[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
Leukocyte NADPH oxidase, which is active in neutrophils, is a membrane-bound enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to O2(-) by using NADPH as an electron donor. Previously, we reported that casein kinase 2 (CK2), a ubiquitous and highly conserved Ser/Thr kinase, is responsible for p47(phox) phosphorylation and that phosphorylation of p47(phox) by CK2 regulates the deactivation of NADPH oxidase.
Here, we report that the residue Cys(196) of p47(phox) is a target of S-nitrosylation by S-nitrosothiol and peroxynitrite and that this modification enhanced phosphorylation of p47(phox) by CK2.
S-Nitrosylated p47(phox) enhanced CK2 b subunit binding, presumably due to alterations in protein conformation.
Taken together, we propose that S-nitrosylation of p47(phox) regulates the deactivation of NADPH oxidase via enhancement of p47(phox) phosphorylation by CK2.
Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Redox report: communications in free radical research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiac hypertrophy, a risk factor for heart failure, is associated with enhanced oxidative stress in the mitochondria resulting from high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The balance between ROS generation and ROS detoxification dictates ROS levels. As such, disruption of these processes results in either increased or decreased levels of ROS. In previous publications, we have demonstrated that one of the primary functions of mitochondrial NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH2) is to control the mitochondrial redox balance, and thereby mediate the cellular defense against oxidative damage, via the production of NADPH. To explore the association between IDH2 expression and cardiac function, we measured myocardial hypertrophy, apoptosis, and contractile dysfunction in IDH2 knockout (idh2−/−) and wild-type (idh2+/+) mice. As expected, mitochondria from the hearts of knockout mice lacked IDH2 activity and the hearts of IDH2-deficient mice developed accelerated heart failure, increased levels of apoptosis and hypertrophy, and exhibited mitochondrial dysfunction, which was associated with a loss of redox homeostasis. Our results suggest that IDH2 plays an important role in maintaining both baseline mitochondrial function and cardiac contractile function following pressure overload hypertrophy, by preventing oxidative stress.
No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Free Radical Biology and Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) renders resistance to the kidney. Strong IPC triggers kidney fibrosis, which is involved in angiotensin II (AngII) and its type 1 receptor (AT1R) signaling. Here, we investigated the role of AngII/AT1R signal pathway in the resistance of IPC kidneys to subsequent I/R injury. IPC of kidneys was generated by 30 minutes of bilateral renal ischemia and 8 days of reperfusion. Sham-operation was performed to generate control (non-IPC) mice. To examine the roles of AngII and AT1R in IPC kidneys to subsequent I/R, IPC kidneys were subjected to either 30 minutes of bilateral kidney ischemia or sham-operation following treatment with AngII, losartan (AT1R blocker), or AngII plus losartan. IPC kidneys showed fibrotic changes, decreased AngII, and increased AT1R expression. I/R dramatically increased plasma creatinine concentrations in non-IPC mice, but not in IPC mice. AngII treatment in IPC mice resulted in enhanced morphological damage, oxidative stress, and inflammatory responses, with functional impairment, whereas losartan treatment reversed these effects. However, AngII treatment in non-IPC mice did not change I/R-induced injury. AngII abolished the resistance of IPC kidneys to subsequent I/R via the enhancement of oxidative stress and inflammatory responses, suggesting that the AngII/AT1R signaling pathway is associated with outcome in injury-experienced kidney.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · BioMed Research International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The potent cytotoxicity of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can cause various diseases but may also serve as a powerful weapon capable of destroying cancer cells. Although the balance between generation and elimination of ROS is maintained by the proper function of antioxidative systems, the severe disturbance of cellular redox status may cause various damages, leading to cell death. Mitochondrial NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH2), an NADPH-generating enzyme, is one of the major antioxidant and redox regulators in mitochondria. To assess the effect of IDH2 knockdown in the malignancy process, we generated B16F10 melanoma cells stably transfected either with the cDNA for mouse IDH2 cloned in antisense orientation or with a control vector. Mice injected with B16F10 cells harboring IDH2 downregulation showed a dramatic reduction in tumor progression in comparison to mice administered control cells. This effect might be secondary to a shift from a reducing to an oxidative state in tumor cells. The tumor tissue of mice administered B16F10 cells transfected with the IDH2 cDNA exhibited induction of apoptosis and downregulation of angiogenesis markers. These observations demonstrate that reduction of IDH2 levels in malignant cells has anti-tumorigenic effects and suggest that IDH2 is a potential target for cancer therapy.
Preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation induces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that promote apoptotic cell death. We showed that cytosolic NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) plays essential role in the control of cellular redox balance and defense against oxidative damage by supplying NADPH for antioxidant systems. In this study, we demonstrated that knockdown of IDPc expression by RNA interference enhances UVB-induced apoptosis of immortalized human HaCaT keratinocytes. This effect manifested as DNA fragmentation, changes in cellular redox status, mitochondrial dysfunction, and modulation of apoptotic marker expression. Based on our findings, we suggest that attenuation of IDPc expression may protect skin from UVB-mediated damage by inducing the apoptosis of UV-damaged cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress, characterized by the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), is know to have numerous detrimental effects on the myocardium such as the induction of apoptotic cell death, hypertrophy, fibrosis, dysfunction, and dilatation. Over the past several years, we have shown that mitochondrial NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPm) functions as an antioxidant and anti-apoptotic protein by supplying NADPH to antioxidant systems. Here, we showed that transfection of H9c2 clonal myoblastic cells with small interfering RNA (siRNA) specific for IDPm markedly attenuated IDPm expression and substantially induced apoptosis, senescence, and hypertrophy as indicated by increased atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) gene expression, a marker of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, and a larger cell size. Knockdown of IDPm expression resulted in the modulation of cellular and mitochondrial redox status, mitochondrial function, and cellular oxidative damage. Taken together, our results suggest that the suppression of IDPm expression by siRNA induces apoptosis and hypertrophy of cultured cardiomyocytes through the disruption of cellular redox balance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The tumor host microenvironment is increasingly viewed as an important contributor to tumor growth and suppression. Cellular oxidative stress resulting from high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes to various processes involved in the development and progress of malignant tumors including carcinogenesis, aberrant growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis. In this regard, the stroma induces oxidative stress in adjacent tumor cells, and this in turn causes several changes in tumor cells including modulation of the redox status, inhibition of cell proliferation, and induction of apoptotic or necrotic cell death. Because the levels of ROS are determined by a balance between ROS generation and ROS detoxification, disruption of this system will result in increased or decreased ROS level. Recently, we demonstrated that the control of mitochondrial redox balance and cellular defense against oxidative damage is one of the primary functions of mitochondrial NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH2) that supplies NADPH for antioxidant systems. To explore the interactions between tumor cells and the host, we evaluated tumorigenesis between IDH2-deficient (knock-out) and wild-type mice in which B16F10 melanoma cells had been implanted. Suppression of B16F10 cell tumorigenesis was reproducibly observed in the IDH2-deficient mice along with significant elevation of oxidative stress in both the tumor and the stroma. In addition, the expression of angiogenesis markers was significantly down-regulated in both the tumor and the stroma of the IDH2-deficient mice. These results support the hypothesis that redox status-associated changes in the host environment of tumor-bearing mice may contribute to cancer progression.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Radiation therapy plays a central role in adjuvant strategies for the treatment of both pre- and post-operative human cancers. However, radiation therapy has low efficacy against cancer cells displaying radio-resistant phenotypes. Ionizing radiation has been shown to enhance ROS generation, which mediates apoptotic cell death. Further, concomitant use of sensitizers with radiation improves the efficiency of radiotherapy against a variety of human cancers. Here, the radio-sensitizing effect of curcumin (a derivative of turmeric) was investigated against growth of HCT-15 cells and tumor induction in C57BL/6J mice. Ionizing radiation induced apoptosis