[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glycogen-depleting exercise can lead to supercompensation of muscle glycogen stores, but the biochemical mechanisms of this phenomenon are still not completely understood.
Using chronic low-frequency stimulation (CLFS) as an exercise model, the tibialis anterior muscle of rabbits was stimulated for either 1 or 24 hours, inducing a reduction in glycogen of 90% and 50% respectively. Glycogen recovery was subsequently monitored during 24 hours of rest.
In muscles stimulated for 1 hour, glycogen recovered basal levels during the rest period. However, in those stimulated for 24 hours, glycogen was supercompensated and its levels remained 50% higher than basal levels after 6 hours of rest, although the newly synthesized glycogen had fewer branches. This increase in glycogen correlated with an increase in hexokinase-2 expression and activity, a reduction in the glycogen phosphorylase activity ratio and an increase in the glycogen synthase activity ratio, due to dephosphorylation of site 3a, even in the presence of elevated glycogen stores. During supercompensation there was also an increase in 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, correlating with a stable reduction in ATP and total purine nucleotide levels.
Glycogen supercompensation requires a coordinated chain of events at two levels in the context of decreased cell energy balance: First, an increase in the glucose phosphorylation capacity of the muscle and secondly, control of the enzymes directly involved in the synthesis and degradation of the glycogen molecule. However, supercompensated glycogen has fewer branches.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin-stimulated glucose disposal is impaired in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is tightly linked to impaired skeletal muscle glucose uptake and storage. Impaired activation of glycogen synthase (GS) by insulin is a well-established defect in both obesity and T2DM, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear.
Insulin action was investigated in a matched cohort of lean healthy, obese nondiabetic, and obese type 2 diabetic subjects by the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp technique combined with muscle biopsies. Activity, site-specific phosphorylation, and upstream signaling of GS were evaluated in skeletal muscle.
GS activity correlated inversely with phosphorylation of GS site 2+2a and 3a. Insulin significantly decreased 2+2a phosphorylation in lean subjects only and induced a larger dephosphorylation at site 3 in lean compared with obese subjects. The exaggerated insulin resistance in T2DM compared with obese subjects was not reflected by differences in site 3 phosphorylation but was accompanied by a significantly higher site 1b phosphorylation during insulin stimulation. Hyperphosphorylation of another Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase-II target, phospholamban-Thr17, was also evident in T2DM. Dephosphorylation of GS by phosphatase treatment fully restored GS activity in all groups.
Dysregulation of GS phosphorylation plays a major role in impaired insulin regulation of GS in obesity and T2DM. In obesity, independent of T2DM, this is associated with impaired regulation of site 2+2a and likely site 3, whereas the exaggerated insulin resistance to activate GS in T2DM is linked to hyperphosphorylation of at least site 1b. Thus, T2DM per se seems unrelated to defects in the glycogen synthase kinase-3 regulation of GS.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2009 · The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Context: Insulin-stimulated glucose disposal is impaired in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is tightly linked to impaired skeletal muscle glucose uptake and storage. Impaired activation of glycogen synthase (GS) by insulin is a well-established defect in both obesity and T2DM, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Design and Participants: Insulin action was investigated in a matched cohort of lean healthy, obese nondiabetic, and obese type 2 diabetic subjects by the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp tech-nique combined with muscle biopsies. Activity, site-specific phosphorylation, and upstream sig-naling of GS were evaluated in skeletal muscle.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glycogen metabolism has been the subject of extensive research, but the mechanisms by which it is regulated are still not fully understood. It is well accepted that the rate-limiting enzymes in glycogenesis and glycogenolysis are glycogen synthase (GS) and glycogen phosphorylase (GPh), respectively. Both enzymes are regulated by reversible phosphorylation and by allosteric effectors. However, evidence in the literature indicates that changes in muscle GS and GPh intracellular distribution may constitute a new regulatory mechanism of glycogen metabolism. Already in the 1960s, it was proposed that glycogen was present in dynamic cellular organelles that were termed glycosomas but no such cellular entities have ever been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to characterize muscle GS and GPh intracellular distribution and to identify possible translocation processes of both enzymes. Using in situ stimulation of rabbit tibialis anterior muscle, we show GS and GPh intracellular redistribution at the beginning of glycogen resynthesis after contraction-induced glycogen depletion. We identify a new "player," a new intracellular compartment involved in skeletal muscle glycogen metabolism. They are spherical structures that were not present in basal muscle, and we present evidence that indicate that they are products of actin cytoskeleton remodeling. Furthermore, for the first time, we show a phosphorylation-dependent intracellular distribution of GS. Here, we present evidence of a new regulatory mechanism of skeletal muscle glycogen metabolism based on glycogen enzyme intracellular compartmentalization.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies have demonstrated that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the hypothalamus is involved in the regulation of food intake. Because exercise is known to influence appetite and cause substrate depletion, it may also influence AMPK in the hypothalamus. Male rats that either rested or ran for 30 or 60 min on a treadmill (22 m/min, 10% slope) were sacrificed immediately after exercise or after 60 min recovery either in the fasted state or after oral gavage with glucose (3g/kg body weight). Exercise decreased muscle and liver glycogen substantially. Hypothalamic total or alpha2-associated AMPK activity and phosphorylation state of the AMPK substrate acetyl-CoA carboxylase were not changed significantly immediately following treadmill running or during fed or fasted recovery. Plasma ghrelin increased (P<0.05) by 40% during exercise whereas the concentration of PYY was unchanged. In recovery, glucose feeding increased plasma glucose and insulin concentrations whereas ghrelin and PYY decreased to (ghrelin) or below (PPY) resting levels. It is concluded that 1h of strenuous exercise in rats does not elicit significant changes in hypothalamic AMPK activity despite an increase in plasma ghrelin. Thus, changes in energy metabolism during or after exercise are likely not coordinated by changes in hypothalamic AMPK activity.
Full-text · Article · May 2005 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a potential antidiabetic drug target. Here we show that the pharmacological activation of AMPK by 5-aminoimidazole-1-beta-4-carboxamide ribofuranoside (AICAR) leads to inactivation of glycogen synthase (GS) and phosphorylation of GS at Ser 7 (site 2). In muscle of mice with targeted deletion of the alpha2-AMPK gene, phosphorylation of GS site 2 was decreased under basal conditions and unchanged by AICAR treatment. In contrast, in alpha1-AMPK knockout mice, the response to AICAR was normal. Fuel surplus (glucose loading) decreased AMPK activation by AICAR, but the phosphorylation of the downstream targets acetyl-CoA carboxylase-beta and GS was normal. Fractionation studies suggest that this suppression of AMPK activation was not a direct consequence of AMPK association with membranes or glycogen, because AMPK was phosphorylated to a greater extent in response to AICAR in the membrane/glycogen fraction than in the cytosolic fraction. Thus, the downstream action of AMPK in response to AICAR was unaffected by glucose loading, whereas the action of the kinase upstream of AMPK, as judged by AMPK phosphorylation, was decreased. The fact that alpha2-AMPK is a GS kinase that inactivates GS while simultaneously activating glucose transport suggests that a balanced view on the suitability for AMPK as an antidiabetic drug target should be taken.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The protein and mRNA levels of several muscle lipid-binding proteins and the activity and mRNA level of muscle lipoprotein lipase (mLPL) were investigated in healthy, nonobese, nontrained (NT), moderately trained, and endurance-trained (ET) women and men. FAT/CD36 protein level was 49% higher (P < 0.05) in women than in men, irrespective of training status, whereas FAT/CD36 mRNA was only higher (P < 0.05) in women than in men in NT subjects (85%). Plasma membrane-bound fatty acid binding protein (FABPpm) content was higher in ET men compared with all other groups, whereas training status did not affect FABPpm content in women. FABPpm mRNA was higher (P < 0.05) in NT women than in ET women and NT men. mLPL activity was not different between gender, but mLPL mRNA was 160% higher (P < 0.001) in women than in men. mLPL activity was 48% higher (P < 0.05) in ET than in NT subjects, irrespective of gender, in accordance with 49% higher (P < 0.05) mLPL mRNA in ET than in NT subjects. A 90-min exercise bout induced an increase (P < 0.05) in FAT/CD36 mRNA (approximately 25%) and FABPpm mRNA (approximately 15%) levels in all groups. The present study demonstrated that, in the NT state, women had higher muscle mRNA levels of several proteins related to muscle lipid metabolism compared with men. In the ET state, only the gender difference in mLPL mRNA persisted. FAT/CD36 protein in muscle was higher in women than in men, irrespective of training status. These findings may help explain gender differences in lipid metabolism and, furthermore, suggest that the balance between gene transcription, translation, and possibly breakdown of several proteins in muscle lipid metabolism depend on gender.
