10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg/kg; i.v.) induced hypotension (-9+/-1;-12+/-1;-14+/-1; -20+/-3 and -51+/-6%; respectively) and tachycardia (6+/-1; 8+/-1; 12+/-2; 14+/-2 and 26+/-3%; respectively). Hypotension was not affected after atropine or L-NAME. Furthermore, AECF (40 mg/kg) induced atrioventricular block and extrasystoles, which was not affected after atropine. In intact rings of the rat mesenteric artery, AECF (0.001-30 mg/ml, n=6) induced relaxations of phenylephrine tonus (Emax=110+/-4%), which was not changed after the removal of endothelium (Emax=113+/-9%). In rings without endothelium pre-contracted with KCl 80 mM, phenylephrine plus KCl 20 mM or phenylephrine plus glibenclamide, the curve to AECF was significantly attenuated (Emax=24+/-4%, 70+/-5% and 62+/-7%, respectively, n=6), but was not affected in the presence of tetraethylammonium or 4-aminopyridine (Emax=125+/-15% and 114+/-7%, respectively, n=6). These results demonstrate that AECF induces hypotension associated to tachycardia; however, in dose of 40 mg/kg, AECF induces transient bradyarrhythmias. Furthermore, AECF induces vasodilatation in rat mesenteric artery which appears to be mediated by ATP-sensitive K+ channel openings.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The aqueous extract of Hyptis suaveolens leaves was studied for their antinociceptive property in chemical and thermal models of nociception in mice. Oral administration of the aqueous extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) dose-dependently reduced the number of writhings induced by acetic acid, decreased the licking activity of the early phase in formalin test and increased the reaction time in hot-plate test. The antinociceptive effect was significantly antagonized by naloxone (3 mg/kg; i.p.). Preliminary acute toxicity study showed that no animal death with doses up to 5 g/kg (p.o.).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The present work evaluated the antinociceptive, miorelaxant and antispasmodic effects as well as the acute toxicity of the aqueous extract from leaves of Phoradendron piperoides. In guinea pig ileum, the plant extract (0.05 - 2.0 mg/kg) decreased the preparations basal tone in a dose-dependent manner (IC50= 0.114 mg/mL) and it (1.5 mg/mL) reduced (p < 0.001) the contractions induced by carbachol (2 μM), histamine (2 μM) and BaCl2 (0.03M). The extract, at oral doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, did not manifest a significant antinociceptive effect in the writhing, formalin and hot-plate tests. Moreover, no animal deaths were observed in doses up to 5 g/kg. In conclusion, the aqueous extract of Phoradendron piperoides showed no antinociceptive effect and no acute toxicity in mice. Indeed, it revealed miorelaxant and antispasmodic activities that are probably miogenic and not specific for neurotransmitters.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The essential oil of the Hyptis fruticosa leaves was analyzed by GC/MS and evaluated for antinociceptive property as well as acute toxicity in mice. The essential oil, at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg (s.c.), produced significant inhibition of acetic acid-induced writhing, but did not manifest a significant effect in hot-plate test. There was no acute toxicity at doses up to 5 g/kg. Bicyclogermacrene, 1,8-cineole, alpha-pinene, and beta-caryophyllene were the major compounds detected in the essential oil.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Este trabalho descreve o efeito antinociceptivo e a toxicidade aguda do extrato aquoso das folhas da Hyptis fruticosa Salmz. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae). O extrato aquoso liofilizado, administrado por via oral, reduziu as contorções abdominais induzidas por ácido acético (200, 400 e 500 mg/kg) e o tempo de reação dos animais na primeira fase do teste da formalina (100 mg/kg e 400 mg/kg). No teste da placa quente, o extrato aquoso aumentou o tempo de latência ao calor (100 e 200 mg/kg) tendo este efeito sido revertido pelo antagonista opióide naloxona (5 mg/kg; i.p.). No ensaio de toxicidade aguda, não foi detectada a morte de nenhum animal após tratamento com doses de até 5 g/kg (v.o.) do extrato. Em conclusão, os resultados obtidos indicam que o extrato aquoso da Hyptis fruticosa apresenta efeito antinociceptivo em camundongos e não apresenta toxicidade aguda nas doses testadas.The antinociceptive effect and the acute toxicity of Hyptis fruticosa leaves were evaluated through the administration of its aqueous extract in mice. The extract, administered orally (200, 400, and 500 mg/kg), reduced the nociceptive response in the writhing test as well as in the early phase of the formalin test (100 and 400 mg/kg) and it increased the latency time in the hot plate test (100 and 200 mg/kg). The antinociceptive effect was reversed by naloxone (5 mg/kg, i.p.). Moreover, no animal deaths were observed in doses up to 5 g/kg. In conclusion, the aqueous extract of Hyptis fruticosa showed no acute toxicity at the evaluated doses and revealed antinociceptive effect in mice. Such effects are possibly associated with the opioid system activation.
Full-text Article · Dec 2006 · Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia