[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study sets out to identify novel susceptibility genes for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) in a powerful set of
samples from the UK and USA (1808 LOAD cases and 2062 controls). Allele frequencies of 17 343 gene-based putative functional
single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested for association with LOAD in a discovery case–control sample from the UK.
A tiered strategy was used to follow-up significant variants from the discovery sample in four independent sample sets. Here,
we report the identification of several candidate SNPs that show significant association with LOAD. Three of the identified
markers are located on chromosome 19 (meta-analysis: full sample P = 6.94E − 81 to 0.0001), close to the APOE gene and exhibit linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the APOEε4 and ε2/3 variants (0.09 < D′<1). Two of the three SNPs can be regarded as study-wide significant (expected number of false positives reaching the observed
significance level less than 0.05 per study). Sixteen additional SNPs show evidence for association with LOAD [P = 0.0010-0.00006; odds ratio (OR) = 1.07–1.45], several of which map to known linkage regions, biological candidate genes
and novel genes. Four SNPs not in LD with APOE show a false positive rate of less than 2 per study, one of which shows study-wide
suggestive evidence taking account of 17 343 tests. This is a missense mutation in the galanin-like peptide precursor gene
(P = 0.00005, OR = 1.2, false positive rate = 0.87).
Full-text · Article · Apr 2007 · Human Molecular Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Linkage studies have defined susceptibility regions for late-onset Parkinson disease (PD) on chromosomes 1 and 2, but specific genetic variants have not been definitively identified. Here we report the results of a case-control study to identify disease-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these loci. In the initial phase of our study, we genotyped two putative functional SNPs in ubiquitin-specific protease 24 (USP24), a biological candidate gene within the chromosome 1 linkage region, and scanned the chromosome 2 linkage peak with 43 SNPs in a sample set of 224 PD cases and 186 matched controls. Both USP24 SNPs were significantly associated with disease risk (p = 0.0037 for rs1165222:T > C, p.Thr195ILe, and p = 0.037 for rs13312:C > G, a SNP in the 3'-untranslated region), and one marker, rs1048603:C > T, p.Arg1123Cys, in USP40 was significant from the chromosome 2 scan (p = 0.038). Further genotyping of the region surrounding these initial markers led us to identify 19 additional SNPs with strong disease association. In the second phase, we genotyped the 22 significant markers in an additional 110 cases and 162 controls, which together with part of the initial sample set (201 cases and 149 controls) constitute an expanded sample set of 311 age- and gender-matched case-control pairs. Twenty-one markers were significant in the expanded sample set (most significant allelic p-value: 0.0006 for rs287235:C > G on chromosome 1, and 0.005 for rs838552:T > C on chromosome 2), and six SNPs in USP24 remained significant after conservatively adjusting for testing 27 markers (pBonferroni = 0.017-0.049). It is unlikely that population stratification contributed to this finding, as population stratification was undetectable in our sample set using 78 null markers. Our data suggest that genetic variants in USP24 and USP40 affect the risk for late-onset PD, which is consistent with the predicted role of the ubiquitination pathway in PD etiology.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic factors play an important role in the etiology of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). We tested gene-centric single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosome 9 and identified two SNPs in the death-associated protein kinase, DAPK1, that show significant association with LOAD. SNP rs4878104 was significantly associated with LOAD in our discovery case-control sample set (WU) and replicated in each of two initial validation case-control sample sets (P<0.05, UK1, SD). The risk-allele frequency of this SNP showed a similar direction in three other case-control sample sets. A meta-analysis of the six sample sets combined, totaling 2012 cases and 2336 controls, showed an allelic P-value of 0.0016 and an odds ratio (OR) of 0.87 (95%CI: 0.79-0.95). Minor allele homozygotes had a consistently lower risk than major allele homozygotes in the discovery and initial two replication sample sets, which remained significant in the meta-analysis of all six sample sets (OR=0.7, 95%CI: 0.58-0.85), whereas the risk for heterozygous subjects was not significantly different from that of major allele homozygotes. A second SNP, rs4877365, which is in high linkage disequilibrium with rs4878104 (r2=0.64), was also significantly associated with LOAD (meta P=0.0017 in the initial three sample sets). Furthermore, DAPK1 transcripts show differential allelic gene expression, and both rs4878104 and rs4877365 were significantly associated with DAPK1 allele-specific expression (P=0.015 to <0.0001). These data suggest that genetic variation in DAPK1 modulates susceptibility to LOAD.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2006 · Human Molecular Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Strong evidence of linkage to late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) has been observed on chromosome 10, which implicates a wide region and at least one disease-susceptibility locus. Although significant associations with several biological candidate genes on chromosome 10 have been reported, these findings have not been consistently replicated, and they remain controversial. We performed a chromosome 10-specific association study with 1,412 gene-based single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), to identify susceptibility genes for developing LOAD. The scan included SNPs in 677 of 1,270 known or predicted genes; each gene contained one or more markers, about half (48%) of which represented putative functional mutations. In general, the initial testing was performed in a white case-control sample from the St. Louis area, with 419 LOAD cases and 377 age-matched controls. Markers that showed significant association in the exploratory analysis were followed up in several other white case-control sample sets to confirm the initial association. Of the 1,397 markers tested in the exploratory sample, 69 reached significance (P < .05). Five of these markers replicated at P < .05 in the validation sample sets. One marker, rs498055, located in a gene homologous to RPS3A (LOC439999), was significantly associated with Alzheimer disease in four of six case-control series, with an allelic P value of .0001 for a meta-analysis of all six samples. One of the case-control samples with significant association to rs498055 was derived from the linkage sample (P = .0165). These results indicate that variants in the RPS3A homologue are associated with LOAD and implicate this gene, adjacent genes, or other functional variants (e.g., noncoding RNAs) in the pathogenesis of this disorder.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2006 · The American Journal of Human Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Linkage studies have suggested there is a susceptibility gene for late onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) in a broad region of chromosome 10. A strong positional and biological candidate is the gene encoding the insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), a protease involved in the catabolism of Abeta. However, previous association studies have produced inconsistent results. To systematically evaluate the role of variation in IDE in the risk for LOAD, we genotyped 18 SNPs spanning a 276 kb region in and around IDE, including three "tagging" SNPs identified in an earlier study. We used four case-control series with a total of 1,217 cases and 1,257 controls. One SNP (IDE_7) showed association in two samples (P-value = 0.0066, and P = 0.026, respectively), but this result was not replicated in the other two series. None of the other SNPs showed association with LOAD in any of the tested samples. Haplotypes, constructed from the three tagging SNPs, showed no globally significant association. In the UK2 series, the CTA haplotype was over-represented in cases (P = 0.046), and in the combined data set, the CCG haplotype was more frequent in controls (P = 0.015). However, these weak associations observed in our series were in the opposite direction to the results in previous studies. Although our results are not universally negative, we were unable to replicate the results of previous studies and conclude that common variants or haplotypes of these variants in IDE are not major risk factors for LOAD.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2005 · American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alzheimer disease (AD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder predisposed by multiple genetic factors. Mutations in amyloid beta precursor protein (APP) are known to be associated with autosomal dominant, early onset familial AD and possibly also late onset AD (LOAD). A number of genes encoding proteins capable of binding to APP have been identified, but their contribution to AD pathobiology remains unclear. Conceivably, mutations in these genes may play a role in affecting AD susceptibility, which appears to be substantiated by some genetic studies. Here we report results of the first genetic association study with APBB2, an APP binding protein (also known as FE65L), and LOAD, in three independently collected case-control series totaling approximately 2,000 samples. Two SNPs were significantly associated with LOAD in two sample series and in meta-analyses of all three sample sets (for rs13133980: odds ratio [OR](hom)=1.36 [95% CI: 1.05-1.75], OR(het)=1.32 [95% CI: 1.04-1.67], minor allele frequency=43%, P=0.041; and for hCV1558625: OR(hom)=1.37 [95% CI: 1.06-1.77], OR(het)=1.02 [95% CI: 0.82-1.26], minor allele frequency=48%, P=0.026). One of these SNPs, located in a region conserved between the human and mouse genome, showed a significant interaction with age of disease onset. For this marker, the association with LOAD was most pronounced in subjects with disease onset before 75 years of age (OR(hom)=2.43 [95% CI: 1.61-3.67]; OR(het)=2.15 [95% CI: 1.46-3.17]; P=0.00006) in the combined sample set. Our data raise the possibility that genetic variations in APBB2 may affect LOAD susceptibility.