[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Succinate dehydrogenase-deficient leukoencephalopathy is a complex II-related mitochondrial disorder for which the clinical phenotype, neuroimaging pattern and genetic findings have not been comprehensively reviewed.
19 individuals with succinate dehydrogenase deficiency-related leukoencephalopathy were reviewed for neuroradiologic, clinical and genetic findings as part of Institutional Review Board approved studies at Children's National Health System (Washington, DC) and VU University Medical Center (Amsterdam, NL).
All individuals had signal abnormalities in the central corticospinal tracts and spinal cord where imaging was available. Other typical findings were involvement of the cerebral hemispheric white matter with sparing of the U fibers, the corpus callosum with sparing of the outer blades, the basis pontis, middle cerebellar peduncles and cerebellar white matter, and elevated succinate on MRS. The thalamus was involved in most studies with a predilection for the anterior nucleus, pulvinar and geniculate bodies. Clinically, infantile-onset neurological regression with partial recovery and subsequent stabilization was typical. All individuals had mutations in SDHA, SDHB or SDHAF1, or proven biochemical defect.
Succinate dehydrogenase deficiency is a rare leukoencephalopathy, for which improved recognition by MRI in combination with advanced sequencing technologies allows non-invasive diagnostic confirmation. The MRI pattern is characterized by cerebral hemispheric white matter abnormalities with sparing of the U fibers, corpus callosum involvement with sparing of the outer blades, and involvement of corticospinal tracts, thalami and spinal cord. In individuals with infantile regression and this pattern of MRI abnormalities, the differential diagnosis should include succinate dehydrogenase deficiency, in particular if MRS shows elevated succinate. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Annals of Neurology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leukoencephalopathy with thalamus and brainstem involvement and high lactate (LTBL) is caused by autosomal recessive EARS2 mutations. Onset is most often in infancy, but in severe cases in the neonatal period. Patients typically have magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal abnormalities involving the thalamus, brainstem, and deep cerebral white matter. Most signal abnormalities resolve, but in severe cases at the expense of tissue loss. Here, we report a patient with an encephalopathy of antenatal onset. His early MRI at 8 months of age showed signal abnormalities in the deep cerebral white matter that improved over time. The thalami were absent with the configuration of a developmental anomaly, without evidence of a lesion. We hypothesized that this was a case of LTBL in which the thalamic damage occurred antenatally and was incorporated in the normal brain development. The diagnosis was confirmed by a novel homozygous EARS2 mutation. Our case adds to the phenotypic and genetic spectrum of LTBL.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A variety of pathologies can underlie early-onset severe encephalopathy with epilepsy. To aid the diagnostic process in such patients we present an overview of causes, including the rapidly expanding list of genes involved. When no explanation is found, whole-exome sequencing (WES) can be used in an attempt to identify gene defects in patients suspected to suffer from a genetic form. We describe three siblings, born to consanguineous parents, with a lethal severe epileptic encephalopathy with early-infantile onset, including their magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalography and, in one case, neuropathological findings. Using WES a homozygous frameshift mutation in the BRAT1 gene, c.638dup p.(Val214Glyfs*189), was identified. We present our cases in the context of all published cases with mutations in the BRAT1 gene and conclude that BRAT1 should be added to the growing list of genes related to early-onset severe encephalopathy with epilepsy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alexander disease is a rare, progressive, and generally fatal neurological disorder that results from dominant mutations affecting the coding region of GFAP, the gene encoding glial fibrillary acidic protein, the major intermediate filament protein of astrocytes in the CNS. A key step in pathogenesis appears to be the accumulation of GFAP within astrocytes to excessive levels. Studies using mouse models indicate that the severity of the phenotype correlates with the level of expression, and suppression of GFAP expression and/or accumulation is one strategy that is being pursued as a potential treatment. With the goal of identifying biomarkers that indirectly reflect the levels of GFAP in brain parenchyma, we have assayed GFAP levels in two body fluids in humans that are readily accessible as biopsy sites: CSF and blood. We find that GFAP levels are consistently elevated in the CSF of patients with Alexander disease, but only occasionally and modestly elevated in blood. These results provide the foundation for future studies that will explore whether GFAP levels can serve as a convenient means to monitor the progression of disease and the response to treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is an inherited lysosomal disorder due to a deficiency in arylsulfatase A with progressive demyelination and neurological decline. This retrospective MRI study investigated the extent of cortical involvement at time of diagnosis, and clinical correlates to both conventional and regional volumetric measures of brain involvement.Methods3D-T1-weighted MRI scans were used to determine cortical thickness and surface-based cerebral cortical gray matter (GM) and cerebral white matter (WM) volume (GMV and WMV), WM lesions, thalamus, and cerebellum. MRI-MLD severity scores were obtained from FLAIR images. Associations between clinical and imaging data were examined using correlation coefficients.ResultsTwenty patients with MLD (mean age 13.7 years, range 2–35) and 20 controls (mean age 13.9 years, range 2–40) were included. Compared with control subjects, late-infantile, and juvenile patients (n = 14) had significantly diminished cerebral cortical GMV and thalamus volume (P < 0.05), but did not differ in WMV and cortical thickness. Adult patients (n = 6) showed significantly reduced GMV, WMV and cortical thickness (all P < 0.05). Regional analysis showed statistically significant cortical thinning in the cingulate gyrus and most pronounced thinning with age in the frontal lobe of MLD patients. Intelligence quotient (IQ) correlated with MRI-MLD scores (r = −0.87, P < 0.001).InterpretationSignificant cerebral cortical GMV loss is already present in early stages of MLD. IQ correlates with WM severity scores and lesion volume, but not with volumetric measures. In adult presentations, there is more pronounced global atrophy with GMV and WMV loss and accelerated cortical thinning, most prominently in the cingulate gyrus and frontal lobes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A small proportion of 4H (Hypomyelination, Hypodontia and Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism) or RNA polymerase III (POLR3)-related leukodystrophy cases are negative for mutations in the previously identified causative genes POLR3A and POLR3B. Here we report eight of these cases carrying recessive mutations in POLR1C, a gene encoding a shared POLR1 and POLR3 subunit, also mutated in some Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) cases. Using shotgun proteomics and ChIP sequencing, we demonstrate that leukodystrophy-causative mutations, but not TCS mutations, in POLR1C impair assembly and nuclear import of POLR3, but not POLR1, leading to decreased binding to POLR3 target genes. This study is the first to show that distinct mutations in a gene coding for a shared subunit of two RNA polymerases lead to selective modification of the enzymes' availability leading to two different clinical conditions and to shed some light on the pathophysiological mechanism of one of the most common hypomyelinating leukodystrophies, POLR3-related leukodystrophy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: POLR3-related (or 4H) leukodystrophy is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in POLR3A or POLR3B and is characterized by neurological and non-neurological features. In a small proportion of patients, no mutation in either gene or only one mutation is found. Analysis of the POLR3B cDNA revealed a large deletion of exons 21-22 in one case and of exons 26-27 in another case. These are the first reports of long deletions causing POLR3-related leukodystrophy, suggesting that deletions and duplications in POLR3A or POLR3B should be investigated in patients with a compatible phenotype, especially if one pathogenic variant has been identified.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective This study aims to ascertain frequency of mutations in POLR3A or POLR3B, which are associated with 4H leukodystrophy, in a cohort of patients with unclassified hypomyelination. Methods and Results In a cohort of 22 patients with the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diagnosis of unclassified hypomyelination and without typical clinical signs, we evaluated clinical and MRI features. Developmental delay or intellectual disability, ataxia, and spasticity were frequent symptoms. POLR3A and POLR3B were sequenced. A compound heterozygote mutation in POLR3B was found in only one patient. Additional investigations allowed a definitive diagnosis in 10 patients. Conclusion Mutations in POLR3A or POLR3B are rare in patients with unclassified hypomyelination, and alternative diagnoses should be considered first.
Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy (BSCL) is an uncommon autosomal recessive disorder. Patients with BSCL present with a distinct phenotype since subcutaneous fat is largely lacking and musculature has become more prominent. During childhood, diabetes and acanthosis nigricans evolve and female patients may develop hirsutism. Different genes encoding this entity have been described. Achalasia is a rare esophageal motility disorder, characterized by its distinct motility pattern with absent or incomplete lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxations. The exact cause of achalasia is yet unknown. Here, we describe a patient with achalasia in the context of BSCL, which might be linked by a shared pathophysiologic background, as evaluated in this case report.
