[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Globally, 25% of children aged 0 to 4 years and more than 10% of women aged 15 to 49 years suffer from malnutrition. A range of interventions, promising for improving maternal and child nutrition, may also improve physical and intellectual capacity, and, thereby, future productivity and earnings.
We conducted a systematic literature review and summarized economic impacts of 23 reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health (RMNCH) interventions, published in 29 empirical studies between 2000 and 2013, using data from 13 low- and middle-income countries.
We find that, in low- and middle-income countries, RMNCH interventions were rarely evaluated using rigorous evaluation methods for economic consequences. Nonetheless, based on limited studies, maternal and childhood participation in nutrition interventions was shown to increase individuals' income as adults by up to 46%, depending on the intervention, demography and country. This effect is sizeable considering that poverty reduction interventions, including microfinance and conditional cash transfer programs, have helped increase income by up to 18%, depending on the context. We also found, compared to females, males appeared to have higher economic returns from childhood participation in RMNCH interventions.
Countries with pervasive malnutrition should prioritize investments in RMNCH interventions for their public health benefits. The existing literature is currently too limited, and restricted to a few selected countries, to warrant any major reforms in RMNCH policies based on expected future income impacts. Longitudinal and intergenerational databases remain needed for countries to be better positioned to evaluate maternal and early childhood nutrition intervention programs for future economic consequences.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Ugandan Ministry of Health has endorsed voluntary medical male circumcision as an HIV prevention strategy and has set ambitious goals (e.g., 4.2 million circumcisions by 2015). Innovative strategies to improve access for hard to reach, high risk, and poor populations are essential for reaching such goals. In 2009, the Makerere University Walter Reed Project began the first facility-based VMMC program in Uganda in a non-research setting. In addition, a mobile clinic began providing VMMC services to more remote, rural locations in 2011. The primary objective of this study was to estimate the average cost of performing VMMCs in the mobile clinic compared to those performed in health facilities (fixed sites). The difference between such costs is the cost of improving access to VMMC.
A micro-costing approach was used to estimate costs from the service provider's perspective of a circumcision. Supply chain and higher-level program support costs are not included.
The average cost (US$2012) of resources used per circumcision was $61 in the mobile program ($72 for more remote locations) compared to $34 at the fixed site. Costs for community mobilization, HIV testing, the initial medical exam, and staff for performing VMMC operations were similar for both programs. The cost of disposable surgical kits, the additional upfront cost for the mobile clinic, and additional costs for staff drive the differences in costs between the two programs. Cost estimates are relatively insensitive to patient flow over time.
The MUWRP VMMC program improves access for hard to reach, relatively poor, and high-risk rural populations for a cost of $27-$38 per VMMC. Costs to patients to access services are almost certainly less in the mobile program, by reducing out-of-pocket travel expenses and lost time and associated income, all of which have been shown to be barriers for accessing treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Between 2010¿2013, South Africa implemented WHO `Option A¿ for prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT), where all HIV-infected pregnant women (from 14 weeks gestation) received zidovudine (AZT) as ARV prophylaxis and initiated CD4 testing at their first antenatal care (ANC) visit. After returning for a second visit to collect CD4 results, women with CD4 counts¿¿¿350 were referred to the ART clinic and fast-tracked for initiation on lifelong ART while continuing to visit the ANC clinic every four weeks. Women with CD4 counts >350 were dispensed daily AZT prophylaxis at monthly follow up visits (every 4 weeks). The primary objective of this study was to evaluate adherence of HIV-infected pregnant women to recommended PMTCT services at and after their first antenatal care (ANC) visit.Methods