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although several genes have been implicated in the development of the early-onset autosomal dominant form of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the genetics of late-onset AD (LOAD) is complex. Loci on several chromosomes have been linked to the disease, but so far only the apolipoprotein E gene has been consistently shown to be a risk factor. We have performed a large-scale single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based association study, across the region of linkage on chromosome 12, in multiple case-control series totaling 1,089 LOAD patients and 1,196 control subjects and report association with SNPs in the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPD) gene. Subsequent analysis of GAPD paralogs on other chromosomes demonstrated association with two other paralogs. A significant association between LOAD and a compound genotype of the three GAPD genes was observed in all three sample sets. Individually, these SNPs make differential contributions to disease risk in each of the casecontrol series, suggesting that variants in functionally similar genes may account for series-to-series heterogeneity of disease risk. Our observations raise the possibility that GAPD genes are AD risk factors, a hypothesis that is consistent with the role of GAPD in neuronal apoptosis.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2004 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The sequence of the human genome encodes the genetic instructions for human physiology, as well as rich information about human evolution. In 2001, the International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium reported a draft sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome. Since then, the international collaboration has worked to convert this draft into a genome sequence with high accuracy and nearly complete coverage. Here, we report the result of this finishing process. The current genome sequence (Build 35) contains 2.85 billion nucleotides interrupted by only 341 gaps. It covers approximately 99% of the euchromatic genome and is accurate to an error rate of approximately 1 event per 100,000 bases. Many of the remaining euchromatic gaps are associated with segmental duplications and will require focused work with new methods. The near-complete sequence, the first for a vertebrate, greatly improves the precision of biological analyses of the human genome including studies of gene number, birth and death. Notably, the human genome seems to encode only 20,000-25,000 protein-coding genes. The genome sequence reported here should serve as a firm foundation for biomedical research in the decades ahead.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic association of ABCA1 or the ATP-binding cassette A1 transporter with late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) has recently been proposed for a haplotype comprised of three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We have genotyped these and other ABCA1 SNPs in a LOAD case-control series of 796 individuals (419 cases versus 377 controls) collected at Washington University. While our sample series is larger and thus presumably has greater power than any of the series used to implicate ABCA1, we were unable to replicate the published association, using either single markers or multiple marker haplotypes. Further, we did not observe significant and replicated association of other ABCA1 SNPs we examined with the disease, thus these ABCA1 variants do not appear to influence the risk of LOAD in this study.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The gene encoding alpha-T-catenin, CTNNA3, is positioned within a region on chromosome 10, showing strong evidence of linkage to Alzheimer's disease (AD), and is therefore a good positional candidate gene for this disorder. We have demonstrated that alpha-T-catenin is expressed in human brain, and like other alpha-catenins, it inhibits Wnt signaling and is therefore also a functional candidate. We initially genotyped two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene, in four independent samples comprising over 1200 cases and controls but failed to detect an association with either SNP. Similarly, we found no evidence for association between CTNNA3 and AD in a sample of subjects showing linkage to chromosome 10, nor were these SNPs associated with Abeta deposition in brain. To comprehensively screen the gene, we genotyped 30 additional SNPs in a subset of the cases and controls (n > 700). None of these SNPs was associated with disease. Although an excellent candidate, we conclude that CTNNA3 is unlikely to account for the AD susceptibility locus on chromosome 10.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2004 · NeuroMolecular Medicine