through ROS generation and down-regulation of Prp4K, which was further potentiated by curcumin treatment. Flow cytometry revealed a dose-dependent response for radiation-induced cell death, which was remarkably reversed by transfection of cells with Prp4K clone. Over-expression of Prp4K resulted in a significant decrease in ROS production possibly through activation of an anti-oxidant enzyme system. To elucidate an integrated mechanism, Prp4K knockdown by siRNA ultimately restored radiation-induced ROS generation. Furthermore, B16F10 xenografts in C57BL/6J mice were established in order to investigate the radio-sensitizing effect of curcumin in vivo. Curcumin significantly enhanced the efficacy of radiation therapy and reduced tumor growth as compared to control or radiation alone. Collectively, these results suggest a novel mechanism for curcumin-mediated radio-sensitization of cancer based on ROS generation and down-regulation of Prp4K.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Chemico-biological interactions
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) produced by cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) in the transsulfuration pathway of homocysteine plays a number of pathophysiological roles. Hyperhomocysteinemia involves in kidney fibrosis. However, the role of H2S in kidney fibrosis remains to be defined. Here, we investigated the role of H2S and its acting mechanism in unilateral ureteral obstruction (UO)-induced kidney fibrosis in mice. UO decreased expressions of CBS and CSE in the kidney with decrease of H2S concentration. Treatment with sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS, a H2S producer) during UO reduced UO-induced oxidative stress with preservations of catalase, copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) expression, and glutathione level. In addition, NaHS mitigated decreases of CBS and CSE expressions, and H2S concentration in the kidney. NaHS treatment attenuated UO-induced increases in levels of TGF-β1, activated Smad3, and activated NF-κB. This study provided the first evidence of involvement of the transsulfuration pathway and H2S in UO-induced kidney fibrosis, suggesting that H2S and its transsulfuration pathway may be a potential target for development of therapeutics for fibrosis-related diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels are elevated in organisms that have been exposed to ionizing radiation and are protagonists in the induction of cell death. Recently, we demonstrated that the control of mitochondrial redox balance and the cellular defense against oxidative damage are primary functions of mitochondrial NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPm) via the supply of NADPH for antioxidant systems. In the present study, we report an autophagic response to ionizing radiation in A172 glioma cells transfected with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting the IDPm gene. Autophagy in A172 transfectant cells was associated with enhanced autophagolysosome formation and GFP-LC3 puncuation/aggregation. Furthermore, we found that the inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine augmented apoptotic cell death of irradiated A172 cells transfected with IDPm siRNA. Taken together, our data suggest that autophagy functions as a survival mechanism in A172 cells against ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis and the sensitizing effect of IDPm siRNA and autophagy inhibitor on the ionizing radiation-induced apoptotic cell death of glioma cells offers a novel redox-active therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancer.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several anticancer agents exert their cancer cell killing effects by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). Thus, a combination of ROS-producing agents and the inhibition of ROS elimination promotes the death of cancer cells. The sensitive to apoptosis gene (SAG) protein, a redox-inducible protein and potential ROS scavenger, protects mammalian cells from redox agent-induced apoptosis. In the present study, we found that silencing of SAG expression in human prostate cancer PC3 cells by transfection with SAG small-interfering RNA (siRNA) markedly enhanced susceptibility to doxorubicin- and to staurosporine-induced apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, pre-treatment with the thiol antioxidant N-acetylcysteine suppressed increases in ROS and apoptosis. This study suggests that knockdown of SAG augments the apoptosis of PC3 cells exposed to doxorubicin or staurosporine presumably by increasing intracellular ROS levels.