No preview · Article · Nov 2004 · Journal of Applied Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) catalyses the hydrolysis of myocellular triacylglycerol (MCTG), which is a potential energy source during exercise. Therefore, it is important to elucidate the regulation of HSL activity in human skeletal muscle during exercise. The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the regulation of muscle HSL activity and Ser565 phosphorylation (the presumed AMPK target site) in healthy, moderately trained men during 60 min bicycling (65%). Alpha2AMPK activity during exercise was manipulated by studying subjects with either low (LG) or high (HG) muscle glycogen content. HSL activity was distinguished from the activity of other neutral lipases by immunoinhibition of HSL using an anti-HSL antibody. During exercise a 62% higher (P < 0.01) alpha2AMPK activity in LG than in HG was paralleled by a similar difference (61%, P < 0.01) in HSL Ser565 phosphorylation but without any difference between trials in HSL activity or MCTG hydrolysis. HSL activity was increased (117%, P < 0.05) at 30 min of exercise but not at 60 min of exercise. In both trials, HSL phosphorylation on Ser563 (a presumed PKA target site) was not increased by exercise despite a fourfold increase (P < 0.001) in plasma adrenaline. ERK1/2 phosphorylation was increased by exercise in both trials (P < 0.001) and was higher in LG than in HG both at rest and during exercise (P = 0.06). In conclusion, the present study suggests that AMPK phosphorylates HSL on Ser565 in human skeletal muscle during exercise with reduced muscle glycogen. Apparently, HSL Ser565 phosphorylation by AMPK during exercise had no effect on HSL activity. Alternatively, other factors including ERK may have counterbalanced any effect of AMPK on HSL activity.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2004 · The Journal of Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Contraction-induced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle is mediated by an insulin-independent mechanism that leads to translocation of the GLUT4 glucose transporter to the muscle surface membrane from an intracellular storage site. Although the signalling events that increase glucose transport in response to muscle contraction are not fully elucidated, the aim of the present review is to briefly present the current understanding of the molecular signalling mechanisms involved. Glucose uptake may be regulated by Ca(2+)-sensitive contraction-related mechanisms, possibly involving Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and some isoforms of protein kinase C. In addition, glucose transport may be regulated by mechanisms that reflect the metabolic status of the muscle, probably involving the 5'AMP-activated protein kinase. Furthermore, the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase may be involved in activating the GLUT4 translocated to the surface membrane. Nevertheless, the picture is incomplete, and fibre type differences also seem to be involved.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2004 · Proceedings of The Nutrition Society
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glycogen synthase (GS) catalyses the rate-limiting step of UDP-glucose incorporation into glycogen. Exercise is a potent regulator of GS activity, leading to activation of GS immediately after exercise promoting glycogen repletion by mechanisms independent of insulin. The incorporation of UDP-glucose is energy demanding, and during intense exercise GS is deactivated, diminishing energy utilization but also increasing the potential for glycogen breakdown. An apparent activation of GS is observed during moderate exercise, which could be considered as a potential waste of energy, although the cellular capacity for glycogen breakdown is considerably higher than that for glycogen synthesis. The understanding of this complex regulation of GS activity in response to exercise is just at its beginning. In the present review potential mechanisms by which exercise regulates GS activity are described, factors that may promote GS activation and factors that may deactivate GS are discussed, pointing to the view that GS activity during exercise is the result of the relative strength of these opposing factors.
Preview · Article · Jun 2004 · Proceedings of The Nutrition Society
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exercise training may modulate protein content and enzyme activities in skeletal muscle. However, it is not known whether atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) is affected by training. Thus, we investigated aPKC, extracellular-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2), and P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (P38 MAPK) activities and expression in skeletal muscle from untrained and endurance-trained subjects at rest and after 20min of cycle exercise (80% of VO(2peak)). Activities of aPKC (P<0.05) and ERK 1/2 (P=0.06), but not phosphorylation of P38 MAPK, were higher in trained than in sedentary subjects at rest. Exercise increased the activities of ERK 1/2 (P<0.01) and aPKC (P<0.05) and the phosphorylation (Thr180/Tyr182) of P38 MAPK (P<0.01) similarly in muscle from trained and sedentary subjects. Protein expression of the kinases was similar in trained and sedentary muscle. The increased aPKC activity in exercise-trained subjects could be important in explaining the enhanced insulin action in these individuals.