We conducted an observational cohort study from August 2012 to February 2013 at two primary health care clinics in Johannesburg, South Africa using routinely collected clinic data from first ANC visit for up to 60 days.ResultsOf the 158 patients newly diagnosed with HIV at their first ANC visit, records indicated that 139 women initiated CD4 testing during their first ANC visit. 52 patients (33% of 158) did not return again to the clinic within 60 days. Of the 118 (84% of 139) women with known gestational age¿>¿13 weeks and known Hb¿¿¿8 g/dl who should have received a 4-week supply of daily AZT at first ANC visit, 81 women (69% of 118) had a record of AZT being dispensed. Among the 139 women with CD4 results, 72 (52%) were eligible for lifelong ART (CD4 count ¿350); however, only 2 initiated ART within 30 days.Conclusions
Loss to initiation of both single and triple ARV therapy, loss to follow-up, and treatment interruptions were common during ANC care for pregnant women with HIV after their first ANC visit.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · BMC Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many countries use the cost-effectiveness thresholds recommended by the World Health Organization's Choosing Interventions that are Cost-Effective project (WHO-CHOICE) when evaluating health interventions. This project sets the threshold for cost-effectiveness as the cost of the intervention per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted less than three times the country's annual gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. Highly cost-effective interventions are defined as meeting a threshold per DALY averted of once the annual GDP per capita. We argue that reliance on these thresholds reduces the value of cost-effectiveness analyses and makes such analyses too blunt to be useful for most decision-making in the field of public health. Use of these thresholds has little theoretical justification, skirts the difficult but necessary ranking of the relative values of locally-applicable interventions and omits any consideration of what is truly affordable. The WHO-CHOICE thresholds set such a low bar for cost-effectiveness that very few interventions with evidence of efficacy can be ruled out. The thresholds have little value in assessing the trade-offs that decision-makers must confront. We present alternative approaches for applying cost-effectiveness criteria to choices in the allocation of health-care resources.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Bulletin of the World Health Organisation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In March 2012, The Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation trained maternal and child health workers in Southern Province of Zambia to use a new rapid syphilis test (RST) during routine antenatal care. A recent study by Bonawitz et al. (2014) evaluated the impact of this roll out in Kalomo District. This paper estimates the costs and cost-effectiveness from the provider's perspective under the actual conditions observed during the first year of the RST roll out.
Information on materials used and costs were extracted from program records. A decision-analytic model was used to evaluate the costs (2012 USD) and cost-effectiveness. Basic parameters needed for the model were based on the results from the evaluation study.
During the evaluation study, 62% of patients received a RST, and 2.8% of patients tested were positive (and 10.4% of these were treated). Even with very high RST sensitivity and specificity (98%), true prevalence of active syphilis would be substantially less (estimated at <0.7%). For 1,000 new ANC patients, costs of screening and treatment were estimated at $2,136, and the cost per avoided disability-adjusted-life year lost (DALY) was estimated at $628. Costs change little if all positives are treated (because prevalence is low and treatment costs are small), but the cost-per-DALY avoided falls to just $66. With full adherence to guidelines, costs increase to $3,174 per 1,000 patients and the cost-per-DALY avoided falls to $60.
Screening for syphilis is only useful for reducing adverse birth outcomes if patients testing positive are actually treated. Even with very low prevalence of syphilis (a needle in the haystack), cost effectiveness improves dramatically if those found positive are treated; additional treatment costs little but DALYs avoided are substantial. Without treatment, the needle is essentially found and thrown back into the haystack.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Of the estimated 800,000 adults living with HIV in Zambia in 2011, roughly half were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). As treatment scale up continues, information on the care provided to patients after initiating ART can help guide decision-making. We estimated retention in care, the quantity of resources utilized, and costs for a retrospective cohort of adults initiating ART under routine clinical conditions in Zambia.
Data on resource utilization (antiretroviral [ARV] and non-ARV drugs, laboratory tests, outpatient clinic visits, and fixed resources) and retention in care were extracted from medical records for 846 patients who initiated ART at >=15 years of age at six treatment sites between July 2007 and October 2008. Unit costs were estimated from the provider's perspective using site- and country-level data and are reported in 2011 USD.
Patients initiated ART at a median CD4 cell count of 145 cells/muL. Fifty-nine percent of patients initiated on a tenofovir-containing regimen, ranging from 15% to 86% depending on site. One year after ART initiation, 75% of patients were retained in care. The average cost per patient retained in care one year after ART initiation was $243 (95% CI, $194-$293), ranging from $184 (95% CI, $172-$195) to $304 (95% CI, $290-$319) depending on site. Patients retained in care one year after ART initiation received, on average, 11.4 months' worth of ARV drugs, 1.5 CD4 tests, 1.3 blood chemistry tests, 1.4 full blood count tests, and 6.5 clinic visits with a doctor or clinical officer. At all sites, ARV drugs were the largest cost component, ranging from 38% to 84% of total costs, depending on site.
Patients initiate ART late in the course of disease progression and a large proportion drop out of care after initiation. The quantity of resources utilized and costs vary widely by site, and patients utilize a different mix of resources under routine clinical conditions than if they were receiving fully guideline-concordant care. Improving retention in care and guideline concordance, including increasing the use of tenofovir in first-line ART regimens, may lead to increases in overall treatment costs.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · BMC Public Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective. We estimated time to initiation, outpatient resource use, and costs of outpatient care during the 6 months prior to ART initiation for HIV-infected pediatric patients in Zambia.
Methods. We enrolled 1,102 children who initiated ART at <15 years of age between 2006 and 2011 at 5 study sites. Of these, 832 initiated ART ≤6 months after first presenting to care at the study sites. Data on time in care and resources utilized during the 6 months prior to ART initiation were extracted from patient medical records. Costs were estimated from the provider's perspective and are reported in 2011 USD. Results. For the patients who initiated ART ≤6 months after presenting to care, median age at presentation to care was 3.9 years; median CD4 percentage was 13%. Median time to ART initiation was 26 days. Patients made, on average, 2.38 clinic visits prior to ART initiation and received 0.81 CD4 tests, 0.74 full blood count tests, and 0.49 blood chemistry tests. The mean cost of pre-ART care was $20 per patient. Conclusions. Zambian pediatric patients initiating ART ≤6 months after presenting to care do so quickly, utilize fewer resources than mandated by national guidelines, and accrue low costs.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · AIDS research and treatment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evaluate the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on South African HIV patients' economic well being, as indicated by symptoms, normal activities, employment, and external support, during the first 5 years on treatment.
Prospective cohort study of 879 adult patients at public or nongovernmental clinics enrolled before ART initiation or on ART less than 6 months and followed for 5.5 years or less. Patients were interviewed during routine clinic visits. Outcomes were estimated using population-averaged logistic regression and reported as proportions of the cohort experiencing outcomes by duration on ART.
For patients remaining in care, outcomes improved continuously and substantially, with all differences between baseline and 5 years statistically significant (P < 0.05) and continued significant improvement between year 3 and year 5. The probability of reporting pain last week fell from 69% during the three months before starting ART to 17% after 5 years on ART and fatigue from 62 to 7%. The probability of not being able to perform normal activities in the previous week fell from 47 to 5% and of being employed increased from 32 to 44%; difficulty with job performance among those employed fell from 56 to 6%. As health improved, the probability of relying on a caretaker declined from 81 to less than 1%, and receipt of a disability grant, which initially increased, fell slightly over time on ART.
Results from one of the longest prospective cohorts tracking economic outcomes of HIV treatment in Africa suggest continuous improvement during the first 5 years on treatment, confirming the sustained economic benefits of providing large-scale treatment.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · AIDS (London, England)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Zambia adopted Option A for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) in 2010 and announced a move to Option B+ in 2013. We evaluated the uptake, outcomes, and costs of antenatal, well-baby, and PMTCT services under routine care conditions in Zambia after the adoption of Option A.
We enrolled 99 HIV-infected/HIV-exposed (index) mother/baby pairs with a first antenatal visit in April-September 2011 at four study sites and 99 HIV-uninfected/HIV-unexposed (comparison) mother/baby pairs matched on site, gestational age, and calendar month at first visit. Data on patient outcomes and resources utilized from the first antenatal visit through six months postpartum were extracted from site registers. Costs in 2011 USD were estimated from the provider's perspective.