In a BSCL patient presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms, a motility disorder of the gastrointestinal tract should be considered. What is Known: • Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy (BSCL) and achalasia are both disorders characterized by low prevalence. What is New: • Co-existence of both diseases is described in this report. Linkage by a potential common pathophysiologic background is discussed in this paper.
Preview · Article · May 2015 · European Journal of Pediatrics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aicardi–Goutières syndrome is a leukoencephalopathy with calcifications and increased cerebrospinal fluid interferon-α. The relation between interferon-α and brain pathology is poorly understood. We report a patient with mutations in the disease-associated gene SAMHD1. Neuropathology showed an extensive microangiopathy with calcifications consistently associate with blood vessels. In an in vitro model of the microangiopathy, interferon-α enhanced vascular smooth muscle cell-derived calcifications. The noninfarcted white matter harbored apoptotic oligodendrocytes and increased numbers of oligodendrocyte progenitors. These findings better define the white matter pathology and provide evidence that interferon-α plays a direct pathogenetic role in the calcifying angiopathy typical of this disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic etiology of the X-linked disorder “Hypomyelination of Early Myelinating Structures” (HEMS).Methods
We included 16 patients from 10 families diagnosed with HEMS by brain MRI criteria. Exome sequencing was used to search for causal mutations. In silico analysis of effects of the mutations on splicing and RNA folding was performed. In vitro gene splicing was examined in RNA from patients’ fibroblasts and an immortalized immature oligodendrocyte cell line after transfection with mutant minigene splicing constructs.ResultsAll patients had unusual hemizygous mutations of PLP1 located in exon 3B (one deletion, one missense and two silent), which is spliced out in isoform DM20, or in intron 3 (five mutations). The deletion led to truncation of PLP1, but not DM20. Four mutations were predicted to affect PLP1/DM20 alternative splicing by creating exonic splicing silencer motifs or new splice donor sites or by affecting the local RNA structure of the PLP1 splice donor site. Four deep intronic mutations were predicted to destabilize a long-distance interaction structure in the secondary PLP1 RNA fragment involved in regulating PLP1/DM20 alternative splicing. Splicing studies in fibroblasts and transfected cells confirmed a decreased PLP1/DM20 ratio.InterpretationBrain structures that normally myelinate early are poorly myelinated in HEMS, while they are the best myelinated structures in Pelizaeus–Merzbacher disease, also caused by PLP1 alterations. Our data extend the phenotypic spectrum of PLP1-related disorders indicating that normal PLP1/DM20 alternative splicing is essential for early myelination and support the need to include intron 3 in diagnostic sequencing.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two proα1(IV) chains, encoded by COL4A1, form trimers that contain, in addition, a proα2(IV) chain encoded by COL4A2 and are the major component of the basement membrane in many tissues. Since 2005, COL4A1 mutations have been known as an autosomal dominant cause of hereditary porencephaly. COL4A1 and COL4A2 mutations have been reported with a broader spectrum of cerebrovascular, renal, ophthalmological, cardiac, and muscular abnormalities, indicated as "COL4A1 mutation-related disorders." Genetic counseling is challenging because of broad phenotypic variation and reduced penetrance. At the Erasmus University Medical Center, diagnostic DNA analysis of both COL4A1 and COL4A2 in 183 index patients was performed between 2005 and 2013. In total, 21 COL4A1 and 3 COL4A2 mutations were identified, mostly in children with porencephaly or other patterns of parenchymal hemorrhage, with a high de novo mutation rate of 40% (10/24). The observations in 13 novel families harboring either COL4A1 or COL4A2 mutations prompted us to review the clinical spectrum. We observed recognizable phenotypic patterns and propose a screening protocol at diagnosis. Our data underscore the importance of COL4A1 and COL4A2 mutations in cerebrovascular disease, also in sporadic patients. Follow-up data on symptomatic and asymptomatic mutation carriers are needed for prognosis and appropriate surveillance.Genet Med advance online publication 26 February 2015Genetics in Medicine (2015); doi:10.1038/gim.2014.210.
No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Genetics in medicine: official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics