[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells of hematopoietic origin that are responsible for the degradation of old bone matrix. Osteoclast differentiation and activity are controlled by two essential cytokines, macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL). M-CSF and RANKL bind to their respective receptors c-Fms and RANK to stimulate osteoclast differentiation through regulation of delicate signaling systems. Here, we summarize the critical or essential signaling pathways for osteoclast differentiation including M-CSF-c-Fms signaling, RANKL-RANK signaling, and costimulatory signaling for RANK.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rac1, a member of small GTPases, is a key regulator of osteoclast differentiation and function. The Crk family adaptor proteins, consisting of Src homology (SH) 2 and SH3 protein-binding domains, regulate cell proliferation, migration, and invasion through Rac1 activation. In this study, we examined the role of CrkII in osteoclast differentiation and function. Retroviral overexpression of CrkII in osteoclast precursors enhanced osteoclast differentiation and resorptive function through Rac1 activation. The knockdown of CrkII in osteoclast precursors using small interfering RNA inhibited osteoclast differentiation and its resorption activity. Unlike wild-type CrkII, overexpression of the three SH domains in mutant forms of CrkII did not enhance either osteoclast differentiation or function. Phosphorylation of p130 Crk-associated substrate (p130Cas) by osteoclastogenic cytokines in preosteoclasts increased the interaction between p130Cas and CrkII, which is known to be involved in Rac1 activation. Furthermore, transgenic mice overexpressing CrkII under control of a tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase promoter exhibited a low bone mass phenotype, associated with increased resorptive function of osteoclasts in vivo. Taken together, our data suggest that the p130Cas/CrkII/Rac1 signaling pathway plays an important role in osteoclast differentiation and function, both in vitro and in vivo.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Negative regulator of reactive oxygen species (NRROS) is known to repress ROS generation in phagocytes. In this study, we examined the roles of NRROS in both osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Our results demonstrate that NRROS negatively regulates the differentiation of osteoclasts, but not osteoblasts. Further, overexpression of NRROS in osteoclast precursor cells attenuates RANKLinduced osteoclast differentiation. Conversely, osteoclast differentiation is enhanced upon siRNA-mediated knockdown of NRROS. Additionally, NRROS attenuates RANKLinduced NF-κB activation, as well as degradation of the NOX1 and NOX2 proteins, which are required for ROS generation. Based on our observations, we present NRROS as a novel negative regulator of RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Negative regulator of reactive oxygen species (NRROS) is known to repress ROS generation in phagocytes. In this study, we examined the roles of NRROS in both osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Our results demonstrate that NRROS negatively regulates the differentiation of osteoclasts, but not osteoblasts. Further, overexpression of NRROS in osteoclast precursor cells attenuates RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. Conversely, osteoclast differentiation is enhanced upon siRNA-mediated knockdown of NRROS. Additionally, NRROS attenuates RANKL-induced NF-kappa B activation, as well as degradation of the NOX1 and NOX2 proteins, which are required for ROS generation. Based on our observations, we present NRROS as a novel negative regulator of RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Molecules and Cells
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 2 (Mst2) plays a central role in the Hippo pathway, controlling cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis during development. However, the roles of Mst2 in osteoclast and osteoblast development are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that mice deficient in Mst2 exhibit osteoporotic phenotypes with increased numbers of osteoclasts and decreased numbers of osteoblasts as shown by micro-computed tomography (μCT) and histomorphometric analyses. Osteoclast precursors lacking Mst2 exhibit increased osteoclastogenesis and Nfatc1, Acp5, and Oscar expression in response to RANKL exposure. Conversely, Mst2 overexpression in osteoclast precursors leads to the inhibition of RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. Osteoblast precursors deficient in Mst2 exhibit attenuated osteoblast differentiation and function by downregulating the expression of Runx2, Alpl, Ibsp, and Bglap. Conversely, ectopic expression of Mst2 in osteoblast precursors increases osteoblastogenesis. Finally, we demonstrate that the NF-κB pathway is activated by Mst2 deficiency during osteoclast and osteoblast development. Our findings suggest that Mst2 is involved in bone homeostasis, functioning as a reciprocal regulator of osteoclast and osteoblast differentiation through the NF-κB pathway. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoclasts are unique cells responsible for the resorption of bone matrix. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the regulation of a wide range of physiological processes. Here, we examined the role of miR-26a in RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. The expression of miR-26a was upregulated by RANKL at the late stage of osteoclastogenesis. Ectopic expression of an miR-26a mimic in osteoclast precursor cells attenuated osteoclast formation, actin-ring formation, and bone resorption by suppressing the expression of connective tissue growth factor/CCN family 2 (CTGF/CCN2), which can promote osteoclast formation via upregulation of dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP). On the other hand, overexpression of miR-26a inhibitor enhanced RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and function as well as CTGF expression. In addition, the inhibitory effect of miR-26a on osteoclast formation and function was prevented by treatment with recombinant CTGF. Collectively, our results suggest that miR-26a modulates osteoclast formation and function through the regulation of CTGF.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Molecules and Cells
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoclasts are unique cells that degrade the bone matrix. These large multinucleated cells differentiate from the monocyte/macrophage lineage upon stimulation by two essential cytokines, macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL). Activation of transcription factors such as microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF), c-Fos, NF-κB, and nuclear factor-activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) is required for sufficient osteoclast differentiation. In particular, NFATc1 plays the role of a master transcription regulator of osteoclast differentiation. To date, several mechanisms, including transcription, methylation, ubiquitination, acetylation, and non-coding RNAs, have been shown to regulate expression and activation of NFATc1. In this review, we have summarized the various mechanisms that control NFATc1 regulation during osteoclast differentiation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells contribute to protection against certain microorganism infections and play an important role in mucosal immunity. However, the role of MAIT cells remains enigmatic in autoimmune diseases. In this study, we examined the level and function of MAIT cells in patients with rheumatic diseases. MAIT cell, cytokine, and programmed death-1 (PD-1) levels were measured by flow cytometry. Circulating MAIT cell levels were significantly reduced in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis patients. In particular, this MAIT cell deficiency was more prominent in CD8(+) and double-negative T cell subsets, and significantly correlated with disease activity, such as SLE disease activity index and 28-joint disease activity score. Interestingly, MAIT cell frequency was significantly correlated with NKT cell frequency in SLE patients. IFN-γ production in MAIT cells was impaired in SLE patients, which was due to an intrinsic defect in the Ca(2+)/calcineurin/NFAT1 signaling pathway. In SLE patients, MAIT cells were poorly activated by α-galactosylceramide-stimulated NKT cells, thereby showing the dysfunction between MAIT cells and NKT cells. Notably, an elevated expression of PD-1 in MAIT cells and NKT cells was associated with SLE. In rheumatoid arthritis patients, MAIT cell levels were significantly higher in synovial fluid than in peripheral blood. Our study primarily demonstrates that MAIT cells are numerically and functionally deficient in SLE. In addition, we report a novel finding that this MAIT cell deficiency is associated with NKT cell deficiency and elevated PD-1 expression. These abnormalities possibly contribute to dysregulated mucosal immunity in SLE.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoblasts not only control bone formation but also support osteoclast differentiation. Here we show the involvement of Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) in the differentiation of osteoclasts and osteoblasts. KLF4 was down-regulated by 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) in osteoblasts. Overexpression of KLF4 in osteoblasts attenuated 1,25(OH)2D3-induced osteoclast differentiation in co-culture of mouse bone marrow cells and osteoblasts through the down-regulation of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) expression. Direct binding of KLF4 to the RANKL promoter repressed 1,25(OH)2D3-induced RANKL expression by preventing vitamin D receptor from binding to the RANKL promoter region. In contrast, ectopic overexpression of KLF4 in osteoblasts attenuated osteoblast differentiation and mineralization. KLF4 interacted directly with Runx2 and inhibited the expression of its target genes. Moreover, mice with conditional knockout of KLF4 in osteoblasts showed markedly increased bone mass caused by enhanced bone formation despite increased osteoclast activity. Thus, our data suggest that KLF4 controls bone homeostasis by negatively regulating both osteoclast and osteoblast differentiation.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · The Journal of Cell Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoblasts are specialized mesenchymal cells that are responsible for bone formation. In this study, we examine the role of GATA4 in osteoblast differentiation. GATA4 was abundantly expressed in preosteoblast cells and gradually down-regulated during osteoblast differentiation. Overexpression of GATA4 in osteoblastic cells inhibited alkaline phosphatase activity and nodule formation in osteogenic conditioned cell culture system. In addition, overexpression of GATA4 attenuated expression of osteogenic marker genes, including Runx2, alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein, and osteocalcin, all of which are important for osteoblast differentiation and function. Overexpression of GATA4 attenuated Runx2 promoter activity, whereas silencing of GATA4 increased Runx2 induction. We found that GATA4 interacted with Dlx5 and subsequently decreased Dlx5 binding activity to Runx2 promoter region. Our data suggest that GATA4 acts as a negative regulator in osteoblast differentiation by downregulation of Runx2.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous non-coding 21–23 nucleotide RNAs that are involved in post-transcriptional regulation. They control various cellular processes, one of which is tumorigenesis. miRNAs have been implicated in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common primary liver cancer. To find yet-to-be-identified miRNAs associated with HCC tumorigenesis, we resected HCC and adjacent non-tumor liver tissues from patients and excluded liver tissues harboring fibrosis from further analysis. We then carried out miRNA microarray analysis with miRNAs extracted from the tissues. Sixteen miRNAs displayed a significant change in expression levels between non-tumor and HCC liver tissues. To validate the microarray findings, we transfected HEK293 cells with miR-128 alone or miR-128 and plasmid encoding luciferase fused to the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of E2F3, a predicted target of miR-128. As expected, miR-128 downregulated luciferase activities of E2F3 3′UTR fused to luciferase, confirming that E2F3 is a target gene of miR-128. Identification of miRNAs dysregulated in non-cirrhotic HCC will further the understanding of the pathogenesis of non-cirrhotic HCC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells have been reported to play an antimicrobial role in infectious diseases. However, little is known about age- and gender-related changes in circulating MAIT cell level and function in healthy population. The purposes of this study were to examine the level and cytokine production of circulating MAIT cells and their subsets in healthy adults and to investigate potential relationships between clinical parameters and MAIT cell levels or their subset levels. One hundred thirty-three healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. MAIT cells, their subset, and cytokine levels were measured by flow cytometry. Circulating MAIT cell levels were found to vary widely (0.19% to 21.7%) in the study subjects and to be significantly lower in elderly subjects (age, 61-92years) than in young subjects (age, 21-40years) (p<0.0005). No significant difference was found in the circulating MAIT cell levels between male and female subjects. A linear regression analysis revealed that circulating MAIT cell levels declined annually by 3.2% among men and 1.8% among women, respectively. Notably, the proportion of CD4+ MAIT cells increased with age, whereas that of CD8+ MAIT cells decreased with age. In addition, the production of interleukin (IL)-4 by MAIT cells was found to be significantly increased in elderly subjects and the ratio of interferon (IFN)-γ/IL-4 was lower as compared with young subjects, showing a Th1 to Th2 shift in cytokine profile in elderly subjects. Our data suggest that aging is associated with a reduction in circulating MAIT cells, accompanied with alterations in subset composition and cytokine profile.
No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Experimental gerontology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: RANKL induces the formation of osteoclasts, which are responsible for bone resorption. Herein, we investigated the role of SWAP-70-like adapter of T cells (SLAT) in RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. Expression levels of SLAT were reduced during RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. Overexpression of SLAT in BMMs inhibited TRAP-positive multinuclear osteoclast formation and attenuated the expression of NFATc1, which is an important modulator in osteoclastogenesis. Furthermore, silencing of SLAT by RNA interference enhanced osteoclast formation as well as NFATc1 expression. In addition, SLAT was involved in RANKL-induced JNK activation in osteoclasts. Taken together, our data suggest that SLAT acts as a negative modulator of RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis.
No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Molecules and Cells
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the levels and functions of natural killer (NK) and natural killer T (NKT) cells, investigate relationships between NK and NKT cells, and determine the clinical relevance of NKT cell levels in patients with adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD).
Patients with active untreated AOSD (n = 20) and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n = 20) were studied. NK and NKT cell levels were measured by flow cytometry. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cultured in vitro with α-galactosylceramide (αGalCer). NK cytotoxicity against K562 cells and proliferation indices of NKT cells were estimated by flow cytometry.
Percentages and absolute numbers of NKT cells were significantly lower in the peripheral blood of AOSD patients than in that of healthy controls. Proliferative responses of NKT cells to αGalCer were also lower in patients, and this was found to be due to proinflammatory cytokines and NKT cell apoptosis. In addition, NK cytotoxicity was found to be significantly lower in patients than in healthy controls, but NK cell levels were comparable in the 2 groups. Notably, this NKT cell deficiency was found to be correlated with NK cell dysfunction and to reflect active disease status. Furthermore, αGalCer-mediated NK cytotoxicity, showing the interaction between NK and NKT cells, was significantly lower in AOSD patients than in healthy controls.
These findings demonstrate that NK and NKT cell functions are defective in AOSD patients and suggest that these abnormalities contribute to innate immune dysfunction in AOSD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Natural killer T (NKT) cells have been reported to play crucial roles in a variety of diseases, including infectious diseases, autoimmunity, and cancers. Previous studies have reported wide age- and/or sex-related variations in circulating NKT cell levels in healthy subjects, but reported results are discrepant. In this study, the authors examined NKT cell levels in the peripheral blood of healthy Korean subjects and investigated potential relationships between clinical parameters and NKT cells and their subset levels. One hundred and thirty-eight age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. NKT cell and NKT subset levels were measured by flow cytometry. Circulating NKT cell levels were found to vary widely (0.01-5.15%) in the study subjects and to be lower in men than in women (P<0.05). Notably, gender-related differences in NKT cell levels were more prominent in elderly subjects (P<0.05). Furthermore, alterations in NKT subset compositions were found in elderly men, in whom the proportion of CD4+ NKT cells was elevated and that of double-negative NKT cells was reduced. Our data suggest that circulating NKT cells and NKT subset levels are affected by age and gender in the Korean population.
No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Human immunology