No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Anticancer research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress generally occurs in secretory cell types. It has been reported that Leydig cells, which produce testosterone in response to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), express key steroidogenic enzymes for the regulation of testosterone synthesis. In this study, we analyzed whether or not hCG induces ER stress via three unfolded protein response (UPR) pathways in mouse Leydig tumor (mLTC-1) cells and the testis. Treatment with hCG induced ER stress in mLTC-1 cells via the ATF6, IRE1a/XBP1, and eIF2α/GADD34/ATF4 UPR pathways, and transient expression of p50ATF6 (50 kDa protein activating transcription factor 6) reduced the expression level of steroidogenic 3β-HSD enzyme. In an in vivo model, high-level hCG treatment induced expression of p50ATF6 while that of steroidogenic enzymes, especially 3β-HSD, CYP17, and 17β-HSD, was reduced. Expression levels of steroidogenic enzymes were restored by the ER stress inhibitor TUDCA. Furthermore, lentivirus-mediated transient expression of p50ATF6 reduced the expression level of 3β-HSD in the testis. Protein expression levels of phospho-JNK, CHOP, and cleaved caspases12 and 3 as markers of ER stress-mediated apoptosis markedly increased in response to high-level hCG treatment in mLTC-1 cells and the testis. Based on transmission electron microscopy and H&E staining of the testis, it was shown that abnormal ER morphology and destruction of testicular histology induced by high-level hCG treatment were reversed by the addition of TUDCA. These findings suggest that hCG-induced ER stress plays important roles in steroidogenic enzyme expression via modulation of the ATF6 pathway as well as ER stress-mediated apoptosis in Leydig cells.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is one of the most commonly occurring malignancies in men, and because existing treatments are not able to manage this neoplasm adequately, novel approaches are needed. Although TRAIL has strong antitumor activity via the induction of apoptotic cell death in a wide range of tumor cell types and has negligible toxicity to most normal cells, some prostate carcinoma cells are resistant to the apoptotic effects of TRAIL. Therefore, combinatorial approaches with TRAIL and different chemotherapeutic agents have been developed to overcome the resistance of cancer cells to TRAIL. Here, we investigated the sensitizing effects of ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid found in many plants, on TRAIL-induced prostate cancer cell apoptosis. We found TRAIL-induced prostate cancer cells apoptosis was significantly enhanced by UA, and that UA induced CHOP-dependent DR5 up-regulation. This study shows the use of UA as a sensitizer for TRAIL-induced apoptotic cell death offers a promising means of enhancing the efficacy of TRAIL-based prostate cancer treatments.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phagocyte NADPH oxidase catalyzes the reduction of molecular oxygen to superoxide and is essential for defense against microbes. Rac2 is a low molecular weight GTP-binding protein that has been implicated in the regulation of phagocyte NADPH oxidase. Here we report that Cys(157) of Rac2 is a target of S-glutathionylation and that this modification is reversed by dithiothreitol as well as enzymatically by thioltransferase in the presence of GSH. S-glutathionylated Rac2 enhanced the binding of GTP, presumably due to structural alterations. These results elucidate the redox regulation of cysteine in Rac2 and a possible mechanism for regulating NADPH oxidase activation.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multidrug resistance is the phenomenon by which, after exposure to a single chemotherapeutic agent, cancer cells evade the agent's cytotoxic effects as well as become resistant to several classes of diverse drugs. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are a family of transporter proteins that contribute to drug resistance via a n ATP - dependent drug efflux pump. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a prominent ABC superfamily protein encoded by the mdr gene which has the ability to mediate the cellular extrusion of xenobiotics and anticancer drugs from tumor cells. Exclusively expressed P-gp cells from the human colon cancer HCT15/DOX line showed resistance to doxorubicin while parental HCT15 cells treated with doxorubicin displayed typical signs of apoptosis. In order to verify the hypothesis that expression of MDR is controlled in part, by protein kinase C (PKC), expression patterns of different PKC isoforms were examined in both cell lines. Of the PKC isoforms evaluated, the membrane translocation and expression levels of PKCα were strikingly increased in HCT15/DOX cells. PKCα reversed doxorubicin-induced