[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Much discussion has surrounded the association between the administration of neuraminidase inhibitors (NI) and severe abnormal behaviors, including sudden running away and jumping from a high place, which can be life-threatening if no one intervenes. Using data on the number of abnormal behaviors and patients who had been prescribed NI in Japan, we calculated the incidence rate of severe abnormal behaviors among influenza patients who had been prescribed NI. Then, we evaluated the relative risk between the four types of NI on severe abnormal behavior. We found no significant difference in the incidence rates of abnormal behavior by the type of NI. Results implicate that the current policy of package inserts, which warn physicians that patients who were administered ANY type of NI might exhibit abnormal behavior, seems to be appropriate.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental brain disorder. Mutations in synaptic components including synaptic adhesion molecules have been found in ASD patients. Contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2) is one of the synaptic adhesion molecules associated with ASD. CASPR2 forms a complex with receptors via interaction with multiple PDZ domain protein 1 (MUPP1). Little is known about the relationship between impaired CASPR2-MUPP1-receptor complex and the pathogenesis of ASD. GPR37 is a receptor for survival factors. We recently identified mutations including R558Q in the G-protein-coupled receptor 37 (GPR37) gene in ASD patients. The mutated GPR37s accumulate in the ER. In the present study, we show that GPR37 is a component of the CASPR2-MUPP1 receptor complex in the mouse brain. CASPR2 and GPR37 mainly interacted with the PDZ3 and PDZ11 domains of MUPP1, respectively. Compared to GPR37, GPR37(R558Q) slightly interacted with MUPP1 and caused dendritic alteration. GPR37, but not GPR37(R558Q) nor GPR37-deltaC which lacks its PDZ binding domain, was transported to the cell surface by MUPP1. In primary hippocampal neurons, GPR37 co-localized with MUPP1 and CASPR2 at the synapse, but not GPR37(R558Q). Thus, ASD-related mutation of GPR37 may cause the impaired CASPR2-MUPP1-GPR37 complex on the dendrites associated with one of the pathogenesis of ASD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
No preview · Article · May 2015 · Journal of Neurochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has a complex genetic etiology. Some symptoms and mutated genes, including neuroligin (NLGN), neurexin (NRXN), and SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains protein (SHANK), are shared by schizophrenia and ASD. Little is known about the molecular pathogenesis of ASD. One of the possible molecular pathogenesis is an imbalance of excitatory and inhibitory receptors linked with the NLGN-PSD-95-SHANK complex via postsynaptic density protein/Drosophila disc large tumor suppressor/zonula occludens-1 protein (PDZ) binding. In the present study, we focused on GPR85 as a candidate gene for ASD because the C-terminal amino acid sequence of GPR85 [Thr-Cys-Val-Ile (YCVI)] is classified as a type II PDZ-binding motif, and GPR85 is a risk factor for schizophrenia. GPR85 is an orphan receptor that regulates neural and synaptic plasticity and modulates diverse behaviors, including learning and memory. While searching for molecules that associate with GPR85, we found that GPR85 was associated with postsynaptic density protein (PSD)-95 linked with NLGN in the brain.
We examined the proteins that associate with the C-terminal sequence of GPR85 by pull-down assay and immunoblot analysis and searched for a mutation of the GPR85 gene in patients with ASD. We used immunostaining to examine the intracellular localization of mutated GPR85 and its influence on the morphology of cells and neurons.
The C-terminal sequence of GPR85 interacted with PSD-95 at PDZ1, while NLGN interacted with PSD-95 at PDZ3. Two male patients with ASD from independent Japanese families possessed inherited missense mutations at conserved sites in GPR85: one had T1033C (M152T) and the other had G1239T (V221L). These mutations were located in a domain related to G protein interaction and signal transduction. In contrast to wild-type GPR85, mutated GPR85 was more preferentially accumulated, causing endoplasmic reticulum stress, and disturbed the dendrite formation of hippocampal neurons.
