Noah Kiwanuka

Makerere University, Kampala, Central Region, Uganda

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Publications (130)940.55 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: HIV and malaria exert co-pathogenic effects. Malaria surveillance data are necessary for public health strategies to reduce the burden of disease in high HIV prevalence settings. This was a longitudinal cohort study to assess the burden of malaria in rural Rakai, Uganda. Households were visited monthly for 1 year to identify confirmed clinical malaria (CCM), or parasitaemia with temperature >37.5 °C, and asymptomatic parasitaemia (AP). Interviews of the adult or child’s caregiver and clinical and laboratory assessments were conducted. Rapid diagnostic testing for malaria and anaemia was performed if participants were febrile and anti-malarial treatment given per Uganda Ministry of Health 2010 guidelines. Blood was drawn at every household visit to assess for parasitaemia, and blood smears were assessed at the Rakai Health Science Programme laboratory. A total of 1640 participants were enrolled, including 975 children aged 6 months up to 10 years, 393 adult caregivers, and 272 adolescent/adult household members from 393 randomly selected households in two representative communities. 1459 (89 %) participants completed all study visits. CCM was identified in 304 (19 %) participants, with the highest incidence rate for CCM of 0.38 per person-year (ppy) identified in children <5 years, and rates decreased with age; the rates were 0.27, 0.16, and 0.09 ppy for ages 5–<10 years, 10–<18 years, and adults 18+ years, respectively. AP was identified in 943 (57 %) participants; the incidence rate was 1.99 ppy for <5 years, 2.72 ppy for 5–<10 years, 2.55 ppy for 10–<18 years, and 0.86 ppy among adults, with 92 % of cases being attributed to Plasmodium falciparum by smear. 994 (61 %) individuals had at least one positive smear; 342 (21 %) had one positive result, 203 (12 %) had two, 115 (7 %) had three, and 334 (21 %) had >3 positive smears during follow-up. Seasonal rates generally followed the rains and peaked during July, then decreased through November before increasing again. Plasmodium falciparum infection remains high in rural Uganda. Increased malaria control interventions should be prioritized. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01265407
    No preview · Article · Dec 2016 · Malaria Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Hypertension is an emerging public health problem in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) and urbanization is considered to favor its emergence. Given a paucity of information on hypertension and associated risk factors among urban slum dwellers in SSA, we aimed to characterize the distribution of risk factors for hypertension and investigate their association with hypertension in an urban slum in Kenya. We conducted a community based cross-sectional survey among adults 35 years and older living in Kibera slum Nairobi, Kenya. Trained interviewers collected data on socio demographic characteristics and self reported health behaviours using modified World Health Organization stepwise surveillance questionnaire for chronic disease risk factors. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were performed following standard procedures. Multiple logistic regression was used for analysis and odds ratios with 95 % confidence intervals were calculated to identify risk factors associated with hypertension. A total of 1528 adults were surveyed with a mean age of 46.7 years. The age-standardized prevalence of hypertension was 29.4 % (95 % CI 27.0-31.7). Among the 418 participants classified as hypertensive, over one third (39.0 %) were unaware they had hypertension. Prevalence of current smoking and alcohol consumption was 8.5 and 13.1 % respectively. Over one quarter 26.2 % participants were classified as overweight (Body Mass Index [BMI] ≥25 to ≤29.9 kg/m(2)), and 17 % classified as obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)). Overweight, obesity, current smoking, some level of education, highest wealth index, moderate physical activity, older age and being widowed were each independently associated with hypertension. When fit in a multivariable logistic regression model, being a widow [AOR = 1.7; (95 % CI, 1.1-2.6)], belonging to the highest wealth index [AOR = 1.6; (95 % CI, 1.1-2.5)], obesity [AOR = 1.8; 95 % CI, 1.1-3.1)] and moderate physical activity [AOR = 1.9; (95 % CI, 1.2-3.0)], all remained significantly associated with hypertension. Hypertension in the slum is a public health problem affecting at least one in three adults aged 35-64 years. Age, marital status, wealth index, physical inactivity and body mass index are important risk factors associated with hypertension. Prevention measures targeting the modifiable risk factors associated with hypertension are warranted to curb hypertension and its progressive effects.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · BMC Public Health
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    ABSTRACT: Background With increased survival of perinatally HIV - infected adolescents due to antiretroviral therapy (ART), the focus of HIV care has shifted to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) as a measure of disease progression, effects of ART co-morbidity and prognosis. We assessed factors associated with better HRQoL in perinatally HIV -infected adolescents in Uganda by determining the associations between sexual and reproductive health (SRH) or lifestyle experiences on HRQoL. Methods In a cross-sectional study, data on SRH, lifestyle experiences, socio demographic factors, communication with parents on sexuality and satisfaction of SRH services in ART clinics were collected from 614 HIV perinatally infected adolescents aged 10–19 using an interviewer-administered survey questionnaire. HRQoL data were collected using the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey instrument (MOS-HIV). Factors associated with better HRQoL were analysed using multiple logistic regression. Results The mean age was 16.2 ± 2.1 years, 362 (58.8 %) were females and 210 (34.2 %) were sexually active. Adolescents on ART were twice likely to present with better physical health (AOR = 2.07, 95 % CI: 1.24–3.46) and four times more likely to present with better mental health (AOR = 3.9, 95 % CI: 2.22–6.92) than those who were not on ART. There were no statistically significant associations between SRH (ever had sex, ever been pregnant, condom use, contraceptive use) or life style factors and physical health or mental health. Those with secondary or tertiary education were more likely to present with a better mental health (AOR = 5.3, 95 % CI: 1.86–15.41) compared those who had attained primary or no education. Participants who desired to have a child in future more likely (AOR 1.7, 95 % CI: 1.05–3.00) to present with a better mental health. Lack of communication with guardians on sexuality (AOR = 0.6, 95 % CI: 0.40–0.89), or dissatisfaction with SRH services (AOR 0.34, 95 % CI: 0.18–0.62) were associated with poorer mental health. Conclusion Among perinatally HIV-infected adolescents in Uganda, being on ART was associated with better physical and mental health while lack of communication with guardians on sexuality or dissatisfaction with SRH services was associated with poor mental health. Adolescents with pregnancy intentions were more likely to have a better mental health.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Fishing communities (FCs) in Uganda have high HIV infection rates but poor access to health services including family planning (FP). Although FP is a cost-effective public health intervention, there is a paucity of data on knowledge and use of modern FP in FCs. This study determined knowledge and use of modern FP methods in FCs of Uganda. Methods Data were accrued from a 12-month follow up of 1,688 HIV-uninfected individuals, 18-49 years from 8 FCs along Lake Victoria, between September 2011 and March 2013. Data on knowledge and use of modern FP were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire. Prevalence Risk Ratios with corresponding 95% CIs were used to determine factors associated with Modern FP knowledge and use. Results The mean age was 31.4 years, with nearly half (48.8%) being females while more than half (58.6%) had attained up to primary education level. Knowledge of modern FP was high, 87.5% (1477/1688); significantly higher among females [adj. PRR = 4.84 (95% CI; 3.08, 7.61)], among older respondents (25-29 years) [adj. PRR = 1.83 (95% CI; 1.12, 2.99)] compared to younger ones (18-24 years) and among those conducting business [adj. PRR = 2.42(95% CI; 1.02, 5.74)] relative to those primarily in fishing. Just over a third (35.2%, 595/ 1688) reported use of at least one modern FP method. Use of modern FP methods was significantly higher among females [adj. PRR = 2.04 (95% CI; 1.56, 2.65, and among those reporting multiple sexual partnerships [adj. PRR = 2.12, 95% CI; 1.63, 2.76)]. Nonuse of modern methods was mostly due to desire for more children (30.6%), fear of side effects (12.2%) and partner refusal (5.2%). Conclusion Despite their high knowledge of FP, FCs have low use of modern FP methods. Key barriers to use of modern FP methods were high fertility desires, fear of perceived side effects and partner refusal of methods.