No preview · Article · Dec 2003 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The metabolic role of 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in regulation of skeletal muscle metabolism in humans is unresolved. We measured isoform-specific AMPK activity and beta-acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCbeta) Ser(221) phosphorylation and substrate balance in skeletal muscle of eight athletes at rest, during cycling exercise for 1 h at 70% peak oxygen consumption, and 1 h into recovery. The experiment was performed twice, once in a glycogen-loaded (glycogen concentration approximately 900 mmol/kg dry wt) and once in a glycogen-depleted (glycogen concentration approximately 160 mmol/kg dry wt) state. At rest, plasma long-chain fatty acids (FA) were twofold higher in the glycogen-depleted than in the loaded state, and muscle alpha1 AMPK (160%) and alpha2 AMPK (145%) activities and ACCbeta Ser(221) phosphorylation (137%) were also significantly higher in the glycogen-depleted state. During exercise, alpha2 AMPK activity, ACCbeta Ser(221) phosphorylation, plasma catecholamines, and leg glucose and net FA uptake were significantly higher in the glycogen-depleted than in the glycogen-loaded state without apparent differences in muscle high-energy phosphates. Thus exercise in the glycogen-depleted state elicits an enhanced uptake of circulating fuels that might be associated with elevated muscle AMPK activation. It is concluded that muscle AMPK activity and ACCbeta Ser(221) phosphorylation at rest and during exercise are sensitive to the fuel status of the muscle. During exercise, this dependence may in part be mediated by humoral factors.
Full-text · Article · May 2003 · AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been proposed to be a pivotal factor in cellular responses to both acute exercise and exercise training. To investigate whether protein levels and gene expression of catalytic (alpha(1), alpha(2)) and regulatory (beta(1), beta(2), gamma(1), gamma(2), gamma(3)) AMPK subunits and exercise-induced AMPK activity are influenced by exercise training status, muscle biopsies were obtained from seven endurance exercise-trained and seven sedentary young healthy men. The alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-AMPK mRNA contents in trained subjects were both 117 +/- 2% of that in sedentary subjects (not significant), whereas mRNA for gamma(3) was 61 +/- 1% of that in sedentary subjects (not significant). The level of alpha(1)-AMPK protein in trained subjects was 185 +/- 34% of that in sedentary subjects (P < 0.05), whereas the levels of the remaining subunits (alpha(2), beta(1), beta(2), gamma(1), gamma(2), gamma(3)) were similar in trained and sedentary subjects. At the end of 20 min of cycle exercise at 80% of peak O(2) uptake, the increase in phosphorylation of alpha-AMPK (Thr(172)) was blunted in the trained group (138 +/- 38% above rest) compared with the sedentary group (353 +/- 63% above rest) (P < 0.05). Acetyl CoA-carboxylase beta-phosphorylation (Ser(221)), which is a marker for in vivo AMPK activity, was increased by exercise in both groups but to a lower level in trained subjects (32 +/- 5 arbitrary units) than in sedentary controls (45 +/- 1 arbitrary units) (P < 0.01). In conclusion, trained human skeletal muscle has increased alpha(1)-AMPK protein levels and blunted AMPK activation during exercise.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2003 · Journal of Applied Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: After a single bout of exercise, insulin action is increased in the muscles that were active during exercise. The increased insulin action has been shown to involve glucose transport, glycogen synthesis, and glycogen synthase (GS) activation as well as amino acid transport. A major mechanism involved in increased insulin stimulation of glucose uptake after exercise seems to be the exercise-associated decrease in muscle glycogen content. Muscle glycogen content also plays a pivotal role for the activity of GS and for the ability of insulin to increase GS activity. Insulin signaling in human skeletal muscle is activated by physiological insulin concentrations, but the increase in insulin action after exercise does not seem to be related to increased insulin signaling [insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity, insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) tyrosine phosphorylation (RS1), IRS-1-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity, Akt phosphorylation (Ser(473)), glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) phosphorylation (Ser(21)), and GSK3alpha activity], as measured in muscle lysates. Furthermore, insulin signaling is also largely unaffected by exercise itself. This, however, does not preclude that exercise influences insulin signaling through changes in the spatial arrangement of the signaling compounds or by affecting unidentified signaling intermediates. Finally, 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase has recently entered the stage as a promising player in explaining at least a part of the mechanism by which exercise enhances insulin action.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2002 · Journal of Applied Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin action is decreased by high muscle glycogen concentrations in skeletal muscle. Patients with McArdle's disease have chronic high muscle glycogen levels and might therefore be at risk of developing insulin resistance. In this study, six patients with McArdle's disease and six matched control subjects were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test and a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. The muscle glycogen concentration was 103 +/- 45% higher in McArdle patients than in controls. Four of six McArdle patients, but none of the controls, had impaired glucose tolerance. The insulin-stimulated glucose utilization and the insulin-stimulated increase in glycogen synthase activity during the clamp were significantly lower in the patients than in controls (51.3 +/- 6.0 vs. 72.6 +/- 13.1 micromol x min(-1) x kg lean body mass(-1), P < 0.05, and 53 +/- 15 vs. 79 +/- 9%, P < 0.05, n = 6, respectively). The difference in insulin-stimulated glycogen synthase activity between the pairs was significantly correlated (r = 0.96, P < 0.002) with the difference in muscle glycogen level. The insulin-stimulated increase in Akt phosphorylation was smaller in the McArdle patients than in controls (45 +/- 13 vs. 76 +/- 13%, P < 0.05, respectively), whereas basal and insulin-stimulated glycogen synthase kinase 3alpha and protein phosphatase-1 activities were similar in the two groups. Furthermore, the ability of insulin to decrease and increase fat and carbohydrate oxidation, respectively, was blunted in the patients. In conclusion, these data show that patients with McArdle's glycogen storage disease are insulin resistant in terms of glucose uptake, glycogen synthase activation, and alterations in fuel oxidation. The data further suggest that skeletal muscle glycogen levels play an important role in the regulation of insulin-stimulated glycogen synthase activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is involved in the regulation of glucose and glycogen metabolism in skeletal muscle. We used patients with chronic high muscle glycogen stores and deficient glycogenolysis (McArdle's disease) as a model to address this issue. Six McArdle patients were compared with control subjects during exercise. Muscle alpha2AMPK activity increased in McArdle patients (from 1.3 +/- 0.2 to 1.9 +/- 0.2 pmol min(-1) mg(-1), P = 0.05) but not in control subjects (from 1.0 +/- 0.1 to 1.3 +/- 0.3 pmol min(-1) mg(-1)). Exercise-induced phosphorylation of the in vivo AMPK substrate acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCbeta; Ser(221)) was higher (P < 0.01) in McArdle patients than in control subjects (18 +/- 3 vs. 10 +/- 1 arbitrary units). Exercise-induced whole-body glucose utilization was also higher in McArdle patients than in control subjects (P < 0.05). No correlation between individual AMPK or ACCbeta values and glucose utilization was observed. Glycogen synthase (GS) activity was decreased in McArdle patients from 11 +/- 1.3 to 5 +/- 1.2 % (P < 0.05) and increased in control subjects from 19 +/- 1.6 to 23 +/- 2.3 % (P < 0.05) in response to exercise. This was not associated with activity changes of GS kinase 3 or protein phosphatase 1, but the changes in GS activity could be due to changes in activity of AMPK or protein kinase A (PKA) as a negative correlation between either ACCbeta phosphorylation (Ser(221)) or plasma adrenaline and GS activity was observed. These findings suggest that GS activity is increased by glycogen breakdown and decreased by AMPK and possibly PKA activation and that the resultant GS activity depends on the relative strengths of the various stimuli. Furthermore, AMPK may be involved in the regulation of glucose utilization during exercise in humans, although the lack of correlation between individual AMPK activity or ACCbeta phosphorylation (Ser(221)) values and individual glucose utilization during exercise implies that AMPK may not be an essential regulator.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2002 · The Journal of Physiology