GPR85 associated with the PSD-95 linked with NLGN, which is related to ASD. GPR85 carrying the mutations detected in ASD patients disturbed dendrite formation that could be the candidate for molecular pathogenesis of ASD through the associated NLGN-PSD-95 receptor complex.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute encephalopathy is classified into multiple syndromes, such as acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD), clinically mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS) and acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE), characterized radiologically by lesions in the cerebral subcortical white matter, splenium of the corpus callosum and bilateral thalami, respectively. We described a previously healthy 8-year-old boy who had febrile and biphasic seizures, and encephalopathy. MRI showed abnormal signal intensity in the corpus callosum on day 2 and cerebral subcortical white matter and bilateral thalamic lesions on day 8. This is the first case of acute encephalopathy in which callosal, subcortical and thalamic lesions co-existed. The clinical course of this case was typical for AESD, atypical for MERS, and different from that of ANE.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The object of the current study is to explore the neural substrate for effects of atomoxetine (ATX) on inhibitory control in school-aged children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). We monitored the oxy-hemoglobin signal changes of sixteen ADHD children (6–14 years old) performing a go/no-go task before and 1.5 h after ATX or placebo administration, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Sixteen age- and gender-matched normal controls without ATX administration were also monitored. In the control subjects, the go/no-go task recruited the right inferior and middle prefrontal gyri (IFG/MFG), and this activation was absent in pre-medicated ADHD children. The reduction of right IFG/MFG activation was acutely normalized after ATX administration but not placebo administration in ADHD children. These results are reminiscent of the neuropharmacological effects of methylphenidate to up-regulate reduced right IFG/MFG function in ADHD children during inhibitory tasks. As with methylphenidate, activation in the IFG/MFG could serve as an objective neuro-functional biomarker to indicate the effects of ATX on inhibitory control in ADHD children. This promising technique will enhance early clinical diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in children, especially in those with a hyperactivity/impulsivity phenotype.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Clinical neuroimaging
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A few mortalities and cases of severe abnormal behavior have been reported after oseltamivir administration for influenza, thus increasing medical and public concerns regarding the drug's safety. We investigated the association between oseltamivir and abnormal behavior for seven years. All outpatient clinics and hospitals all over the country were requested to report severe abnormal behavior that could have resulted in a fatality if nobody intervened, such as abrupt running outside the home or intention of jumping off a building. The survey was performed prospectively between the 2007–2008 and 2012–2013 seasons, and retrospectively for the 2006–2007 season. As the result of the investigation, eight-hundred fifty-eight cases were reported and among of them 95.7% were positive by the influenza rapid diagnosis test. The epidemic curve of severe abnormal behavior showed a pattern similar to influenza-like illness. The same pattern was observed regardless of age group, gender, or timing of the incidents after waking. Consequently, specific association between the types of medications used or the types of antiviral and abnormal behavior was not observed clearly. The reported abnormal behaviors include fatal cases that would have died if nobody had stopped. This suggested that patients with influenza should be observed with caution for possible abnormal behavior whether taking oseltamivir or other neuraminidase inhibitor anti-influenza drugs.
No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current study aimed to explore the neural substrate for atomoxetine effects on attentional control in school-aged children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), which can be applied to young children with ADHD more easily than conventional neuroimaging modalities. Using fNIRS, we monitored the oxy-hemoglobin signal changes of 15 ADHD children (6 to 14 years old) performing an oddball task before and 1.5 h after atomoxetine or placebo administration, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Fifteen age-, gender-, and intelligence quotient-matched normal controls without atomoxetine administration were also monitored. In the control subjects, the oddball task recruited the right prefrontal and inferior parietal cortices. The right prefrontal and parietal activation was normalized after atomoxetine administration in ADHD children. This was in contrast to our previous study using a similar protocol showing methylphenidate-induced normalization of only the right prefrontal function. fNIRS allows the detection of differential neuropharmacological profiles of both substances in the attentional network: the neuropharmacological effects of atomoxetine to upregulate the noradrenergic system reflected in the right prefrontal and inferior parietal activations and those of methylphenidate to upregulate the dopamine system reflected in the prefrontal cortex activation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current study aimed to explore the neural substrate for methylphenidate effects on attentional control in school-aged children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), which can be applied to young children with ADHD more easily than conventional neuroimaging modalities. Using fNIRS, we monitored the oxy-hemoglobin signal changes of 22 ADHD children (6 to 14 years old) performing an oddball task before and 1.5 h after methylphenidate or placebo administration, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Twenty-two age- and gender-matched normal controls without methylphenidate administration were also monitored. In the control subjects, the oddball task recruited the right prefrontal and inferior parietal cortices, and this activation was absent in premedicated ADHD children. The reduced right prefrontal activation was normalized after methylphenidate but not placebo administration in ADHD children. These results are consistent with the neuropharmacological effects of methylphenidate to upregulate the dopamine system in the prefrontal cortex innervating from the ventral tegmentum (mesocortical pathway), but not the noradrenergic system from the parietal cortex to the locus coeruleus. Thus, right prefrontal activation would serve as an objective neurofunctional biomarker to indicate the effectiveness of methylphenidate on ADHD children in attentional control. fNIRS monitoring enhances early clinical diagnosis and the treatment of ADHD children, especially those with an inattention phenotype.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis for an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patient, a 73 Kb duplication at 19q13.33 (nt. 49 562 755–49 635 956) including LIN7B and 5 other genes was detected. We then identified a novel frameshift mutation in LIN7B in another ASD patient. Since LIN7B encodes a scaffold protein essential for neuronal function, we analyzed the role of Lin-7B in the development of cerebral cortex. Acute knockdown of Lin-7B with in utero electroporation caused a delay in neuronal migration during corticogenesis. When Lin-7B was knocked down in cortical neurons in one hemisphere, their axons failed to extend efficiently into the contralateral hemisphere after leaving the corpus callosum. Meanwhile, enhanced expression of Lin-7B had no effects on both cortical neuron migration and axon growth. Notably, silencing of Lin-7B did not affect the proliferation of neuronal progenitors and stem cells. Taken together, Lin-7B was found to play a pivotal role in corticogenesis through the regulation of excitatory neuron migration and interhemispheric axon growth, while further analyses are required to directly link functional defects of Lin-7B to ASD pathophysiology.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of Neurochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been established that enhanced computed tomography (CT) and 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy (99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy) used in conjunction with single-photon emission CT is a useful tool for the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis (APN). The utility of non-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), however, has not been investigated extensively for the diagnosis of APN or renal abscess in children. We describe the case of a 23-month-old boy with suspected APN who received non-enhanced MRI. Whole body diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was used, and a background body-signal suppression sequence was applied. High-intensity focal lesions were identified on DWI and low-intensity lesions on the apparent diffusion coefficient map in the acute phase. This case suggested that non-enhanced MRI could be a useful tool for the diagnosis of APN in children, because it can avoid the risks of not only radiation exposure but also nephrogenic systemic fibrosis associated with gadolinium-based contrast agents, especially in infants.
No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Pediatrics International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interstitial deletion of 12q21 has been reported in four cases, which share several common clinical features, including intellectual disability (ID), low-set ears, and minor cardiac abnormalities. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis using the Agilent Human Genome CGH 180K array was performed with the genomic DNA from a two-year-old Japanese boy with these symptoms, as well as hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. Consequently, a 14 Mb deletion at 12q21.2-q21.33 (nt. 77 203 574-91 264 613 bp), which includes 72 genes, was detected. Of these, we focused on LIN7A, which encodes a scaffold protein that is important for synaptic function, as a possible responsible gene for ID, and we analyzed its role in cerebral cortex development. Western blotting analyses revealed that Lin-7A is expressed on embryonic day (E) 13.5, and gradually increases in the mouse brain during the embryonic stage. Biochemical fractionation resulted in the enrichment of Lin-7A in the presynaptic fraction. Suppression of Lin-7A expression by RNAi, using in utero electroporation on E14.5, delayed neuronal migration on postnatal day (P) 2, and Lin-7A-deficient neurons remained in the lower zone of the cortical plate and the intermediate zone. In addition, when Lin-7A was silenced in cortical neurons in one hemisphere, axonal growth in the contralateral hemisphere was delayed; development of these neurons was disrupted such that one half did not extend into the contralateral hemisphere after leaving the corpus callosum. Taken together, LIN7A is a candidate gene responsible for 12q21-deletion syndrome, and abnormal neuronal migration and interhemispheric axon development may contribute to ID and corpus callosum hypoplasia, respectively.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Various humoral factors have been proposed as causal agents of idiopathic steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (ISSNS), resulting in varying data. We used mass spectrometry (MS) to analyze serum proteins in a search for proteins that might be involved in ISSNS pathophysiology.
Serial serum samples were obtained from 33 children with ISSNS. Samples were collected during Phase A1 [the acute phase prior to steroid treatment (STx)], Phase A2 (remission with STx), and Phase A3 (remission without any medication). We also included age- and sex-matched two control groups comprising children with normal urinalysis (Group B) and children with a nephrotic syndrome other than ISSNS (Group C). The urinary protein/urinary creatinine (UP/UCr) ratios were not statistically different between Phase A1 and Group C. Samples were analyzed using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time of flight MS.
A total of 207 peptide ion peaks were detected in the range of m/z 2000-10000. Four peptide ions (m/z 6444, 6626, 8695, and 8915) were detected at significant elevation during Phase A1 compared with Phase A2, Phase A3, and Group C. The intensities of m/z 6444 and 8695 were higher in Phase A3 than in Group B. There were significant correlations between the intensities of m/z 6626, 8695, and 8915 and UP/UCr levels. The m/z 8695 was identified as apolipoprotein AII.
Apolipoprotein AII was detected as a protein associated with the UP/UCr levels in pediatric ISSNS. Our findings present an interesting starting point for further investigation into the pathophysiology of ISSNS.
No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the case of a 5-year-old Japanese girl who initially had acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and was positive for the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies and developed unilateral optic neuritis (ON) 71 days after ADEM onset. The patient's serum was positive for the anti-MOG antibodies from the onset of ADEM to the development of ON. This phenotype has been reported in only two previous articles, and the specific mechanism of action of the anti-MOG antibodies is not yet understood. Our case suggests that the anti-MOG antibody can be associated with the pathogenesis of ADEM followed by ON. Thus, patients with ADEM who test positive for the anti-MOG antibody may be at risk of developing subsequent ON.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An objective biomarker is a compelling need for the early diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as for the monitoring of pharmacological treatment effectiveness. The advent of fNIRS, which is relatively robust to the body movements of ADHD children, raised the possibility of introducing functional neuroimaging diagnosis in younger ADHD children. Using fNIRS, we monitored the oxy-hemoglobin signal changes of 16 ADHD children (6 to 13 years old) performing a go/no-go task before and 1.5 h after MPH or placebo administration, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design. 16 age-and gender-matched normal controls without MPH administration were also monitored. Relative to control sub-jects, unmedicated ADHD children exhibited reduced activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and middle frontal gyrus (MFG) during go/no-go tasks. The reduced right IFG/MFG activation was acutely nor-malized after MPH administration, but not after placebo administration. The MPH-induced right IFG/MFG activation was significantly larger than the placebo-induced activation. Post-scan exclusion rate was 0% among 16 right-handed ADHD children with IQ > 70. We revealed that the right IFG/MFG activation could serve as a neuro-functional biomarker for monitoring the acute effects of methylphenidate in ADHD children. fNIRS-based examinations were applicable to ADHD children as young as 6 years old, and thus would con-tribute to early clinical diagnosis and treatment of ADHD children.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 90 kb, polypeptide 3 gene (RPS6KA3) is responsible for Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS), which is characterized by intellectual disability (ID) and facial and bony abnormalities. This gene also affects nonsyndromic X-linked ID and nonsyndromic X-linked ID without bony abnormalities. Two families have been previously reported to have genetic microduplication including RPS6KA3. In the present study, we used array-comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis with Agilent Human genome CGH 180K and detected a 584-kb microduplication spanning 19.92-20.50 Mb of Xp22.12 (including RPS6KA3) in the members of one family, including three brothers, two sisters, and their mother. The 15-year-old male proband and one of his brothers had mild ID and localization-related epilepsy, whereas his other brother presented borderline intelligence quotient (IQ) and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). One sister presented pervasive development disorder (PDD). Analysis of this family suggests that RPS6KA3 duplication is responsible for mild ID, ADHD, and localization-related epilepsy, and possibly for PDD.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 29 August 2013; doi:10.1038/jhg.2013.88.
No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Journal of Human Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a multisystemic genetic disorder caused by a contiguous gene deletion at 7q11.23. We report a severely affected WBS patient with cerebral and cerebellar dysplasia as well as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Microarray comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) detected a deletion on 7q11.23 expanding from RP11-614D7 to RP11-137E8, which is a typical deletion in WBS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of a WBS patient with severe congenital central nervous system anomaly and progressive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The relationship between the genes deleted in WBS and a CNS anomaly plus hypertrophic cardiomyopathy requires further analysis.
No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Brain & development
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who was hypersensitive to native Escherichia coli L-asparaginase (L-asp) underwent readministration of the L-asp without serious adverse effects for 11 doses using a desensitization protocol every time. Monitoring of anti-L-asp antibody and L-asp activity levels revealed that the serum L-asp activity was below the effective levels during the administration of first 6 to 7 doses because of extremely high levels of anti-L-asp IgG. Sustained L-asp activity was attained since the eighth dose was administered, when the antibody levels were <5 U/mL. L-asp activity levels in patients with L-asp hypersensitivity should be monitored during the desensitization courses to ensure a sufficient L-asp activity.
Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis (TINU) syndrome, which was first described in 1975, has been reported in more than 130 patients, mostly in adolescent or young women. Although data concerning the etiologic background of this inflammatory disease are limited, several humoral factors, including cytokines, have been reported in association with the disease. Here, we report a case of TINU in a 14-year-old girl, whose renal and ophthalmological improvement was associated with the decrease of serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and interleukin-8 (IL-8). This suggests the presence of T-cell-mediated immunity in this unique syndrome.