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The objective of this study was to explore the correlates of ever had sex among perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of sexual behaviour was conducted with 624 PHIV adolescents living three regions (12 districts) of Uganda. Data was collected on socio demographic characteristics (age, sex, occupation, religion and education status), sexual practices and behaviours (Intimate relationships, sexual intercourse, age of sexual debut, condom use, multiple and concurrent sexual partners), consequences of sexual behaviours (pregnancy and STI's) and life style factors (use of alcohol, psychoactive substances and peer influence). Multivariable logistic-regression was used to ascertain the determinants of sexual activity. Results: The majority of PHIV were female (59.3 %) and the mean age of the sample was 16.2 (±2.1) years. The mean age of sexual debut was 15.8 years; 16.2 % (101/624) reported symptoms for sexually transmitted infections (STI) and more than a third (213/624) reported ever had sex.Of these 76.5 % (165/213) used condoms inconsistently; and 49.3 % (105/213) had been pregnant or made someone pregnant. Of those in relationships, 56.3 % (223/396) did not disclose and were not aware of their partners' HIV status. Adolescents aged 15-19 years were more likely to have ever been sexually active (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 6.28, 95 % Confidence interval (CI): 2.63-14.99) compared to those aged 10-14 years. Adolescents who were living alone were more likely to have ever been sexually active compared to those living with one or both parents (AOR 4.33, 95 % CI: 1.13-16.62). The odds of being sexually active were lower among adolescents in school compared to those out of school (AOR 0.2, 95 % CI: 0.13-0.30), who had never been treated for STI (compared to those who had never been treated for STI) (AOR 0.19, 95 % 0.11-0.32) and adolescents who never drank alcohol (AOR 0.49, 95 % CI 0.28-0.87). Conclusion: PHIV adolescents have risky sexual behaviours characterized by being sexually active, inconsistent condom use, and having partners of unknown status. Risk reduction interventions are required to minimize unplanned pregnancies, STI, and HIV transmission by PHIV adolescents.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Reproductive Health
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Sexual coercion is associated with sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancies with consequential unsafe abortions and increased maternal morbidity and mortality. Current literature focuses mainly on its risk factors but less on its resultant deleterious health effects. We conducted a study to determine the prevalence of sexual coercion and its association with unwanted pregnancies among young pregnant women. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, four hundred and sixteen (416) consenting pregnant females aged 15-24 years attending antenatal clinics in Lubaga division Kampala district in Uganda were enrolled using systematic sampling. Quantitative and qualitative data on sexual coercion were collected by female interviewers. Adjusted Prevalence Proportion Ratios (Adj. PPRs) of unwanted pregnancy and associated 95 % confidence intervals were estimated by generalized linear models with log link function and Poisson family distribution using robust variance estimator. Quantitative data were analyzed using Stata version 10.0, while qualitative data were analyzed using manifest content analysis. Results: Prevalence of sexual coercion was 24 % and was higher among those who had non consensual sexual debut (29.0 %) compared with those who had consensual sexual debut (22.6 %). The prevalence of unwanted pregnancy was 18.3 % and was higher among participants who had been sexually coerced relative to their counterparts (p < 0.001). History of sexual coercion in the past 12 months and non consensual sexual debut were associated with unwanted pregnancy [adj.PPR = 2.23, 95 % CI: (1.49-3.32)] and 1.72, 95 % CI: (1.16- 2.54)] respectively. Qualitative results indicated that different forms/contexts of sexual coercion, such as deception, transactional sex and physical force influenced unwanted pregnancies. Discussion: This study highlights that a quarter of our participants in our quantitative study had experienced sexual coercion in the past twelve months and nearly a third of these, had history of non consensual sexual debut. Unwanted pregnancy was higher among the sexually coerced and those who had non consensual sexual debut. Conclusion: Sexual coercion among pregnant women aged 15-24 years in Kampala, Uganda is high and is significantly associated with unwanted pregnancy. Comprehensive sex education targeting young people (<25 years), along with availability and access to youth friendly centers may be useful in addressing sexual coercion and its negative outcomes.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · BMC Women's Health
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    ABSTRACT: Schistosoma mansoni infection has been associated with an increased HIV prevalence in humans and SHIV incidence in primate models. We hypothesized that immune activation from this gastrointestinal mucosa infection would increase highly HIV-susceptible CD4 T cell subsets in the blood and the foreskin through common mucosal homing. Foreskin tissue and blood were obtained from 34 HIV- and malaria-uninfected Ugandan men who volunteered for elective circumcision, 12 of whom were definitively positive for S. mansoni eggs in stool and 12 definitively negative for both S. mansoni eggs and worm antigen. Tissue and blood T cell subsets were characterized by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Th17 and Th1 cells from both the blood and foreskin expressed higher levels of CCR5 and were more activated than other CD4 T cell subsets. S. mansoni-infected men had a higher frequency of systemic Th1 cells (22.9 vs. 16.5% of blood CD4 T cells, p<0.05), Th17 cells (2.3 vs. 1.5%, p<0.05), and Th22 cells (0.5 vs. 0.3%, p<0.01) than uninfected men. Additionally, Th17 cells in the blood of S. mansoni-infected men demonstrated enhanced function (28.1 vs. 16.3% producing multiple cytokines, p = 0.046). However, these immune alterations were not observed in foreskin tissue. S. mansoni infection was associated with an increased frequency of highly HIV-susceptible Th1, Th17 and Th22 cell subsets in the blood, but these T cell immune differences did not extend to the foreskin. S. mansoni induced changes in T cell immunology mediated through the common mucosal immune system are not likely to increase HIV susceptibility in the foreskin.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Delay in tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis adversely affects patients' outcomes and prolongs transmission in the community. The influence of social contacts on steps taken by active pulmonary TB patients to seek a diagnosis has not been well examined. A retrospective study design was use to enroll TB patients on treatment for 3 months or less and aged ≥18 years from 3 public clinics in Kampala, Uganda, from March to July 2014. Social network analysis was used to collect information about social contacts and health providers visited by patients to measure the number of steps and time between onset of symptoms and final diagnosis of TB. Of 294 TB patients, 58 % were male and median age was 30 (IQR: 24-38) years. The median number of steps was 4 (IQR: 3, 7) corresponding to 70 (IQR: 28,140) days to diagnosis. New patients had more steps and time to diagnosis compared retreatment patients (5 vs. 3, P < 0.0001; 84 vs. 46 days P < 0.0001). Fifty-eight percent of patients first contacted persons in their social network. The first step to initiate seeking care accounted for 41 % of the patients' time to diagnosis while visits to non-TB providers and TB providers (without a TB diagnosis) accounted for 34 % and 11 % respectively. New TB patients vs. retreatment (HR: 0.66, 95 % CI; 1.11, 1.99), those who first contacted a non-TB health provider vs. contacting social network (HR: 0.72 95 % CI; 0.55, 0.95) and HIV seronegative vs. seropositive patients (HR: 0.70, 95 % CI; 0.53, 0.92) had a significantly lower likelihood of a timely final diagnosis. There were four degrees of separation between the onset of symptoms in a TB patient and a final diagnosis. Both social and provider networks of patients influenced the diagnostic pathways. Most delays occurred in the first step which represents decisions to seek help, and through interactions with non-TB health providers. TB control programs should strengthen education and active screening in the community and in health care settings to ensure timely diagnosis of TB.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · BMC Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Women in fishing communities in Uganda are more at risk and have higher rates of HIV infection. Socio-cultural gender norms, limited access to health information and services, economic disempowerment, sexual abuse and their biological susceptibility make women more at risk of infection. There is need to design interventions that cater for women's vulnerability. We explore factors affecting recruitment and retention of women from fishing communities in HIV prevention research. Methods An HIV incidence cohort screened 2074 volunteers (1057 men and 1017 women) aged 13-49 years from 5 fishing communities along Lake Victoria using demographic, medical history, risk behaviour assessment questionnaires.1000 HIV negative high risk volunteers were enrolled and followed every 6 months for 18 months. Factors associated with completion of study visits among women were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. Results Women constituted 1,017(49%) of those screened, and 449(45%) of those enrolled with a median (IQR) age of 27 (22-33) years. Main reasons for non-enrolment were HIV infection (33.9%) and reported low risk behaviour (37.5%). A total of 382 (74%) women and 332 (69%) men completed all follow up visits. Older women (>24 yrs) and those unemployed, who had lived in the community for 5 years or more, were more likely to complete all study visits. Conclusion Women had better retention rates than men at 18 months. Strategies for recruiting and retaining younger women and those who have stayed for less than 5 years need to be developed for improved retention of women in fishing communities in HIV prevention and research Programs.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Pan African Medical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that Schistosoma mansoni, which is endemic in African fishing communities, might increase susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition. If confirmed, this would be of great public health importance in these high HIV-risk communities. This study was undertaken to determine whether S. mansoni infection is a risk factor for HIV infection among the fishing communities of Lake Victoria, Uganda. We conducted a matched case control study, nested within a prospective HIV incidence cohort, including 50 HIV-seroconverters (cases) and 150 controls during 2009-2011. S. mansoni infection prior to HIV-seroconversion was determined by measuring serum circulating anodic antigen (CAA) in stored serum. HIV testing was done using the Determine rapid test and infection, confirmed by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays. 49% of cases and 52% of controls had S. mansoni infection prior to HIV seroconversion (or at the time of a similar study visit, for controls): odds ratio, adjusting for ethnicity, religion, marital status, education, occupation, frequency of alcohol consumption in previous three months, number of sexual partners while drunk, duration of stay in the community and history of schistosomiasis treatment in the past two years 1.23 (95% CI 0.3-5.7) P=0.79. S. mansoni infections were chronic (with little change in status between enrolment and HIV seroconversion) and there was no difference in median CAA concentration between cases and controls. These results do not support the hypothesis that S. mansoni infection promotes HIV acquisition. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Tropical Medicine & International Health
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    ABSTRACT: Medical male circumcision (MC) of HIV-infected men may increase plasma HIV viral load and place female partners at risk of infection. We assessed the effect of MC on plasma HIV viral load in HIV-infected men in Rakai, Uganda. 195 consenting HIV-positive, HAART naïve men aged 12 and above provided blood for plasma HIV viral load testing before surgery and weekly for six weeks and at 2 and 3 months post surgery. Data were also collected on baseline social demographic characteristics and CD4 counts. Change in log10 plasma viral load between baseline and follow-up visits was estimated using paired t tests and multivariate generalized estimating equation (GEE). Of the 195 men, 129 had a CD4 count ≧350 and 66 had CD4 <350 cells/mm3. Men with CD4 counts <350 had higher baseline mean log10 plasma viral load than those with CD4 counts ≧350 cells/mm3 (4.715 vs 4.217 cps/mL, respectively, p = 0.0005). Compared to baseline, there was no statistically significant increase in post-MC HIV plasma viral loads irrespective of CD4. Multivariate analysis showed that higher baseline log10 plasma viral load was significantly associated with reduction in mean log10 plasma viral load following MC (coef. = -0.134, p<0.001). We observed no increase in plasma HIV viral load following MC in HIV-infected, HAART naïve men.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Abduction by the Lords Resistance Army profoundly impacts the physical and psychosocial wellbeing of those surviving the conflict in Northern Uganda. It is estimated that more than 66,000 were abducted between 1986-2006. It is important to understand the HIV related vulnerabilities of this ‘at risk’ population. Methods: The Cango Lyec Project is a prospective cohort of 2448 participants aged 13-49 in Northern Uganda. Participants consented to HIV testing and completed surveys on socio-demographics, PTSD (HTQ), and depression (HSCL-25). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess HIV vulnerability. Results: Of formerly-abducted participants 319 (54.1%) were women and 271 (45.9%) were men. HIV prevalence was 20.4% and 11.8% respectively (p=0.005). Males were abducted more times (2.1 vs. 1.6 times; p=0.006). 34.2% of women and 3.3% of men experienced war related sexual violence. 26.3% of abducted women were given as a wife to LRA commanders. Of those with HIV, 9.4% of men and 24.6% of women screened positively for PTSD, while 21.8% and 43.1% screened positively for depression. There is difference in levels of PTSD or depression between those with and without HIV. In the multi-variable logistic regression, being female (AOR: 1.68; 95%CI: 1.03-2.80), one-year increase in age (1.04; 1.01-1.07), genital ulcers in the past year (3.77; 2.15-6.58), and living in the Gulu (2.34; 1.25-4.20) or Nwoya (2.25; 1.10-4.67) compared to Amuru district were associated with HIV positivity. Discussion: Culturally safe HIV programming addressing these specific HIV related vulnerabilities of people surviving abduction and war in Northern Uganda are urgently required.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Nov 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Untreated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) infection is associated with persistent immune activation, which is an independent driver of disease progression in European and United States cohorts. In Uganda, HIV-1 subtypes A and D and recombinant AD viruses predominate and exhibit differential rates of disease progression. Methods: HIV-1 seroconverters (n = 156) from rural Uganda were evaluated to assess the effects of T-cell activation, viral load, and viral subtype on disease progression during clinical follow-up. Results: The frequency of activated T cells was increased in HIV-1-infected Ugandans, compared with community matched uninfected individuals, but did not differ significantly between viral subtypes. Higher HIV-1 load, subtype D, older age, and high T-cell activation levels were associated with faster disease progression to AIDS or death. In a multivariate Cox regression analysis, HIV-1 load was the strongest predictor of progression, with subtype also contributing. T-cell activation did not emerge an independent predictor of disease progression from this particular cohort. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the independent contribution of T-cell activation on morbidity and mortality observed in European and North American cohorts may not be directly translated to the HIV epidemic in East Africa. In this setting, HIV-1 load appears to be the primary determinant of disease progression.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · The Journal of Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Background: War-related violence in Northern Uganda is well documented and may be accelerating HIV spread. We studied the differences in prevalence and risk factors for HIV infection between men and women in this post-conflict region. Methods: The “Cango Lyec Project” is a prospective cohort study in Northern Uganda. We randomly selected study communities and mapped and enumerated the entire population. 2448 residents aged 13-59 consented to participate in the survey. Trauma, depression and sociodemographic-behavioural surveys and HIV testing were conducted. Results: Of 2448 participants, 58.2% were females; 24% had been abducted, and 23% sexually-assaulted in captivity. HIV prevalence was 14.4% in women vs. 7.9% in men (p< 0.001), reaching 19.77% among women in one community. PTSD was observed in 13.9% of women compared to 8.6% of men and depression was reported by 19.9% and 8.2% respectively (p< 0.001). Among sexually-active men, HIV positivity was associated with never using condoms with most recent sex partner (AOR: 2.03, 95% CI: 1.09-3.78); history of genital ulcers in last year (4.64, [2.2-9.4]); and residing in Gulu district (1.83, [0.98-3.42]). For sexually active women, HIV positivity was associated with never use of condoms with most recent sex partner in last year (1.83, [1.28-2.62]), history of genital ulcers in last year (2.51, [1.65-3.82]), war-related sexual violence (1.80 [1.19-2.73]), depression (1.82, [1.26-2.64]) and residing in Gulu district (1.45, [1.04-2.04]) Conclusions: Women are disproportionately impacted by HIV, trauma and depression in this conflict-affected population. Trauma-informed HIV prevention and culturally safe mental health care initiatives are urgently required.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Nov 2014
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    Preview · Article · Oct 2014 · AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Fishing communities (FCs) in Uganda have high HIV infection rates but poor access to health services including family planning (FP). Although FP is a cost-effective public health intervention, there is a paucity of data on knowledge and use of modern FP in FCs. This study determined knowledge and use of modern FP methods in FCs of Uganda. Methods: Data were accrued from a 12-month follow up of 1,688 HIV-uninfected individuals, 18-49 years from 8 FCs along Lake Victoria, between September 2011 and March 2013. Data on knowledge and use of modern FP were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire. Prevalence Risk Ratios with corresponding 95% CIs were used to determine factors associated with Modern FP knowledge and use. Results: The mean age was 31.4 years, with nearly half (48.8%) being females while more than half (58.6%) had attained up to primary education level. Knowledge of modern FP was high, 87.5% (1477/1688); significantly higher among females [adj. PRR = 4.84 (95% CI; 3.08, 7.61)], among older respondents (25-29 years) [adj. PRR = 1.83 (95% CI; 1.12, 2.99)] compared to younger ones (18-24 years) and among those conducting business [adj. PRR = 2.42(95% CI; 1.02, 5.74)] relative to those primarily in fishing. Just over a third (35.2%, 595/1688) reported use of at least one modern FP method. Use of modern FP methods was significantly higher among females [adj. PRR = 2.04 (95% CI; 1.56, 2.65, and among those reporting multiple sexual partnerships [adj. PRR = 2.12, 95% CI; 1.63, 2.76)]. Nonuse of modern methods was mostly due to desire for more children (30.6%), fear of side effects (12.2%) and partner refusal (5.2%). Conclusion: Despite their high knowledge of FP, FCs have low use of modern FP methods. Key barriers to use of modern FP methods were high fertility desires, fear of perceived side effects and partner refusal of methods.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2014 · AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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    ABSTRACT: Results: Overall retention rate was 76.9% (1685/2191), highest (89%) among participants who had spent 5+ years in the community and lowest (54.1%) among those with <1 year stay. Significant predictors of retention included tribe/ethnicity, baseline HIV negative status, and longer than 1 year stay in the community. Overall WTP was 89.1% (1953/2191). Lack of WTP was significantly higher among women than men [adj.OR = 1.51 (95% CI, 1.14- 2.00)] and among participants who had stayed in fishing communities for 10 or more years relative to those with less than one year [adj.OR = 1.78 (95% CI, 1.11 - 2.88)]. Overall HIV incidence rate per 100 pyar was 3.39 (95% CI; 2.55 - 4.49). Participants aged 25-29 years had highest incidence rates (4.61 - 7.67/100 pyar) and high retention rates between 78.5 and 83.1%. In a combined analysis of retention and incidence rates participants aged 30+ years had retention rates ∼80% but low incidence rates (2.45 - 3.57 per 100 pyar) while those aged 25-29 years had the highest incidence rates (4.61 - 7.67/100 pyar) and retention rates 78.5 - 83.1%.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · BMC Public Health
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Defining the parameters that modulate vaccine responses in African populations will be imperative to design effective vaccines for protection against HIV, malaria, tuberculosis, and dengue virus infections. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of the patient-specific immune microenvironrnent to the response to the licensed yellow fever vaccine 17D (YF-17D) in an African cohort. Methods. We compared responses to YF-17D in 50 volunteers in Entebbe, Uganda, and 50 volunteers in Lausanne, Switzerland. We measured the CD8(+) T cell and B cell responses induced by YF-17D and correlated them with immune parameters analyzed by flow cytometry prior to vaccination. Results. We showed that YF-17D-induced CD8(+) T cell and B cell responses were substantially lower in immunized individuals from Entebbe compared with immunized individuals from Lausanne. The impaired vaccine response in the Entebbe cohort associated with reduced YF-17D replication. Prior to vaccination, we observed higher frequencies of exhausted and activated NK cells, differentiated T and B cell subsets and proinflammatory monocytes, suggesting an activated immune microenvironment in the Entebbe volunteers. Interestingly, activation of CD8(+) T cells and B cells as well as proinflammatory monocytes at baseline negatively correlated with YF-17D-neutralizing antibody titers after vaccination. Additionally, memory T and B cell responses in preimmunized volunteers exhibited reduced persistence in the Entebbe cohort but were boosted by a second vaccination. Conclusion. Together, these results demonstrate that an activated immune microenvironment prior to vaccination impedes efficacy of the YF-17D vaccine in an African cohort and suggest that vaccine regimens may need to be boosted in African populations to achieve efficient immunity.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Clinical Investigation
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    ABSTRACT: Background High HIV-1 incidence rates were reported among persons in fisherfolk communities (FFC) in Uganda who were selected for high risk behaviour. We assessed the incidence of HIV-1 and associated risk factors in a general population FFC to determine population-wide HIV rates. Methods A community-based cohort study was conducted among a random sample of 2191 participants aged 18–49 years. At baseline and 12 months post-baseline, data were collected on socio-demographic characteristics and risky behaviors (including number of partners, new partners, condom use, use of alcohol and illicit drug use). Venous blood was collected for HIV serological testing. HIV incidence was calculated per 100 person years at-risk (pyar) and adjusted incidence rate ratios (Adj.IRR) were estimated by multivariable Poisson regression. Results Overall follow up at 12 months was 76.9% (1685/2191) and was significantly higher among HIV uninfected persons and those with at least 1 year duration of stay in community. Overall HIV-1 incidence was 3.39/100 pyar (95% CI: 2.55–4.49). Among the 25–29 years who drank alcohol, HIV incidence was 7.67/100pyar (95% CI;4.62–12.7) while it was 5.67/100pyar (95% CI;3.14–10.2) for 18–24 year olds who drank alcohol. The risk of HIV infection was higher among 25–29 years (adj.IRR = 3.36; 95% CI: 1.48–7.65) and 18–24 years (adj.IRR = 2.65; 95% CI: 1.05–6.70) relative to 30+ years. Compared to non-drinkers, HIV incidence increased by frequency of alcohol drinking - occasional drinkers (adj.IRR = 3.18; 95% CI: 1.18–8.57) and regular drinkers (adj.IRR = 4.93; 95% CI: 1.91–12.8). Conclusion HIV-1 incidence in general fisherfolk population along L.Victoria, Uganda, is high and is mainly associated with young age and alcohol drinking. HIV prevention and control strategies are urgently needed in this population.
    Preview · Article · May 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) in schoolchildren offers a promising option for malaria control. However, the optimal drug and dosing regimens for IPT remain to be determined. Methods. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 740 schoolchildren aged 6–14 years living in a setting of high malaria transmission in Uganda. Enrolled children were randomized to dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) given once a month (IPTm), DP given once a school term (4 treatments over 12 months, IPTst), or placebo and followed for 12 months. The primary outcome was the incidence of malaria over 12 months. Secondary outcomes included parasite prevalence and anemia over 12 months. Analyses were conducted on an intention-to-treat basis. Results. In the placebo arm, the incidence of malaria was 0.34 episodes per person-year and the prevalence of parasitemia and anemia was 38% and 20%, respectively. IPTm reduced the incidence of malaria by 96% (95% confidence interval [CI], 88%–99%, P < .0001), the prevalence of asymptomatic parasitemia by 94% (95% CI, 92%–96%, P < .0001), and the prevalence of anemia by 40% (95% CI, 19%–56%, P < .0001). IPTst had no significant effect on the incidence of symptomatic malaria or the prevalence of anemia, but reduced the prevalence of asymptomatic parasitemia by 54% (95% CI, 47%–60%, P < .0001). Conclusions. Monthly IPT with DP offered remarkable protection against clinical malaria, parasitemia, and anemia in schoolchildren living in a high-malaria-transmission setting. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01231880.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Clinical Infectious Diseases

Publication Stats

7k Citations
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Institutions

  • 1995-2015
    • Makerere University
      • • School of Public Health
      • • Department of Epidemic& Biostatistics
      Kampala, Central Region, Uganda
  • 2014
    • Medical Research Council / Uganda Virus Research Institute
      Entebbe, Central Region, Uganda
  • 2011
    • Johns Hopkins University
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2007-2011
    • Rakai Health Sciences Program
      Rakai, Central Region, Uganda
  • 2009
    • Mulago Hospital
      Kampala, Central Region, Uganda
  • 2008
    • Case Western Reserve University
      • Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics
      Cleveland, Ohio, United States
  • 1997-2008
    • Uganda Virus Research Institute
      Entebbe, Central Region, Uganda
  • 2006
    • Victoria University Kampala
      Kampala, Central Region, Uganda
  • 2001-2004
    • Columbia University
      New York, New York, United States