Index mothers presented for antenatal care at a mean 23.6 weeks gestation; 55% were considered to have initiated triple-drug antiretroviral therapy (ART) based on information recorded in site registers. Six months postpartum, 62% of index and 30% of comparison mother/baby pairs were retained in care; 67% of index babies retained had an unknown HIV status. Comparison and index mother/baby pairs utilized fewer resources than under fully guideline-concordant care; index babies utilized more well-baby resources than comparison babies. The average cost per comparison pair retained in care six months postpartum was $52 for antenatal and well-baby services. The average cost per index pair retained was $88 for antenatal, well-baby, and PMTCT services and increased to $185 when costs of triple-drug ART services were included.
HIV-infected mothers present to care late in pregnancy and many are lost to follow up by six months postpartum. HIV-exposed babies are more likely to remain in care and receive non-HIV, well-baby care than HIV-unexposed babies. Improving retention in care, guideline concordance, and moving to Option B+ will result in increased service delivery costs in the short term.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Disability-adjusted-life-years lost (DALYs) is a common outcome metric for cost-effectiveness analyses, and the equations used for such calculations have been presented previously by Fox-Rushby and Hanson (see, e.g., "Health Policy and Planning 16:326--331, 2001"). While the equations are clear, the logic behind them is opaque at best for a large share of public health practitioners and students. The objective of this paper is to show how to calculate DALYs using a discrete time formulation that is easy to teach to students and public health practitioners, is easy to apply for those with basic discounting skills, and is consistent with the discounting methods typically included on the costing side of cost-effectiveness analysis. A continuous-time adjustment factor is derived that can be used to ensure exact consistency between the continuous and discrete time approaches, but this level of precision is typically unnecessary for cost-effectiveness analyses. To illustrate the approach, both a new, simple example and the same example presented in Fox-Rushby and Hanson are used throughout the paper.
Preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. We evaluated whether a pilot program providing point-of-care (POC), but not rapid, CD4 testing (BD FACSCount) immediately after testing HIV-positive improved retention in care. Methods. We conducted a retrospective record review at the Themba Lethu Clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa. We compared all walk-in patients testing HIV-positive during February, July 2010 (pilot POC period) to patients testing positive during January 2008–February 2009 (baseline period). The outcome for those with a
cells/mm3 when testing HIV-positive was initiating ART weeks after HIV testing. Results. 771 patients had CD4 results from the day of HIV testing (421 pilots, 350 baselines). ART initiation within 16 weeks was 49% in the pilot period and 46% in the baseline period. While all 421 patients during the pilot period should have been offered the POC test, patient records indicate that only 73% of them were actually offered it, and among these patients only 63% accepted the offer. Conclusions. Offering CD4 testing using a point-of-care, but not rapid, technology and without other health system changes had minor impacts on the uptake of HIV care and treatment. Point-of-care technologies alone may not be enough to improve linkage to care and treatment after HIV testing.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · AIDS research and treatment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are few published estimates of the cost of pediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Africa. Our objective was to estimate the outpatient cost of providing ART to children remaining in care at six public sector clinics in Zambia during the first three years after ART initiation, stratified by service delivery site and time on treatment.
Data on resource utilization (drugs, diagnostics, outpatient visits, fixed costs) and treatment outcomes (in care, died, lost to follow up) were extracted from medical records for 1,334 children at six sites who initiated ART at <15 years of age between 2006 and 2011. Fixed and variable unit costs (reported in 2011 USD) were estimated from the provider's perspective using site level data.
