[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with a high mortality rate. This study describes a compulsory re-feeding program established in Munich for extremely underweight patients.
The contract between the patient and the therapeutic team included mandatory inpatient status, establishment of guardianship and compulsory re-feeding with a percutaneous gastric feeding tube, as indicated. The predefined target was a body mass index (BMI) of 17 kg/m2. Data on the first 68 patients with AN are presented.
65 (95.6%) patients were female and mean age at admission was 26.5 ± 8.5 years. BMI increased from 12.3 ± 1.4 kg/m2 at admission to 16.7 ± 1.7 kg/m2 at discharge. Thirty-two (47.1%) patients had the restrictive subtype (ANR) and 36 (52.9%) had the binging and purging subtype (ANBP). Duration of illness before admission (p = .004), days of treatment until discharge (p = .001) and weight increase (p = .02) were significantly different between subgroups in favor of patients with ANR. Also, seasonal differences could be found. Comparison of feeding methods showed that percutaneous tube feeding was superior. Almost half of the patients were treated with psychotropic medication. To date, however, the number of patients included in this program is too small to assess rare complications of this acute treatment program and long term outcomes of AN.
An intensive care program for severely ill AN patients has been successfully established. Besides averting physical harm in the short term, this program was designed to enable these patients to participate in more sophisticated psychotherapeutic programs afterwards. To our knowledge, this is the first such program that regularly uses percutaneous feeding tubes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
The impact of Hatha yoga as add-on treatment to quetiapine fumarate extended release (QXR) or escitalopram (ESC) in depressed patients on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity was assessed.
60 inpatients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD) according to DSM-IV were randomized for a 5 week treatment with Yoga or not (control group) and with either QXR (300 mg/day) or ESC (10 mg/day). Serial dexamethasone/corticotropin releasing hormone (DEX/CRH) tests were performed to assess HPA axis function. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (21-HAMD) was used weekly.
A more pronounced down regulation of the HPA axis activity due to yoga could not be detected. The stepwise long term cortisol reduction was seen in both medication groups, irrespectively of yoga add-on treatment. In addition, cortisol improvers in week 1 of therapy (reduction in cortisol peak value within the DEX/CRH test) reached significant greater amelioration of depressive symptoms after 5 weeks.
Our results suggest that antidepressant agents down regulate HPA axis function to a greater extent than additional Hatha yoga treatment. Moreover, an early reduction of HPA system hyperactivity after one week of pharmacological treatment seems to raise the possibility of a favorable treatment response.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Psychiatric Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Careful observation of the longitudinal course of bipolar disorders is pivotal to finding optimal treatments and improving outcome. A useful tool is the daily prospective Life-Chart Method, developed by the National Institute of Mental Health. However, it remains unclear whether the patient version is as valid as the clinician version.
We compared the patient-rated version of the Lifechart (LC-self) with the Young-Mania-Rating Scale (YMRS), Inventory of Depressive Symptoms–Clinician version (IDS-C), and Clinical Global Impression–Bipolar version (CGI-BP) in 108 bipolar I and II patients who participated in the Naturalistic Follow-up Study (NFS) of the German centres of the Bipolar Collaborative Network (BCN; formerly Stanley Foundation Bipolar Network). For statistical evaluation, levels of severity of mood states on the Lifechart were transformed numerically and comparison with affective scales was performed using chi-square and t tests. For testing correlations Pearson´s coefficient was calculated.
Ratings for depression of LC-self and total scores of IDS-C were found to be highly correlated (Pearson coefficient r = −.718; p < .001), whilst the correlation of ratings for mania with YMRS compared to LC-self were slightly less robust (Pearson coefficient r = .491; p = .001). These results were confirmed by good correlations between the CGI-BP IA (mania), IB (depression) and IC (overall mood state) and the LC-self ratings (Pearson coefficient r = .488, r = .721 and r = .65, respectively; all p < .001).