apoptosis through the scavenging of ROS as well as inhibition of PARP cleavage. In addition, inhibition of PKCα with Go6976, a specific inhibitor of classical PKC, led to reduced MDR expression and increased doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. Knockdown of PKCα by siRNA diminished the protective effects of PKCα for doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. These results suggested that over-expression and activity of PKCα is closely associated with the regulation of the MDR phenotype in human colon cancer HCT15 cells and provided insight into a new strategy for inhibiting doxorubicin resistance in human cancers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A metabolic abnormality in lipid biosynthesis is frequently associated with obesity and hyperlipidemia. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase (NADPH) is an essential reducing equivalent for numerous enzymes required in fat and cholesterol biosynthesis. Cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) has been proposed as a key enzyme for supplying cytosolic NADPH. We report here that knockdown of IDPc expression by Ribonucleic acid (RNA) interference (RNAi) inhibited adipocyte differentiation and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and mice. Attenuated IDPc expression by IDPc small interfering RNA (siRNA) resulted in a reduction of differentiation and triglyceride level and adipogenic protein expression as well as suppression of glucose uptake in cultured adipocytes. In addition, the attenuation of Nox activity and Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation accompanied with knockdown of IDPc was associated with inhibition of adipogenesis and lipogenesis. The loss of body weight and the reduction of triglyceride level were also observed in diet-induced obese mice transduced with IDPc short-hairpin (shRNA). Taken together, the inhibiting effect of RNAi targeting IDPc on adipogenesis and lipid biosynthesis is considered to be of therapeutic value in the treatment and prevention of obesity and obesity-associated metabolic syndrome.
No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal mass reduction, such as unilateral nephrectomy induces a compensatory hypertrophy of remaining renal mass in response to overload induced by reduction of functional renal parenchyma. In our recent study, we observed that the recovery of ischemic injured kidney following transient unilateral renal ischemia took longer time than that following transient bilateral renal ischemia, indicating that non-damaged kidney may affect the damaged kidney and vice versa. Here, we investigated whether transient and partial renal parenchymal injury by transient unilateral renal ischemia (UI) results in the hypertrophy of its contralateral kidney (CLK) and reactive oxygen species is associated with the hypertrophy. Thirty minutes of UI resulted in gradual increase in CLK weight over time. UI increased superoxide formation, but not lipid peroxidation in the CLK. After UI, a significant increase in the number of NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2)-expressing cells and the level of Nox2 expression in the CLK was observed. In parallel with the increases in Nox2-expressing cells in CLKs, infiltration of bone marrow-derived cells (BMDC) increased in CLK. Treatments with Mn(III) Tetrakis(1-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphyrin (MnTMPyP, a superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic) and apocynin (a putative NADPH oxidase inhibitor) inhibited UI-induced hypertrophy of CLK along with reduction in Nox2-positive cell, BMDC, amount of Nox2 expression and superoxide formation. In conclusion, transient and partial renal mass reduction by UI resulted in the hypertrophy of CLK through increased ROS formation by infiltrated cells into the interstitium of CLK.
No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Free Radical Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of ionizing radiation (IR) is essential for treating many human cancers. However, radioresistance markedly impairs the efficacy of tumor radiotherapy. IR enhances the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a variety of cells which are determinant components in the induction of apoptosis. Much interest has developed to augment the effect of radiation in tumors by combining it with radiosensitizers to improve the therapeutic ratio. In the current study, the radiosensitizing effects of resveratrol and piperine on cancer cells were evaluated. Cancer cell lines treated with these natural products exhibited significantly augmented IR-induced apoptosis and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, presumably through enhanced ROS generation. Applying natural products as sensitizers for IR-induced apoptotic cell death offers a promising therapeutic approach to treat cancer.