Median age at ART initiation was 4.0 years; median CD4 percentage was 14%. One year after ART initiation, 73% of patients remained in care, ranging from 60% to 91% depending on site. The average annual outpatient cost per patient remaining in care was $209 (95% CI, $199-$219), ranging from $116 (95% CI, $107-$126) to $516 (95% CI, $499-$533) depending on site. Average annual costs decreased as time on treatment increased. Antiretroviral drugs were the largest component of all outpatient costs (>50%) at four sites. At the two remaining sites, outpatient visits and fixed costs together accounted for >50% of outpatient costs. The distribution of costs is slightly skewed, with median costs 3% to 13% lower than average costs during the first year after ART initiation depending on site.
Outpatient costs for children initiating ART in Zambia are low and comparable to reported outpatient costs for adults. Outpatient costs and retention in care vary widely by site, suggesting opportunities for efficiency gains. Taking advantage of such opportunities will help ensure that targets for pediatric treatment coverage can be met.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 2013): Exploring impacts of multi-year, community-based care programs for orphans and vulnerable children: A case study from Kenya, AIDS Care: Psychological and Socio-medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV, 25:sup1, S40-S45
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
HIV-positive pregnant women are at heightened risk of becoming lost to follow-up (LTFU) from HIV care. We examined LTFU before and after delivery among pregnant women newly diagnosed with HIV.
Observational cohort study of all pregnant women ≥18 years (N = 300) testing HIV positive for the first time at their first ANC visit between January and June 2010, at a primary healthcare clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa. Women (n = 27) whose delivery date could not be determined were excluded.
Median (IQR) gestation at HIV testing was 26 weeks (21-30). Ninety-eight per cent received AZT prophylaxis, usually started at the first ANC visit. Of 139 (51.3%) patients who were ART eligible, 66.9% (95% CI 58.8-74.3%) initiated ART prior to delivery; median (IQR) ART duration pre-delivery was 9.5 weeks (5.1-14.2). Among ART-eligible patients, 40.5% (32.3-49.0%) were cumulatively retained through 6 months on ART. Of those ART-ineligible patients at HIV testing, only 22.6% (95% CI 15.9-30.6%) completed CD4 staging and returned for a repeat CD4 test after delivery. LTFU (≥1 month late for last scheduled visit) before delivery was 20.5% (95% CI 16.0-25.6%) and, among those still in care, 47.9% (95% CI 41.2-54.6%) within 6 months after delivery. Overall, 57.5% (95% CI 51.6-63.3%) were lost between HIV testing and 6 months post-delivery.
Our findings highlight the challenge of continuity of care among HIV-positive pregnant women attending antenatal services, particularly those ineligible for ART.
No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Tropical Medicine & International Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To estimate the impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on labor productivity and income using detailed employment data from two large tea plantations in western Kenya for HIV-infected tea pluckers who initiated ART.
DESIGN: Longitudinal study using primary data on key employment outcomes for a group of HIV-infected workers receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) and workers in the general workforce.
METHODS: We used nearest-neighbor matching methods to estimate the impacts of HIV/AIDS and ART among 237 HIV-positive pluckers on ART (index group) over a 4-year period (2 years pre-ART and post-ART) on 4 monthly employment outcomes - days plucking tea, total kilograms (kgs) harvested, total days working, and total labor income. Outcomes for the index group were compared with those for a matched reference group from the general workforce.
RESULTS: We observed a rapid deterioration in all four outcomes for HIV-infected individuals in the period before ART initiation and then a rapid improvement after treatment initiation. By 18-24 months after treatment initiation, the index group harvested 8% (men) and 19% (women) less tea than reference individuals. The index group earned 6% (men) and 9% (women) less income from labor than reference individuals. Women's income would have dropped further if they had not been able to offset their decline in tea plucking by spending more time on nonplucking assignments.
CONCLUSION: HIV-infected workers experienced long-term income reductions before and after initiating ART. The implications of such long-term impacts in low-income countries have not been adequately addressed.
No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · AIDS (London, England)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
After almost 10 years of PEPFAR funding for antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment programmes in Kenya, little is known about the cost of care provided to HIV-positive patients receiving ART. With some 430,000 ART patients, understanding and managing costs is essential to treatment programme sustainability.
Using patient-level data from medical records (n=120/site), we estimated the cost of providing ART at three treatment sites in the Rift Valley Province of Kenya (a clinic at a government hospital, a hospital run by a large agricultural company and a mission hospital). Costs included ARV and non-ARV drugs, laboratory tests, salaries to personnel providing patient care, and infrastructure and other fixed costs. We report the average cost per patient during the first 12 months after ART initiation, stratified by site, and the average cost per patient achieving the primary outcome, retention in care 12 months after treatment initiation.
The cost per patient initiated on ART was $206, $252 and $213 at Sites 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The proportion of patients remaining in care at 12 months was similar across all sites (0.82, 0.80 and 0.84). Average costs for the subset of patients who remained in care at 12 months was also similar (Site 1, $229; Site 2, $287; Site 3, $237). Patients not retained in care cost substantially less (Site 1, $104; Site 2, $113; Site 3, $88). For the subset of patients who remained in care at 12 months, ART medications accounted for 51%, 44% and 50% of the costs, with the remaining costs split between non-ART medications (15%, 11%, 10%), laboratory tests (14%, 15%, 15%), salaries to personnel providing patient care (9%, 11%, 12%) and fixed costs (11%, 18%, 13%).
At all three sites, 12-month retention in care compared favourably to retention rates reported in the literature from other low-income African countries. The cost of providing treatment was very low, averaging $224 in the first year, less than $20/month. The cost of antiretroviral medications, roughly $120 per year, accounted for approximately half of the total costs per patient retained in care after 12 months.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Journal of the International AIDS Society
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Simple interventions for improving health workers' adherence to malaria case-management guidelines are urgently required across Africa. A recent trial in Kenya showed that text-message reminders sent to health workers' mobile phones improved management of pediatric outpatients by 25 percentage points. In this paper we examine costs and cost-effectiveness of this intervention.
We evaluate costs and cost-effectiveness in 2010 USD under three implementation scenarios: (1) as implemented under study conditions in study areas; (2) if the intervention was routinely implemented by the Ministry of Health (MoH) in the same areas; and (3) if the intervention was scaled up nationally. Under study conditions, intervention costs were 19,342 USD, of which 45% were for developing and pretesting text-messages, 12% for developing text-message distribution system, 29% for collecting health workers' phone numbers, and 13% were costs of sending text-messages and monitoring of the system. If the intervention was implemented in the same areas by the MoH, the costs would be 28% lower (13,920 USD) due to lower costs of collecting health workers' numbers. The cost of national scale-up would be 97,350 USD, and the majority of these costs (66%) would be for sending text-messages. The cost per additional child correctly managed was 0.50 USD under study conditions, 0.36 USD if implemented by the MoH in the same area, and estimated at only 0.03 USD if implemented nationally. Even if the effect size was only 5% or the cost on the national scale was 400% higher than estimated, the cost per additional child correctly managed would be only 0.16 USD.
A simple text-messaging intervention improving health worker adherence to malaria guidelines is effective and inexpensive. Further research is justified to optimize delivery of the intervention and expand targets beyond children and malaria disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectif: Proposer des définitions standard pratiques pour le report des rétentions dans les soins pré-ART.
Méthode: Définitions tablée sur trois stades: Stade 1, du test VIH-positif à l’évaluation initiale de l’éligibilité pour l’ART; Stade 2, de l’évaluation initiale à l’éligibilité pour l’ART et Stade 3, de l’éligibilitéà l’initiation de l’ART. Pour chaque stade, les résultats négatifs comprennent le décès, les perdus de vue, ou le fait de ne pas être retenu.
Résultats: Rétention dans le stade 1: la proportion de patients qui ont terminé l’évaluation initiale de l’éligibilité pour l’ART dans les 3 mois du dépistage du VIH, avec les reports des résultats de la cohorte à 3 et 12 mois après le dépistage du VIH. Les patients terminant le stade 1, éligibles pour l’ART, passent directement à l’étape 3. Rétention dans le stade 2: la proportion de patients qui soit terminent toutes les possibles réévaluations pour l’éligibilitéà l’ART dans les 6 mois du calendrier de visite standard du site, soit ont eu une évaluation endéans 1 an de la date du report et n’étaient pas admissibles pour l’ART à la dernière évaluation. La rétention devrait être rapportée à intervalles de 12 mois. Rétention dans le stade 3: Initiation de l’ART (i.e. ART administré) dans les 3 mois de l’éligibilité pour l’ART, avec des reports à 3 mois après l’éligibilité et avec des intervalles de 3 mois par la suite.
Conclusion: Si la rétention pré-ART doit être améliorée, une terminologie cohérente est nécessaire pour la collecte des données, la mesure et le report des résultats, et la comparaison des résultats entre les programmes et les pays. Les définitions que nous proposons offrent une stratégie pour améliorer la cohérence et la comparabilité des futurs rapports.
Objetivo: Proponer definiciones prácticas y estandarizadas para reportar la retención en la atención sanitaria previa al TAR (pre-TAR).
Método: Las definiciones se plantean para tres etapas: Etapa 1, desde una prueba positiva para VIH hasta el inicio de la evaluación para determinar si se es o no candidato para recibir el TAR; Etapa 2, evaluación inicial para determinar si se es o no candidato para recibir el TAR; y Etapa 3, desde la elección como candidato para recibir TAR hasta el inicio del TAR. Para cada etapa, los resultados negativos incluían la muerte, pérdida o no retención dentro del tratamiento.
Resultados: Retención en la primera etapa: proporción de pacientes que completaron la evaluación inicial para determinar si era elegible para recibir el TAR dentro de los 3 meses posteriores a la realización de la prueba del VIH, con un informe de los resultados de la cohorte en los meses 3 y 12 después de realizar la prueba de VIH. Los pacientes que completaban la Etapa 1 y eran candidatos para recibir el TAR se movían directamente a la Etapa 3. Etapa 2 Retención: proporción de pacientes que: o completaban todas las posibles re-evaluaciones para determinar si eran candidatos para recibir TAR dentro de los 6 meses posteriores a la visita estándar del centro; o completaban una evaluación dentro del año siguiente al diagnóstico y no habían cumplido los requisitos para ser candidatos a recibir TAR en la última visita realizada. La retención debería ser reportada en intervalos de 12 meses. Etapa 3 Retención: comenzar TAR (es decir, antirretrovirales entregados) dentro de los 3 meses siguientes a haberse determinado su candidatura para recibir el TAR, habiéndose presentado dentro de los 3 meses siguientes a haber sido elegido para recibir el TAR y a partir de entonces, en intervalos de cada 3 meses.
Conclusión: Para mejorar la retención pre-TAR, es necesario contar con una terminología consistente para la recolección de datos, para medir y reportar los resultados, y comparar los resultados obtenidos en diferentes programas y países. Las definiciones que proponemos ofrecen una estrategia para mejorar la consistencia y la comparabilidad de informes futuros.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Tropical Medicine & International Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Federal expenditures are under scrutiny in the United States, and the merits of continuing and expanding the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) to support access to antiretroviral therapy have become a topic of debate. A growing body of research on the economic benefits of treatment with antiretroviral therapy has important implications for these discussions. For example, research conducted since the inception of PEPFAR shows that HIV-infected adults who receive antiretroviral therapy often begin or resume productive work, and that children living in households with infected adults who are on treatment are more likely to attend school than those in households with untreated adults. These benefits should be considered when weighing the overall benefits of providing antiretroviral therapy against its costs, particularly in the context of discussions about the future of PEPFAR. A modest case can also be made in favor of having private companies in HIV-affected countries provide antiretroviral therapy to their employees and dependents, thus sharing some of the burden of funding HIV treatment.