The LC-self shows a significant correlation and good concordance with standard cross sectional affective rating scales, suggesting that the LC-self is a valid and time and money saving alternative to the clinician-rated version which should be incorporated in future clinical research in bipolar disorder. Generalizability of the results is limited by the selection of highly motivated patients in specialized bipolar centres and by the open design of the study.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Targeted high-throughput sequencing of many amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and fronto-temporal dementia (FTD) genes in parallel has the potential to reveal novel ALS- and/or FTD-phenotypes and to provide missing links on the ALS-FTD continuum. For example, although the 43-kDa transactive response DNA binding protein is the major pathologic hallmark linking ALS and FTD, mutations in the gene encoding 43-kDa transactive response DNA binding protein (TARDBP) have been appreciated only as a cause of ALS-phenotypes, but not yet of pure FTD. Thus, the genetic link is not yet well substantiated that TARDBP mutations can cause the full spectrum of the ALS-FTD continuum. High-throughput sequencing of 18 ALS and FTD genes in an index patient presenting with early-onset pure (behavioral) FTD and a positive family history for ALS revealed an established TARDBP mutation, A382T. This finding demonstrates that a TARDPB mutation can cause early-onset pure FTD without evidence for ALS even in advanced FTD disease stages. Moreover, it indicates that TARDPB screening might be considered even in young patients with "pure" neuropsychiatric disturbances and without evidence of neurodegenerative disease in the parental generation.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Neurobiology of aging
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 52 patients with bipolar disorder were treated with psychopharmacotherapy and a cognitive psychoeducational group programme that was established at the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy of the Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich, Germany. The programme covers psychoeducation, identifying and coping with depressive and manic symptoms, relapse prevention and establishing a stable life style. 96 % rated the group to be helpful and felt well informed about their illness. There were significant gains in knowledge (F = 25,714, p < 0.001) and improvements in the severity of the illness (CGI; F = 68,255, p < 0.001) post-treatment. With regard to sociodemographic and clinical variables, only the level of work qualification showed a differential treatment response: patients with higher qualifications had a more favourable course of the illness (F = 4,125, p = 0.048). At one and two year follow-up 25 % and, respectively, 30 % of the sample had to be readmitted. A higher number of previous hospitalisations (p = 0.010) and male sex (p = 0.031) turned out to be significant predictors of relapse (R² = 0.358, p = 0.004) at two year follow-up. This disorder-specific group programme represents a key component of treatment offering emotional support for patients and their relatives. Patients are to be involved in the treatment process and need information about the illness, its psychosocial and pharmacological treatment as well as help in learning practical skills to improve their living with the disease. Being integrated and committed to a supporting network may increase their quality of life.
No preview · Article · May 2013 · Fortschritte der Neurologie · Psychiatrie
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) has been repeatedly discussed as susceptibility factor for major depression (MD) and the bi-directional relation between MD and cardiovascular disorders (CVD). In this context, functional polymorphisms of the ACE gene have been linked to depression, to antidepressant treatment response, to ACE serum concentrations, as well as to hypertension, myocardial infarction and CVD risk markers. The mostly investigated ACE Ins/Del polymorphism accounts for ~40%-50% of the ACE serum concentration variance, the remaining half is probably determined by other genetic, environmental or epigenetic factors, but these are poorly understood.
The main aim of the present study was the analysis of the DNA methylation pattern in the regulatory region of the ACE gene in peripheral leukocytes of 81 MD patients and 81 healthy controls.
We detected intensive DNA methylation within a recently described, functional important region of the ACE gene promoter including hypermethylation in depressed patients (p = 0.008) and a significant inverse correlation between the ACE serum concentration and ACE promoter methylation frequency in the total sample (p = 0.02). Furthermore, a significant inverse correlation between the concentrations of the inflammatory CVD risk markers ICAM-1, E-selectin and P-selectin and the degree of ACE promoter methylation in MD patients could be demonstrated (p = 0.01 - 0.04).
The results of the present study suggest that aberrations in ACE promoter DNA methylation may be an underlying cause of MD and probably a common pathogenic factor for the bi-directional relationship between MD and cardiovascular disorders.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) is a powerful treatment option in severe or chronic catatonic states and has been reported to be useful in oligophrenic patients. We report the followup medical history of a patient with corpus callosum aplasia (or agenesis) who was continuously treated with ECT over three years. First, he improved considerably after a series of ECT, but relapses of catatonia made a continuous, weekly ECT necessary. Due to the severity of the brain malformation, an add-on medication with benzodiazepines and second generation antipsychotics was necessary to treat catatonic symptoms. This case emphasises the benefits of long-term ECT in oligophrenic patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent published data and treatment guidelines have created uncertainty about the use of lamotrigine in affective disorders, especially in acute bipolar depression. Furthermore, unpublished data on lamotrigine in mania, mixed episodes, unipolar depression and rapid cycling are still waiting to be integrated into the literature. Therefore, we critically reviewed the position of lamotrigine in the acute and long-term treatment of affective disorders. Studies were identified by searching English language articles published in MEDLINE using the key words: lamotrigine, bipolar depression, unipolar depression, mania, mixed episode, long-term treatment, rapid-cycling. Results of unpublished trials were obtained from the GlaxoSmithKline website. Lamotrigine showed efficacy in the prophylaxis of bipolar disorder, more so in depressive than manic episodes. There was no evidence of effectiveness in the acute treatment of mania, mixed episodes, unipolar depression or rapid-cycling bipolar I disorder. Its effect in the acute treatment of bipolar depression is at most small. Based on current evidence, lamotrigine is indicated for the prophylaxis of bipolar disorder with predominantly depressive episodes. Its effectiveness in the acute treatment of bipolar depression is open to debate, and practical considerations limit its usefulness here. There are no grounds for recommending its use in manic or mixed states, in rapidly-cycling bipolar I or in unipolar depression.
No preview · Article · Oct 2011 · Journal of Psychopharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bipolar disorders are often not recognized. Several screening tools have been developed, e.g., the Hypomania Checklist-32 (HCL-32) and the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) to improve this situation. Whereas the German HCL-32 has been used in non-clinical samples, neither the HCL-32 nor the MDQ has been validated in German samples of mood-disordered patients. Additionally, hardly any prior study has included patients with non-mood disorders or has considered potential effects of comorbid conditions. Therefore the goal of this study was to test the validity of both scales in a diverse patient sample while also taking into account psychiatric comorbidity.
A multi-site study was conducted involving seven centers. Patients (n=488) completed the HCL-32 and MDQ and were independently interviewed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID).
Sensitivity for bipolar I was similar for HCL-32 and MDQ (.88 and .84) but slightly different for bipolar II (.90 and .83), specificity, however, was higher for MDQ. In general, a comorbid condition led to increased scores in both tools regardless of whether the primary diagnosis was bipolar or not. LIMITATIONS AND DISCUSSION: Although we included not just mood-disordered patients, detailed subgroup analyses for all diagnostic categories were not possible due to sample sizes. In summary, HCL-32 and MDQ seem fairly comparable in detecting bipolar disorders although their effectiveness depends on the goal of the screening, psychiatric comorbidity, and potentially the setting.
No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Journal of Affective Disorders
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Memory impairments are a core symptom of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amnestic Mild Cognitive Impaired (aMCI) subjects are a high risk group for conversion to AD. Working memory (WM) is the ability to hold information in memory while performing another mental operation, which is a key cognitive domain for higher cognition and is impaired in MCI subjects. The objective of this study was to delineate the differences in brain activation between amnestic MCI and age-matched healthy controls (HC) supporting verbal working memory. It was a delay match to sample task and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to measure brain activation. Group differences were calculated using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) with statistical significance at p < 0.05 corrected for multiple comparisons. Both groups activated a wide network in the posterior and frontal areas of the brain. There was higher activation in the parietal and frontal lobes in the aMCI compared to the HC during the delay phase. There were no areas in the HC that activated higher than the MCI subjects. Response time in the HC group was correlated to activation in left hippocampus during encoding phase and to the parietal and frontal areas during the recall phase. In the MCI group response time was correlated to the inferior and middle temporal gyrii during encoding, the middle frontal gyrus during the maintenance phase, and hippocampus during recall phase. The activation differences between groups may reflect compensatory mechanisms within the MCI group for the effects of the putative AD neuropathology.
No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Advances in Alzheimer's Disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are frequent worldwide and have a high comorbidity rate. Omega-3 fatty acids have been suggested as disease modulators for both CVD and MDD. Therefore, we studied whether polyunsaturated fatty acids and the Omega-3 Index may represent markers for assessment of the cardiovascular risk in somatically healthy patients suffering from MDD.
We conducted a case-control study from July 2004 to December 2007 in 166 adults (86 inpatients with MDD but without CVD from the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy and 80 age- and sex-matched healthy controls from an outpatient clinic of the Division of Preventive Cardiology, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Germany). Information gathered at baseline included MDD diagnosis according to DSM-IV criteria, depression ratings, conventional cardiovascular risk factors, and fatty acid and interleukin-6 determinations. Fatty acid composition was analyzed according to the HS-Omega-3 Index methodology. During the study, patients received no supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids. The main inclusion criteria were the diagnosis of MDD according to DSM-IV and a 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17) score of at least 17. Treatment response and remission were defined using the HDRS-17.
Several conventional risk factors such as high triglyceride (mean, 152 mg/dL vs 100 mg/dL; P < .001) and fasting glucose (mean, 96 mg/dL vs 87 mg/dL; P = .005) values as well as greater waist circumference (mean, 97 cm vs 87 cm; P = .019) and higher body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2); mean, 26 vs 24; P = .011) were more prevalent in MDD patients in comparison with controls. The Omega-3 Index (mean, 3.9% vs 5.1%; P < .001) and individual omega-3 fatty acids were significantly lower in MDD patients. An Omega-3 Index < 4% was associated with high concentrations of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (χ(2) = 7.8, P = .02).
