[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) facilitate the plant growth and enhance their induced systemic resistance (ISR) against a variety of environmental stresses. In this study, we carried out integrative analyses on the proteome, transcriptome, and metabolome to investigate Arabidopsis root and shoot responses to the well-known PGPR strain Paenibacillus polymyxa (P. polymyxa) E681. Shoot fresh and root dry weights were increased, whereas root length was decreased by treatment with P. polymyxa E681. 2-DE approach in conjunction with MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis revealed a total of 41 (17 spots in root, 24 spots in shoot) that were differentially expressed in response to P. polymyxa E681. Biological process- and molecular function-based bioinformatics analysis resulted in their classification into seven different protein groups. Of these, 36 proteins including amino acid metabolism, antioxidant, defense and stress response, photosynthesis, and plant hormone-related proteins were up-regulated, whereas five proteins including three carbohydrate metabolism- and one amino acid metabolism-related, and one unknown protein were down-regulated, respectively. A good correlation was observed between protein and transcript abundances for the 12 differentially expressed proteins during interactions as determined by qPCR analysis. Metabolite analysis using LC-MS/MS revealed highly increased levels of tryptophan, indole-3-acetonitrile (IAN), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and camalexin in the treated plants. Arabidopsis plant inoculated P. polymyxa E681 also showed resistance to Botrytis cinerea infection. Taken together these results suggest that P. polymyxa E681 may promote plant growth by induced metabolism and activation of defense-related proteins against fungal pathogen.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rhizoctonia solani (R. solani), a soil-borne necrotrophic pathogen, causes various plant diseases. Rhizoctonia solani is a mitosporic fungus, the sclerotium of which is the primary inoculum and ensures survival of the fungus during the offseason of the host crop. Since the fungus does not produce any asexual or sexual spores, understanding the biology of sclerotia is important to examine pathogen ecology and develop more efficient methods for crop protection. Here, one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (1-DE and 2-DE, respectively) were used to examine protein regulation during the maturation of fungal sclerotia. A total of 75 proteins (20 proteins from 1-DE using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-time of flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) and 55 proteins from 2-DE using MALDI-TOF MS or MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) were differentially expressed during sclerotial maturation. The identified proteins were classified into ten categories based on their biological functions, including genetic information processing, carbohydrate metabolism, cell defense, amino acid metabolism, nucleotide metabolism, cellular processes, pathogenicity and mycotoxin production, and hypothetical or unknown functions. Interestingly, two vacuole function-related proteins were highly up-regulated throughout sclerotial maturation, which was confirmed at the transcript level by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. These findings contribute to our understanding of the biology of R. solani sclerotia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phytocystatins are proteinaceous inhibitors of cysteine proteases. They have been implicated in the regulation of plant protein turnover and in defense against pathogens and insects. Here, we have characterized an Arabidopsis phytocystatin family gene, Arabidopsis thaliana
phytocystatin 4 (AtCYS4). AtCYS4 was induced by heat stress. The heat shock tolerance of AtCYS4-overexpressing transgenic plants was greater than that of wild-type and cys4 knock-down plants, as measured by fresh weight and root length. Although no heat shock elements were identified in the 5′-flanking region of the AtCYS4 gene, canonical ABA-responsive elements (ABREs) and dehydration-responsive elements (DREs) were found. Transient promoter activity measurements showed that AtCYS4 expression was up-regulated in unstressed protoplasts by co-expression of DRE-binding factor 2s (DREB2s), especially by DREB2C, but not by bZIP transcription factors that bind to ABREs (ABFs, ABI5 and AREBs). DREB2C bound to and activated transcription from the two DREs on the AtCYS4 promoter although some preference was observed for the GCCGAC DRE element over the ACCGAC element. AtCYS4 transcript and protein levels were elevated in transgenic DREB2C overexpression lines with corresponding decline of endogenous cysteine peptidase activity. We propose that AtCYS4 functions in thermotolerance under the control of the DREB2C cascade.
No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Transgenic Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: C(2)H(2)-type zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) play diverse roles in plant response to abiotic stresses. ZAT6, an Arabidopsis C(2)H(2)-type ZFP, has been reported to regulate root development and nutrient stress responses. However, its roles in regulation of abiotic stress response are incompletely known. Here, we demonstrate that salt or osmotic stress triggers a strong increase in ZAT6 expression in leaves. Transgenic plants overexpressing ZAT6 showed improved seed germination under salt and osmotic stress. Intriguingly, ZAT6 interacts with a stress-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinase MPK6 in vitro and in planta. ZAT6 is phosphorylated by both recombinant and plant endogenous MPK6. Serine 8 and serine 223 in ZAT6 were identified as the sites phosphorylated by MPK6. In contrast to wild-type form of ZAT6, overexpression of phosphorylation mutant form did not display significantly enhanced salt and osmotic stress tolerance. Altogether, our results suggest that phosphorylation by MPK6 is required for the functional role of ZAT6 in seed germination under salt and osmotic stress.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The C(2)H(2)-type zinc finger proteins play crucial roles in various developmental processes and environmental stress tolerance in plants. Zinc Finger of Arabidopsis Thaliana 11 (ZAT11), has been previously reported as an active repressor. We show here that GFP-tagged ZAT11 is targeted to the nucleus. Transgenic plants overexpressing ZAT11 show enhanced primary root growth. Analysis of β-glucuronidase (GUS) expression in transgenic plants expressing a ZAT11 promoter-GUS reporter chimeric gene confirmed that ZAT11 was expressed in roots and its expression was particularly high in root tips. ZAT11-overexpressing transgenic plants were specifically sensitive to nickel ions (Ni(2+)). Transcript levels of a tonoplast-localized Ni(2+) transporter gene, IREG2, were approximately 2-fold decreased in transgenic plants overexpressing ZAT11 and this correlated with a reduced capacity for Ni(2+) accumulation in their roots. Altogether, our results reveal that ZAT11 functions as a positive regulator of primary root growth but a negative regulator of Ni(2+) tolerance, suggesting a novel biological function of Arabidopsis C(2)H(2)-type zinc finger protein in metal detoxification.
Preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Environmental factors greatly influence the growth, development, and even genetic characteristics of plants. The mechanisms by which sound influences plant growth, however, remain obscure. Previously, our group reported that several genes were differentially regulated by specific frequenciesof sound treatmentusing a sound-treated subtractive library. In this study, we used a proteomic approach to investigate plant responses to sound waves in Arabidopsis. The plants were exposed to 250-Hz or 500-Hz sound waves, and total proteins were extracted from leaves 8 h and 24 h after treatment. Proteins extracted from leaves were subjected to 2-DE analysis. Thirty-eight spots were found to be differentially regulated in response to sound waves and were identified using MALDI-TOF MS and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. The functions of the identified proteins were classified into photosynthesis, stress and defense, nitrogen metabolism, and carbohydrate metabolism. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the analysis of protein changes in response to sound waves in Arabidopsis leaves. These findings provide a better understanding of the molecular basis of responses to sound waves in Arabidopsis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) is known for its role in the activation of plant defense responses. To examine the involvement and mode of action of NO in plant defense responses, we introduced calmodulin-dependent mammalian neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), which controls the CaMV35S promoter, into wild-type and NahG tobacco plants. Constitutive expression of nNOS led to NO production and triggered spontaneous induction of leaf lesions. Transgenic plants accumulated high amounts of H(2)O(2), with catalase activity lower than that in the wild type. nNOS transgenic plants contained high levels of salicylic acid (SA), and they induced an array of SA-, jasmonic acid (JA)-, and/or ethylene (ET)-related genes. Consequently, NahG co-expression blocked the induction of systemic acquired resistance (SAR)-associated genes in transgenic plants, implying SA is involved in NO-mediated induction of SAR genes. The transgenic plants exhibited enhanced resistance to a spectrum of pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Our results suggest a highly ranked regulatory role for NO in SA-, JA-, and/or ET-dependent pathways that lead to disease resistance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), a major plant auxin, is produced in both tryptophan-dependent and tryptophan-independent pathways. A major pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana generates IAA in two reactions from tryptophan. Step one converts tryptophan to indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPA) by tryptophan aminotransferases followed by a rate-limiting step converting IPA to IAA catalyzed by YUCCA proteins. We identified eight putative StYUC (Solanum tuberosum YUCCA) genes whose deduced amino acid sequences share 50 % to 70 % identity with those of Arabidopsis YUCCA proteins. All include canonical, conserved YUCCA sequences: FATGY motif, FMO signature sequence, and FAD-binding and NADP-binding sequences. In addition, five genes were found with ~50% amino acid sequence identity to Arabidopsis tryptophan aminotransferases. Transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum cv Jowon) constitutively overexpressing Arabidopsis AtYUC6 displayed high auxin phenotypes such as narrow downward curled leaves, increased height, erect stature and longevity. Transgenic potato plants overexpressing AtYUC6 showed enhanced drought tolerance based on reduced water loss. The phenotype was correlated with reduced levels of reactive oxygen species in leaves. The results suggest a functional YUCCA pathway of auxin biosynthesis in potato that may be exploited to alter plant responses to the environment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transcriptional repression of pathogen defense-related genes is essential for plant growth and development. Several proteins are known to be involved in the transcriptional regulation of plant defense responses. However, mechanisms by which expression of defense-related genes are regulated by repressor proteins are poorly characterized. Here, we describe the in planta function of CBNAC, a calmodulin-regulated NAC transcriptional repressor in Arabidopsis. A T-DNA insertional mutant (cbnac1) displayed enhanced resistance to a virulent strain of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae DC3000 (PstDC3000), whereas resistance was reduced in transgenic CBNAC overexpression lines. The observed changes in disease resistance were correlated with alterations in pathogenesis-related protein 1 (PR1) gene expression. CBNAC bound directly to the PR1 promoter. SNI1 (suppressor of nonexpressor of PR genes1, inducible 1) was identified as a CBNAC-binding protein. Basal resistance to PstDC3000 and derepression of PR1 expression was greater in the cbnac1 sni1 double mutant than in either cbnac1 or sni1 mutants. SNI1 enhanced binding of CBNAC to its cognate PR1 promoter element. CBNAC and SNI1 are hypothesized to work as repressor proteins in the cooperative suppression of plant basal defense.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · Nucleic Acids Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The phytohormones abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) have antagonistic roles in the control of seed germination and seedling development. We report here that the transcriptional regulator MYB44 has a role in the control of seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana. High levels of the MYB44 transcript are found in dry seeds but the transcript levels decrease during germination. The decrease in transcript level during germination is inhibited by the GA biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol (PAC). MYB44 is phosphorylated by both recombinant and native forms of MPK3 and MPK6 at Ser(53) and Ser(145). Transgenic overexpression of MYB44 results in increased sensitivity of seed germination to ABA or PAC treatment. The PAC-insensitive germination phenotype of the myb44 mutant is complemented by overexpression of wild type MYB44 but not by overexpression of a mutant protein that lacks the MPK-target serines indicating that phosphorylation of MYB44 by MPKs is required for its biological function.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Calmodulin (CaM), a key Ca(2+) sensor, regulates diverse cellular processes by modulating the activity of a variety of enzymes and proteins. However, little is known about the biological function of CaM in plant development. In this study, an ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 (AS1) transcription factor was isolated as a CaM-binding protein. AS1 contains two putative CaM-binding domains (CaMBDs) at the N-terminus. Using domain mapping analysis, both predicted domains were identified as authentic Ca(2+) -dependent CaMBDs. We identified three hydrophobic amino acid residues for CaM binding, Trp(49) in CaMBDI, and Trp(81) and Phe(103) in CaMBDII. The interactions of AS1 with CaM were verified in yeast and plant cells. Based on electrophoretic mobility shift assays, CaM inhibited the DNA-binding activity of the AS1/AS2 complex to two cis-regulatory motifs in the KNAT1 promoter. Furthermore, CaM relieved the suppression of KNAT1 transcription by AS1 not only in transient expression assays of protoplasts but also by the overexpression of a CaM-binding negative form of AS1 in as1 mutant plant. Our study suggests that CaM, a calcium sensor, can be involved in the transcriptional control of meristem cell-specific genes by the inhibition of AS1 under the condition of higher levels of Ca(2+) in plants.
No preview · Article · May 2012 · Plant Cell and Environment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MPKs) are involved in a number of signaling pathways that control plant development and stress tolerance via the phosphorylation of target molecules. However, so far only a limited number of target molecules have been identified. Here, we provide evidence that MYB41 represents a new target of MPK6. MYB41 interacts with MPK6 not only in vitro but also in planta. MYB41 was phosphorylated by recombinant MPK6 as well as by plant MPK6. Ser(251) in MYB41 was identified as the site phosphorylated by MPK6. The phosphorylation of MYB41 by MPK6 enhanced its DNA binding to the promoter of a LTP gene. Interestingly, transgenic plants over-expressing MYB41(WT) showed enhanced salt tolerance, whereas transgenic plants over-expressing MYB41(S251A) showed decreased salt tolerance during seed germination and initial root growth. These results indicate that the phosphorylation of MYB41 by MPK6 is required for the biological function of MYB41 in salt tolerance.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cellular Na(+)/K(+) ratio is a crucial parameter determining plant salinity stress resistance. We tested the function of plasma membrane Na(+)/K(+) cotransporters in the High-affinity K(+) Transporter (HKT) family from the halophytic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) relative Thellungiella salsuginea. T. salsuginea contains at least two HKT genes. TsHKT1;1 is expressed at very low levels, while the abundant TsHKT1;2 is transcriptionally strongly up-regulated by salt stress. TsHKT-based RNA interference in T. salsuginea resulted in Na(+) sensitivity and K(+) deficiency. The athkt1 mutant lines overexpressing TsHKT1;2 proved less sensitive to Na(+) and showed less K(+) deficiency than lines overexpressing AtHKT1. TsHKT1;2 ectopically expressed in yeast mutants lacking Na(+) or K(+) transporters revealed strong K(+) transporter activity and selectivity for K(+) over Na(+). Altering two amino acid residues in TsHKT1;2 to mimic the AtHKT1 sequence resulted in enhanced sodium uptake and loss of the TsHKT1;2 intrinsic K(+) transporter activity. We consider the maintenance of K(+) uptake through TsHKT1;2 under salt stress an important component supporting the halophytic lifestyle of T. salsuginea.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plants have developed various regulatory pathways to adapt to environmental stresses. In this study, we identified Arabidopsis MKKK20 as a regulator in the response to osmotic stress. mkkk20 mutants were found to be sensitive to high concentration of salt and showed higher water loss rates than wild-type (WT) plants under dehydration conditions. In addition, mkkk20 mutants showed higher accumulation of superoxide, a reactive oxygen species (ROS), compared to WT plants under high salt condition. In contrast, transgenic plants overexpressing MKKK20 displayed tolerance to salt stress. MKKK20 transcripts were increased by the treatments with NaCl, mannitol, MV, sorbitol, and cold, suggesting that MKKK20 is involved in the response to osmotic, ROS, and cold stresses. In-gel kinase assay showed that MKKK20 regulates the activity of MPK6 under NaCl, cold, and H(2)O(2) treatments. Taken together, our results suggest that MKKK20 might be involved in the response to various abiotic stresses, especially osmotic stress, through its regulation of MPK6 activity.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Plant Cell Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs or MPKs) are one of the most important and conserved signaling molecules in plants. MPKs can directly modulate gene expression by the phosphorylation of transcription factors. However, only a few target substrates of MPKs have been isolated. Here, we identified a C(2)H(2)-type zinc finger transcription factor from Arabidopsis, ZAT10, as a substrate of MPKs. Using in vitro and in vivo protein-protein interaction analyses, we demonstrated that ZAT10 directly interacted with MPK3 and MPK6. ZAT10 was phosphorylated by recombinant Arabidopsis MPK3 and MPK6 in a kinase assay. Furthermore, ZAT10 was also phosphorylated by native MPK3 and MPK6 prepared from Arabidopsis plants in an in-gel kinase assay. Mass spectrometry analysis of phosphopeptides was used to determine two MPK phosphorylation sites in ZAT10. These sites were verified by site-directed mutagenesis and in vitro kinase assays.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Plant Cell Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our recent work demonstrated that chitin treatment modulated the expression of 118 transcription factor (TF) genes in Arabidopsis. To investigate the potential roles of these TF in chitin signaling and plant defense, we initiated an interaction study among these TF proteins, as well as two chitin-activated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MPK3 and MPK6), using a yeast two-hybrid system. This study revealed interactions among the following proteins: three ethylene-responsive element-binding factors (ERF), five WRKY transcription factors, one scarecrow-like (SCL), and the two MPK, in addition to many other interactions, reflecting a complex TF interaction network. Most of these interactions were subsequently validated by other methods, such as pull-down and in planta bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays. The key node ERF5 was shown to interact with multiple proteins in the network, such as ERF6, ERF8, and SCL13, as well as MPK3 and MPK6. Interestingly, ERF5 appeared to negatively regulate chitin signaling and plant defense against the fungal pathogen Alternaria brassicicola and positively regulate salicylic acid signaling and plant defense against the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Therefore, ERF5 may play an important role in plant innate immunity, likely through coordinating chitin and other defense pathways in plants in response to different pathogens.