[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Normal human diploid fibroblasts have limited life span in culture and undergo replicative senescence after 50-60 population doublings. On the contrary, cancer cells typically divide indefinitely and are immortal. Expression of SV40 large T and small t antigens in human fibroblasts transiently extends their life span by 20-30 population doublings and facilitates immortalization. We have identified a rearrangement in chromosome 6 shared by SV40-transformed human fibroblasts. Rearrangements involving chromosome 6 are among the most frequent in human carcinogenesis. In this paper, we extend analysis of the 6q26-q27 region, a putative site for a growth suppressor gene designated SEN6 involved in immortalization of SV40-transformed cells. Detailed molecular characterization of the rearranged chromosomes (6q*, normal appearing; and 6q(t), translocated) in the SV40-immortalized cell line HALneo by isolating each of these 2 chromosomes in mouse/HAL somatic cell hybrids is presented. Analysis of these mouse/HAL somatic cell hybrids with polymorphic and nonpolymorphic markers revealed that the 6q* has undergone a chromosomal break in the MLLT4 gene (alias AF6). This result in conjunction with previous published observations leads us to conclude that SEN6 lies between MLLT4 and TBP at chromosomal region 6q27. Examination of different genes (MLLT4, DLL1, FAM120B, PHF10) located within this interval that are expressed in HS74 normal fibroblast cells reveals that overexpression of epitope-tagged truncated PHF10 cDNAs resulted in reduced cell proliferation in multiple cell lines. Paradoxically, down-regulation of PHF10 by RNAi also resulted in loss of cell proliferation in normal fibroblast cells, indicating PHF10 function is required for cell growth. Taken together, these observations suggest that decreased cell proliferation with epitope-tagged truncated PHF10 proteins may be due to dominant negative effects or due to unregulated expression of these mutant proteins. Hence we conclude that PHF10 is not SEN6 but is required for cell growth.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2009 · Cytogenetic and Genome Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The regulation of the multifunctional calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) by serine/threonine protein phosphatases has been extensively studied in neuronal cells; however, this regulation has not been investigated previously in fibroblasts. We cloned a cDNA from SV40-transformed human fibroblasts that shares 80% homology to a rat calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase phosphatase that encodes a PPM1F protein. By using extracts from transfected cells, PPM1F, but not a mutant (R326A) in the conserved catalytic domain, was found to dephosphorylate in vitro a peptide corresponding to the auto-inhibitory region of CaMKII. Further analyses demonstrated that PPM1F specifically dephosphorylates the phospho-Thr-286 in autophosphorylated CaMKII substrate and thus deactivates the CaMKII in vitro. Coimmunoprecipitation of CaMKII with PPM1F indicates that the two proteins can interact intracellularly. Binding of PPM1F to CaMKII involves multiple regions and is not dependent on intact phosphatase activity. Furthermore, overexpression of PPM1F in fibroblasts caused a reduction in the CaMKII-specific phosphorylation of the known substrate vimentin(Ser-82) following induction of the endogenous CaM kinase. These results identify PPM1F as a CaM kinase phosphatase within fibroblasts, although it may have additional functions intracellularly since it has been presented elsewhere as POPX2 and hFEM-2. We conclude that PPM1F, possibly together with the other previously described protein phosphatases PP1 and PP2A, can regulate the activity of CaMKII. Moreover, because PPM1F dephosphorylates the critical autophosphorylation site of CaMKII, we propose that this phosphatase plays a key role in the regulation of the kinase intracellularly.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human diploid cells have a limited life span, ending in replicative senescence, in contrast to cell lines derived from tumors, which show an indefinite life span and are immortal, suggesting that replicative senescence is a tumor suppression mechanism. We have utilized introduction of SV40 sequences to develop matched sets of nonimmortal and immortal cell lines to help dissect the mechanism of immortalization and have found that it has multiple facets, involving both SV40-dependent and -independent aspects. These studies have led to the identification of a novel growth suppressor gene (SEN6) as well as providing a model system for the study of cellular aging, apoptosis, and telomere stabilization among other things. It is anticipated that SV40-transformed cells will continue to provide a very useful experimental system leading to insights into the behavior of cells with altered expression of oncogenes and growth suppressor gene products.
No preview · Article · Dec 1998 · Experimental Cell Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SV40 infection of human cells results in both transformation and lytic infection. We have used origin-defective viral mutants which are unable to replicate in permissive cells to help analysis of transformation. Expression of large T antigen (T ag) and small t antigen results in the altered growth phenotypes characteristic of transformation in other species. Human diploid fibroblasts (HF) have a limited lifespan and undergo senescence; T ag results in extension of lifespan but only in rare cases are the cells capable of continuous growth and are immortal. We have developed matched sets of non-immortal and immortal transformed HF for assessment of the steps required for immortalization. Results are summarized to characterize both T-dependent and T-independent functions. A novel growth suppressor gene SEN6 has been identified, the inactivation of which is required for immortalization; it may also serve as a marker to distinguish cells in which SV40 is replicating from those in which it is responsible for tumorigenesis.
No preview · Article · Feb 1998 · Developments in biological standardization
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Normal cells show a limited lifespan in culture and the phenotype of cellular senescence. Tumors and tumor cell lines have typically overcome this form of growth suppression and grow continuously as immortal cell lines in culture. We have exploited the DNA virus SV40 to study the mechanism by which human fibroblasts overcome senescence and become immortal. Multiple steps have now been identified, including inactivation of cellular growth suppressors through direct interaction with SV40 large T antigen and through mutation of a gene on chromosome 6 (designated SEN6). In this study, we sublocalize the site of SEN6 to 6q26-27 based on molecular genetic analysis. Twelve SV40-immortalized fibroblast cell lines share a deletion in this area based on assessment for loss of heterozygostiy (LOH) for seven informative markers on 6q. Two immortal cell lines (AR5 and HALneo) appeared to have retained separate single copies of chromosome 6 despite the fact that they are both derived from the same preimmortal SV40-transformant and should share the same mutated allele of SEN6 (Hubbard-Smith et al., 1992). Detailed analysis by polymerase chain reaction, restriction fragment length polymorphism and fluorescence in situ hybridization shows, however, that although they differ for 17 markers from the centromere to 6q26, they share AR5 derived sequences (eight markers) distal to 6q26 including the minimal deletion region, further supporting the assignment of SEN6 to this region. Since human tumors including non-Hodgkins lymphoma, mammary carcinoma and ovarian carcinoma show LOH in 6q26-27, inactivation of SEN6 may be responsible for immortalization of these tumors as well.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have identified a multistep mechanism by which the DNA virus SV40 overcomes cellular senescence. Expression of SV40 T antigen is required for both transient extension of life span and unlimited life span or immortalization. These effects are mediated through inactivation of function of growth suppressors pRB and p53 via complex formation with T antigen. However, immortalization additionally requires inactivation of a novel growth suppressor gene, which has recently been identified to be on the distal portion of the long arm of chromosome 6, designated SEN6. We propose that SEN6 is responsible for cellular senescence in fibroblasts and other cells.
No preview · Article · Jan 1996 · Experimental Gerontology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mei-41 gene of Drosophila melanogaster plays an essential role in meiosis, in the maintenance of somatic chromosome stability, in postreplication repair and in DNA double-strand break repair. This gene has been cytogenetically localized to polytene chromosome bands 14C4-6 using available chromosomal aberrations. About 60 kb of DNA sequence has been isolated following a bidirectional chromosomal walk that extends over the cytogenetic interval 14C1-6. The breakpoints of chromosomal aberrations identified within that walk establish that the entire mei-41 gene has been cloned. Two independently derived mei-41 mutants have been shown to carry P insertions within a single 2.2 kb fragment of the walk. Since revertants of those mutants have lost the P element sequences, an essential region of the mei-41 gene is present in that fragment. A 10.5 kb genomic fragment that spans the P insertion sites has been found to restore methyl methanesulfonate resistance and female fertility of the mei-41
D3 mutants. The results demonstrate that all the sequences required for the proper expression of the mei-41 gene are present on this genomic fragment. This study provides the foundation for molecular analysis of a function that is essential for chromosome stability in both the germline and somatic cells.
No preview · Article · Feb 1995 · MGG - Molecular and General Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cells derived from mice homozygous for the severe combined immune deficiency (scid) mutation exhibit hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation, and defects in DNA double-strand break repair and V(D)J recombination. Using the technique of microcell-mediated chromosome transfer, we have introduced a number of dominantly marked human chromosomes into scid cells to localize the human homolog of the murine scid gene. Analysis of human-scid hybrid clones revealed that the presence of human chromosome 8 partially restored accurate V(D)J recombination and radioresistance to scid cells. Subsequent loss of the human chromosome 8 from human-scid hybrid clones rendered these cells sensitive to gamma-radiation and impaired their ability to catalyse V(D)J recombination. Introduction of chromosomes 2, 14, 16 and 19 that encode other repair genes did not result in the correction of these two scid defects. These observations demonstrate that the human homolog of the mouse scid gene resides on human chromosome 8.
No preview · Article · Dec 1994 · Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mus209B1 mutant of Drosophila melanogaster exhibits a complex pleiotropy of temperature-sensitive (ts) lethality, hypersensitivity to DNA-damaging agents such as ionizing radiation and methyl methanesulfonate, suppression of position-effect variegation (PEV), and female sterility. Our discovery that mus209 encodes proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), which is an indispensable component of the DNA replication apparatus, suggests that alterations to chromosome replication may underlie that pleiotropy. Nine lethal mutations, three of them ts, genetically define the Pcna locus. Temperature shift studies reveal that the vital function of PCNA is required throughout virtually all stages of fly development, and that maternally encoded PCNA is essential for embryogenesis. All three ts mutants strongly suppress PEV, which suggests a role for PCNA in chromatin assembly or modification.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An efficient technique has been developed for performing in vivo site-directed mutagenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. This procedure involves directed repair of P-element-induced DNA lesions after injection of a modified DNA sequence into early embryos. An oligonucleotide of 50 base pairs, whose sequence spans the P-element insertion site, mediates base replacement in the endogenous gene. Restriction mapping, DNA sequencing, and polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrate that base substitutions present in an injected oligonucleotide are incorporated into genomic sequences flanking a P insertion site in the white gene. This analysis suggests that progeny bearing directed mutations are recovered with a frequency of about 0.5 x 10(-3). Because Drosophila remains a premier organism for the analysis of eukaryotic gene regulation, this system should find strong application in that analysis as well as in the analysis of DNA recombination, conversion, repair, and mutagenesis.
Preview · Article · Apr 1992 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A genetic screen has been developed in Drosophila for identifying host-repair genes responsible for processing DNA lesions formed during mobilization of P transposable elements. Application of that approach to repair deficient mutants has revealed that the mei-41 and mus302 genes are necessary for recovery of P-bearing chromosomes undergoing transposition. Both of these genes are required for normal postreplication repair. Mutants deficient in excision repair, on the other hand, have no detected effect on the repair of transposition-induced lesions. These observations suggest that P element-induced lesions are repaired by a postreplication pathway of DNA repair. The data further support recent studies implicating double-strand DNA breaks as intermediates in P transposition, because the mei-41 gene has been genetically and cytologically associated with the repair of interrupted chromosomes. Analysis of this system has also revealed a striking stimulation of site-specific gene conversion and recombination by P transposition. This result strongly suggests that postreplication repair in this model eukaryote operates through a conversion/recombination mechanism. Our results also support a recently developed model for a conversion-like mechanism of P transposition (Engels et al., 1990). Involvement of the mei-41 and mus302 genes in the repair of P element-induced double-strand breaks and postreplication repair points to a commonality in the mechanisms of these processes.
No preview · Article · Aug 1991 · Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: X-Linked methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)-sensitive mutations were induced with hybrid dysgenesis using four P strains: pi 2, Harwich, T-007 and OK-1. Mutations were identified after two generations of backcrosses to M strain females to replace the autosomes. Among 51,471 X-chromosomes examined 10 carried stable MMS-sensitive mutations representing 8 independent events. Males of the mutant strains failed to induce gonadal dysgenesis in crosses to Oregon-R females at 28.5 degrees C. Complementation tests showed that 3 of the induced mutations were mei-9 alleles, 2 were mei-41 alleles, 1 was a mus102 allele, and 2 were alleles at a newly identified MMS-sensitive locus, mus112 (map position: 1-32.8). As assayed by in situ hybridization on polytene chromosomes, each X-chromosome had no more than four P element insertions. 4 of the 8 mutations recovered in this study proved to have P element insertions at or very close to sites to which MMS sensitivity has been mapped. Hybrid dysgenesis-induced reversion of 2 mutants, mei-9RT1 and mei-41RT2, is associated with the loss of the P element from regions 4B and 14C respectively.
No preview · Article · Apr 1990 · Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The denV gene of bacteriophage T4 was fused to a Drosophila hsp70 (70-kDa heat shock protein) promoter and introduced into the germ line of Drosophila by P-element-mediated transformation. The protein product of that gene (endonuclease V) was detected in extracts of heat-shocked transformants with both enzymological and immunoblotting procedures. That protein restores both excision repair and UV resistance to mei-9 and mus201 mutants of this organism. These results reveal that the denV gene can compensate for excision-repair defects in two very different eukaryotic mutants, in that the mus201 mutants are typical of excision-deficient mutants in other organisms, whereas the mei-9 mutants exhibit a broad pleiotropism that includes a strong meiotic deficiency. This study permits an extension of the molecular analysis of DNA repair to the germ line of higher eukaryotes. It also provides a model system for future investigations of other well-characterized microbial repair genes on DNA damage in the germ line of this metazoan organism.
Full-text · Article · Jun 1989 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 6 mutant alleles of the mei-41 locus in Drosophila melanogaster are shown to cause hypersensitivity to hydroxyurea in larvae. The strength of that sensitivity is directly correlated with the influence of the mutant alleles on meiosis in that: alleles exhibiting a strong meiotic effect (mei-41D2, mei-41D5, mei-41D7) are highly sensitive; alleles with negligible meiotic effects (mei-41(104)D1, mei-41(104)D2) are moderately sensitive and an allele which expresses meiotic effects only under restricted conditions (mei-41D9) has an intermediate sensitivity. This sensitivity is not a general feature of strong postreplication repair-deficient mutants, because mutants with that phenotype from other loci do not exhibit sensitivity (mus(2)205A1, mus(3)302D1, mus(3)310D1). The observed lethality is not due to hypersensitivity of DNA synthesis in mei-41 larvae to hydroxyurea as assayed by tritiated thymidine incorporation. Lethality is, however, potentially attributable to an abnormal enhancement of chromosomal aberrations by hydroxyurea in mutant mei-41 larvae. Both in vivo and in vitro exposure of neuroblast cells to hydroxyurea results in an increase in 3 types of aberrations which is several fold higher in mei-41 tissue. Since hydroxyurea disrupts DNA synthesis, these results further implicate the mei-41 locus in DNA metabolism and provide an additional tool for an elucidation of its function. The possible existence of additional genes of this nature is suggested by a more modest sensitivity to hydroxyurea which has been detected in two stocks carrying mutagen-sensitive alleles of alternate genes.
No preview · Article · Dec 1986 · Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thirty genetic alterations, which involve the 4BC region of the Drosophila X chromosome, have been induced by ionizing radiation or by an endogenous mutator element. These mutations were recovered by screening for reversion of the dominant mutants Oce and Qd or for induction of the recessive mutants bi and rb. Among the 23 mutants generated by ionizing radiation, 20 have proven to be cytologically detectable chromosomal aberrations. Seven additional unique aberrations were generated in the Uc mutator strain. In total, 22 cytologically detectable deficiencies, 3 translocations, 1 inversion, 1 transposition, and 3 cytologically normal mutants have been recovered. Complementation analysis has permitted the cytogenetic localization of eight genes in the 4BC region. The mei-9 locus has been assigned to region 4B4-6, because this function is carried by Df(1)rb41 but not by Df(1)biD1. The norpA locus has been placed in the 4B6-C1 region based on its location between the distal breakpoints of Df(1)biD2 and Df(1)rb41. The genes lac, Qd, bi, and omb are localized to bands 4C5,6, rb to 4C6 and amb to 4C7,8. With one exception the complementation analysis has also permitted a determination of the linear sequence of these genes. This cytogenetic localization of these loci will facilitate the cloning and molecular analysis of genes controlling a key function in DNA repair and recombination (mei-9), and two fundamental neural functions (norpA and omb).