Conventional cardiovascular risk factors, the Omega-3 Index, and interleukin-6 levels indicated an elevated cardiovascular risk profile in MDD patients currently free of CVD. Our results support the employment of strategies to reduce the cardiovascular risk in still cardiovascularly healthy MDD patients by targeting conventional risk factors and the Omega-3 Index.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2010 · The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of our article is to give an overview on the most important strategies for the treatment with antidepressant agents. Furthermore, we like to give an overview of the multifaceted pharmacological treatment options of depressive disorders and the occurrence of depression in case of some important comorbid somatic disorders. In conclusion, it must be pointed out that any depressive syndrome can be treated pharmacologically, particularly in case of moderate to severe depression. For the selection of antidepressants experiences concerning effectiveness and tolerability of previous treatments and requests of the patients should be considered. In addition, depressive subtypes and symptoms, comorbidities and comedication may play a role. After 2 to 4 weeks of treatment in adequate dosage with insufficient treatment effects, the compliance of the patient and the pharmacokinetic properties of the agent should be checked, for instance by measurement of plasma levels. Optimizing the treatment can be done by increase the dosage, switching to another antidepressant, combining with another antidepressant or by augmentation with lithium or other augmentation strategies to enhance the treatment effects. For selection of an antidepressant in case of comorbid somatic disorders, the side effects of the agent must be taken into consideration, for example the risk of weight gain if diabetes mellitus is present, interference with cognitive impairment in dementia, potentiation of cardiac arrhythmia or interactions with the prescribed comedication. We provided just an overview of these issues in our article, the mentioned references should contribute to broaden and complement the information.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2010 · Internistische Praxis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) for the treatment of unipolar and bipolar depression has been more and more frequently evaluated, and aripiprazole showed positive effects in the treatment of unipolar depression. However, no placebo-controlled studies of adjunctive aripiprazole for the treatment of bipolar depression have been performed yet.
In this prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial, 23 inpatients with bipolar depression according to DSM-IV criteria were included. Before randomization, patients had to be on a constant mood stabilizer treatment with lithium or valproate for at least 1 week. After inclusion, all patients were openly treated with additional citalopram and with additional aripiprazole or placebo for 6 weeks. The primary outcome parameter was the reduction in depressive symptoms according to the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) within 6 weeks.
After 6 weeks of treatment, the HDRS score decreased in both groups. There was no significant difference between both the groups at any point of time with respect to the HDRS.
Derived from this small pilot study, adjunctive aripiprazole does not seem to be a promising strategy for the acute treatment of bipolar depression. However, this lack of additional benefit seems to stem from the already good effectiveness of the control group, namely the treatment with citalopram.
No preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Human Psychopharmacology Clinical and Experimental
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since the development of the first tricyclic anti-depressants and monoaminoxidase-inhibitors in the 50s of the last century much more approaches of pharmacological treatment of depression have been developed. After the first generation of anti-depressants a second generation was established with the selective serotonin reuptake-inhibitors about twenty years ago. In the following years treatments were developed which provided also selective action, but combine serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic transmission - with the exception of reboxetin, which is acting selectively on noradrenergic transmission. In spite of these multiple approaches the percentage of patients who experience insufficient response to treatment is relatively high. Looking for possibilities of antidepressant treatment more options were investigated in the past years. Metabolites of the established substances are investigated and strategies of augmentation, for instance with atypical antipsychotics, but also compounds targeting melatonergic mechanisms or cortisol secretion are of interest. In this article we provide a summary of current developments.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study aimed to increase the knowledge about the detailed course differences between different forms of bipolar disorder.
Using the prospective life-chart-clinician version, we compared the fine-grain analysis of mood swings and treatment modalities of 18 bipolar II with 31 bipolar I patients.
During an observational period of a mean of 26 months we observed an increase of euthymic days, and a decrease of (sub)depressive and (hypo)manic days. Days in a (sub)depressed state were more frequent than days of (hypo)mania as well as days of subdepression or hypomania in comparison to days of full-blown depression or mania. Bipolar II patients showed an increase in hypomanic days receiving more frequently antidepressants. Bipolar I patients, with a decrease of manic days, were significantly taking more often mood stabilizers.
Treatment in a specialized bipolar clinic improves the overall outcome, but bipolar II disorder seems to be still treated sub-optimally with a possible iatrogenic increase of hypomanic days.
No preview · Article · Jun 2009 · Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica