Janet E Foley

University of California, Davis, Davis, California, United States

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Publications (136)299.87 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objective—To determine incidence rates (IRs) and potential risk factors for owner-reported adverse events (AEs) following vaccination of dogs that did or did not receive a Leptospira vaccine. Design—Observational, retrospective cohort study. Animals—130,557 dogs. Procedures—Electronic records of mobile veterinary clinics from June 2012 to March 2013 were searched to identify dogs that received ≥ 1 vaccine in a given visit. Signalment data, vaccinations received, medications administered, and owner-reported clinical signs consistent with AEs that developed ≤ 5 days after vaccination were recorded. Associations between potential risk factors and owner-reported AEs were evaluated by logistic regression analysis. Results—The IR/10,000 dogs for owner-reported postvaccination AEs was 26.3 (95% CI, 23.6 to 29.2), whereas that for dogs that received a Leptospira vaccine alone or with other vaccines was 53.0 (95% CI, 42.8 to 64.9). Significant factors for increasing or decreasing risk of AEs were as follows: receiving a Leptospira vaccine (adjusted OR, 2.13), age at vaccination 1 to < 7 or ≥ 7 years (vs a referent of < 6 months; adjusted OR, 0.54 and 0.44, respectively), and weight 13.6 to < 22.7 kg (30 to < 50 lb) and 22.7 to < 45.5 kg (50 to 100 lb [vs a referent of < 4.5 kg {10 lb}]; adjusted OR, 0.48 and 0.55, respectively). Hypersensitivity reactions were rare (IR, 6.5/10,000 dogs), and IRs for these events did not differ significantly between dogs vaccinated with or without a Leptospira component. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The overall IR for owner-reported postvaccination AEs was low. Results suggested vaccination against Leptospira (an organism that can cause fatal disease) is safe in the majority of cases, slightly increasing the risk of owner-reported AEs but not associated with a significant increase in hypersensitivity reactions, compared with other vaccinations administered. © 2015, American Veterinary Medical Association. All rights Reserved.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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    ABSTRACT: Wildlife populations of conservation concern are limited in distribution, population size and persistence by various factors, including mortality. The fisher (Pekania pennanti), a North American mid-sized carnivore whose range in the western Pacific United States has retracted considerably in the past century, was proposed for threatened status protection in late 2014 under the United States Endangered Species Act by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service in its West Coast Distinct Population Segment. We investigated mortality in 167 fishers from two genetically and geographically distinct sub-populations in California within this West Coast Distinct Population Segment using a combination of gross necropsy, histology, toxicology and molecular methods. Overall, predation (70%), natural disease (16%), toxicant poisoning (10%) and, less commonly, vehicular strike (2%) and other anthropogenic causes (2%) were causes of mortality observed. We documented both an increase in mortality to (57% increase) and exposure (6%) from pesticides in fishers in just the past three years, highlighting further that toxicants from marijuana cultivation still pose a threat. Additionally, exposure to multiple rodenticides significantly increased the likelihood of mortality from rodenticide poisoning. Poisoning was significantly more common in male than female fishers and was 7 times more likely than disease to kill males. Based on necropsy findings, suspected causes of mortality based on field evidence alone tended to underestimate the frequency of disease-related mortalities. This study is the first comprehensive investigation of mortality causes of fishers and provides essential information to assist in the conservation of this species.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction and objective. Infectious and parasitic diseases transmitted by ticks, such as Lyme diseases, granulocytic anaplasmosis and piroplasmosis, have been frequently reported in Europe, with increasing attention to them as an emerging zoonotic problem. The presented study was performed to assess the distribution and the density of questing ticks in three regional parks of Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy, and to seek molecular evidence of potential human pathogens in tick populations. Materials and Methods. In the period April-October 2010, 8,139 questing ticks were collected: 6,734 larvae, 1,344 nymphs and only a few adults – 28 females and 33 males. The abundance of Ixodes ricinus questing ticks was compared among different sampling sites and related to microclimate parameters. 1,544 out of 8,139 ticks were examined for the presence of pathogens: PCR was used to detect piroplasms DNA and Real time Taqman PCR for Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Results. The predominant species was I. ricinus (overall abundance 1,075.9/100 m2); more rarely, Dermacentor marginatus (n = 37 – 0.45%), Scaphixodes frontalis (n = 13 – 0.16%), Hyalomma spp. (n = 6 – 0.07%) and Ixodes acuminatus (n = 3 – 0.04%) were also found. 28 out of 324 (8.6%) samples of ticks were PCR-positive for piroplasm DNA. 11 amplicons of 18S rRNA gene were identical to each other and had 100% identity with Babesia EU1 (Babesia venatorum) using BLAST analysis. Real time Taqman PCR gave positive results for A. phagocytophilum in 23 out of 292 samples (7.9%), and for B. burgdorferi s.l. in 78 out of 292 samples (26.7%). I. ricinus was the only species found positive for pathogens by molecular analysis; 16 tick samples were co-infected with at least 2 pathogens. Discussion. The peak of nymph presence was in May, and the higher prevalence of pathogens occurred in April-June, most often in nymphs; therefore, spring season could represent the higher risk period for the transmission of pathogens. These data could provide guidelines for the preventions of tick-trasmitted diseases in this region. © 2015, Institute of Agricultural Medicine. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Annals of agricultural and environmental medicine: AAEM
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    ABSTRACT: American black bears (Ursus americanus) are common, widely distributed, and broad-ranging omnivorous mammals in northern California forests. Bears may be susceptible to pathogens infecting both domestic animals and humans. Monitoring bear populations, particularly in changing ecosystems, is important to understanding ecological features that could affect bear population health and influence the likelihood that bears may cause adverse impacts on humans. In all, 321 bears were captured between May, 2001, and October, 2003, and blood samples were collected and tested for multiple zoonotic and vector-borne diseases. We found a PCR prevalence of 10% for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and a seroprevalence of 28% for Toxoplasma gondii, 26% for Borrelia burgdorferi, 26% for A. phagocytophilum, 8% for Trichinella spiralis, 8% for Francisella tularensis and 1% for Yersinia pestis. In addition, we tested bears for pathogens of domestic dogs and found a seroprevalence of 15% for canine distemper virus and 0.6% for canine parvovirus. Our findings show that black bears can become infected with pathogens that are an important public health concern, as well as pathogens that can affect both domestic animals and other wildlife species.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Vector borne and zoonotic diseases (Larchmont, N.Y.)
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    ABSTRACT: The global spread of the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has led to widespread extirpation of amphibian populations. During an intervention aimed at stabilizing at-risk populations, we treated wild-caught Cascades frogs Rana cascadae with the antifungal drug itraconazole. In fall 2012, we collected 60 recently metamorphosed R. cascadae from 1 of the 11 remnant populations in the Cascades Mountains (CA, USA). Of these, 30 randomly selected frogs were treated with itraconazole and the other 30 frogs served as experimental controls; all were released at the capture site. Bd prevalence was low at the time of treatment and did not differ between treated frogs and controls immediately following treatment. Following release, Bd prevalence gradually increased in controls but not in treated frogs, with noticeable (but still non-significant) differences 3 wk after treatment (27% [4/15] vs. 0% [0/13]) and strong differences 5 wk after treatment (67% [8/12] vs. 13% [1/8]). We did not detect any differences in Bd prevalence and load between experimental controls and untreated wild frogs during this time period. In spring 2013, we recaptured 7 treated frogs but none of the experimental control frogs, suggesting that over-winter survival was higher for treated frogs. The itraconazole treatment did appear to reduce growth rates: treated frogs weighed 22% less than control frogs 3 wk after treatment (0.7 vs. 0.9 g) and were 9% shorter than control frogs 5 wk after treatment (18.4 vs. 20.2 mm). However, for critically small populations, increased survival of the most at-risk life stage could prevent or delay extinction. Our results show that itraconazole treatment can be effective against Bd infection in wild amphibians, and therefore the beneficial effects on survivorship may outweigh the detrimental effects on growth.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
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    ABSTRACT: The Companion Animal Parasite Council hosted a meeting to identify quantifiable factors that can influence the prevalence of tick-borne disease agents among dogs in North America. This report summarizes the approach used and the factors identified for further analysis with mathematical models of canine exposure to tick-borne pathogens.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Parasites & Vectors
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the involvement of birds in the ecology of the western black-legged tick, Ixodes pacificus, and its associated zoonotic bacteria, Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, at two interior coast-range study sites in northern California. Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis (GA), and B. burgdorferi s.s., the agent of Lyme disease (LD), are tick-borne pathogens that are well established in California. We screened blood and ticks from 349 individual birds in 48 species collected in 2011 and 2012 using pathogen-specific PCR. A total of 617 immature I. pacificus was collected with almost three times as many larvae than nymphs. There were 7.5 times more I. pacificus at the Napa County site compared to the Yolo County site. Two of 74 (3%) nymphal pools from an Oregon junco (Junco hyemalis) and a hermit thrush (Catharus guttatus) and 4 individual larvae (all from Oregon juncos) were PCR-positive for B. burgdorferi. Blood samples from a golden-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia atricapilla) and a European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) were positive for A. phagocytophilum DNA at very low levels. Birds that forage on ground or bark and nest on the ground, as well as some migratory species, are at an increased risk for acquiring I. pacificus. Our findings show that birds contribute to the ecologies of LD and GA in California by serving as a blood-meal source, feeding and transporting immature I. pacificus, and sometimes as a source of Borrelia infection.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Equine infection with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis can manifest in several forms, including external or internal abscesses. The objective of this study was to phenotype clinical isolates of C. pseudotuberculosis and to investigate the relationship between lesion location and extent of lesions in the animals from which they were collected. One hundred and seventy-one C. pseudotuberculosis biovar equi isolates were collected from horses presenting to the University of California Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital and two other sources in the period between September 1996 and December 2011. Bacterial isolates were grouped on the bases of biochemical characteristics and growth on brain heart infusion agar. Six phenotypes were identified: (1) large colonies that metabolized sucrose (n = 81); (2) large sucrose-negative colonies (n = 47); (3) medium sucrose-positive (n = 20); (4) medium sucrose-negative (n = 11); (5) small sucrose-positive (n = 7), and (6) small sucrose-negative (n = 5). Medical records corresponding to each isolate were accessed from the University's administrative computer system or from the submitting source in order to determine the anatomical site from which the isolate was collected (n = 171), as well as the extent of lesions (n = 164) in the patient. The relationship between phenotype, lesion location and extent of lesions was then investigated statistically. No significant relationship between strain and lesion location or extent of lesions was found. This suggests that phenotypic differences during in vitro culture does not account for external versus internal disease in horses. Further work to characterize strains genotypically and to identify determinants for bacterial virulence should be performed. Importantly, host and environmental factors should also be further investigated.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · The Veterinary Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract From June to October 2010, 48 endangered riparian brush rabbits (Sylvilagus bachmani riparius) were trapped at a captive propagation site in central California with the intention of release into re-established habitats. During prerelease examinations, ticks and blood samples were collected for surveillance for Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Bartonella spp. Ticks were identified, and DNA was extracted for PCR analysis. Serology was performed to detect exposure to Rickettsia spp., B. burgdorferi, and A. phagocytophilum. DNA was extracted from blood samples and analyzed for A. phagocytophilum using PCR assays. Rabbit blood samples were also cultured for Bartonella spp. Haemaphysalis leporispalustris ticks were detected on all rabbits except one. A total of 375 ticks were collected, with 48% of the rabbits (23 rabbits) having a burden ranging from 0 to 5 ticks, 15% (seven rabbits) from 6 to 10 ticks, 25% (12 rabbits) from 11 to 15 ticks, and 12% (six rabbits) with >15 ticks. There was no evidence of B. burgdorferi or R. rickettsii in tick or rabbit samples. There was also no evidence of Bartonella spp. in the rabbit samples. Four tick samples and 14 rabbits were weakly PCR positive for A. phagocytophilum, and six rabbits were antibody positive for A. phagocytophilum. These results suggest that there may be little risk of these tick-borne diseases in riparian brush rabbits or to the people in contact with them.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Journal of wildlife diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Pathogen introduction by invasive species has been speculated to be a cause of declining western pond turtle Emys marmorata populations in California, USA. This study determined the prevalence of Ranavirus spp., Herpesvirus spp., Mycoplasma spp. (via polymerase chain reaction of blood and nasal flush contents), and Salmonella spp. infection (via fecal culture) in native E. marmorata and invasive red-eared sliders Trachemys scripta elegans and compared infection prevalence in E. marmorata populations sympatric with T. scripta elegans to E. marmorata populations that were not sympatric by sampling 145 E. marmorata and 33 T. scripta elegans at 10 study sites throughout California. Mycoplasma spp. were detected in both species: prevalence in E. marmorata was 7.8% in the northern, 9.8% in the central, and 23.3% in the southern California regions. In T. scripta elegans, Mycoplasma spp. were not detected in the northern California region but were detected at 4.5 and 14.3% in the central and southern regions, respectively. All turtles tested negative for Herpesvirus spp. and Ranavirus spp. Enteric bacteria but not Salmonella spp. were isolated from feces. E. marmorata populations that were sympatric with T. scripta elegans did not have increased risk of Mycoplasma spp. infection. For E. marmorata, there was a significant association between Mycoplasma spp. infection and lower body weight and being located in the southern California region. This study is the first of its kind to document pathogen prevalence in native E. marmorata habitats and those sympatric with T. scripta elegans in California.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
  • Jane E. Sykes · Janet E. Foley

    No preview · Article · Aug 2013
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    ABSTRACT: Identifying predators of threatened and endangered species is important for understanding and reducing the impacts of predation. Visible evidence collected from a carcass alone is often insufficient to accurately identify predator species. The DNA from the predator left on the carcass allows for a definitive identification of predator species associated with the carcass, but DNA can be difficult to isolate independently from the prey. We developed field collection and molecular protocols for amplifying canid and felid predator DNA from saliva on fisher (Martes pennanti) carcasses without amplifying fisher DNA itself. We tested the protocol on fisher carcasses suspected of having been killed by a bobcat (Lynx rufus), mountain lion (Puma concolor), coyote (Canis latrans), and domestic dog. We successfully amplified and sequenced DNA from these 4 predator species, confirming predation by them on fishers. We confirmed that these protocols could also identify other felid and canid predators of several other small North American carnivores. © 2013 The Wildlife Society.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Wildlife Society Bulletin
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    ABSTRACT: In the summer and fall of 2010, a series of outdoor-housed rhesus macaques were diagnosed with tularemia. PCR analysis or positive culture confirmed 11 cases, and 9 additional animals with similar clinical signs responded to empiric antibiotic treatment. A serosurvey conducted in the 9 mo after the outbreak found 53% (43 of 81 macaques) seropositivity in the southern outdoor colony, which had an average population of 700 animals. A prospective survey of small mammal reservoirs and arthropod vectors was conducted during the late summer and fall of 2011. PCR analyses of tissues from all 135 mice, 18 ground squirrels, 1 rat, 3 raccoons, 2 cats, and 3 jackrabbits and their fleas were negative for DNA of Francisella tularensis. Conventional PCR evaluation of stored DNA from affected macaques identified the causative organism as F. tularensis subsp. holartica. DNA evaluated from historic cases of tularemia in nonhuman primates confirmed that the organism that infected the colony during the late 1980s likewise was F. tularensis subsp. holartica. The macaque tularemia epizootic of 2010 appears to have been an extreme example of the periodic resurgence of tularemia. No evidence of rodent disease was found in the immediate vicinity during the 2011 interepizootic period. The concurrent widespread seropositivity (53%) and low incidence of clinical disease (2.7%) in 2010 suggests that this strain of Francisella has low pathogenicity in macaques.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Comparative medicine
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    ABSTRACT: The primary challenge to mountain lion population viability in California is habitat loss and fragmentation. These habitat impacts could enhance disease risk by increasing contact with domestic animals and by altering patterns of exposure to other wild felids. We performed a serologic survey for feline pathogens in California mountain lions (Puma concolor) using 490 samples from 45 counties collected from 1990 to 2008. Most mountain lions sampled were killed because of depredation or public safety concerns and 75% were adults. Pathogens detected by serosurvey in sampled mountain lions included feline panleukopenia virus (39.0%), feline calicivirus (33.0%), feline coronavirus (FCoV, 15.1%), feline herpesvirus (13.0%), heartworm (12.4%), feline leukemia virus (5.4%), and canine distemper virus (3%). An outbreak of heartworm exposure occurred from 1995 to 2003 and higher than expected levels of FCoV-antibody-positive mountain lions were observed from 2005 to 2008, with foci in southern Mendocino and eastern Lake counties. We show that the majority of mountain lions were exposed to feline pathogens and may be at risk of illness or fatality, particularly kittens. Combined with other stressors, such as ongoing habitat loss, infectious disease deserves recognition for potential negative impact on mountain lion health and population viability.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Journal of wildlife diseases
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    ABSTRACT: In July 2010, a horse from a rural farm (Farm A) in coastal Northern California was diagnosed with Salmonella Oranienburg infection following referral to a veterinary hospital for colic surgery. Environmental sampling to identify potential sources and persistence of Salmonella on the farm was conducted from August 2010 to March 2011. Salmonella was cultured using standard enrichment and selective plating. Pure colonies were confirmed by biochemical analysis, serotyped and compared by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. A total of 204 clinical and environmental samples at Farm A were analysed, and Salmonella spp. was isolated from six of eight (75%) horses, an asymptomatic pet dog, two of seven (28.6%) water samples from horse troughs, nine of 20 (45%) manure storage pile composites, 16 of 71 (22.5%) wild turkey faeces and four of 39 (10.3%) soil samples from the family's edible home garden. Well water and garden vegetable samples and horse faecal samples from a neighbouring ranch were negative. S. Oranienburg with a PFGE pattern indistinguishable from the horse clinical strain was found in all positive sample types on Farm A. The investigation illustrates the potential for widespread dissemination of Salmonella in a farm environment following equine infections. We speculate that a recent surge in the wild turkey population on the property could have introduced S. Oranienburg into the herd, although we cannot rule out the possibility wild turkeys were exposed on the farm or to other potential sources of Salmonella. Findings from the investigation indicated that raw horse manure applied as fertilizer was the most likely source of garden soil contamination. Viable S. Oranienburg persisted in garden soil for an estimated 210 days, which exceeds the 120-day standard between application and harvest currently required by the National Organic Program. The study underscores the need to educate the public about potential food safety hazards associated with using raw animal manure to fertilize edible home gardens.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · Zoonoses and Public Health
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and phylogenetic characterisation of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in ticks in three parks of the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy, an area in which no survey of this agent had previously been conducted. A total of 360 tick samples were analysed; 292 were sourced from the environment and 68 from animals and humans. Real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that 33 tick samples (9.2%) were positive for A. phagocytophilum. Ixodes ricinus was the only species found positive from the samples retrieved from the environment and was the most commonly infected among ticks removed from hosts. Sequence analysis of the 23S-5S rRNA gene performed on 23 samples revealed six variant sequences that differed by only a few nucleotides when compared to the GenBank sequences from humans, horse and small mammals. Msp4 gene sequences obtained from 7 samples were compared to those described in ruminants, especially roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and goat isolates from different countries. The results of this study provided evidence of the circulation of A. phagocytophilum in the sites studied and indicated the possible involvement of wild ruminants. Additional studies that extend the sampling areas, or cover different sites, would contribute to a better understanding of the ecology and disease dynamics of A. phagocytophilum in northern Italy and would provide valuable information on zoonotic risks.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Veterinaria italiana
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Sera collected from 442 mountain lions in 48 California counties between the years of 1987 and 2010 were tested using immunofluorescence assays and agglutination tests for the presence of antibodies reactive to Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, Bartonella henselae, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum antigens. Data were analyzed for spatial and temporal trends in seropositivity. Seroprevalences for B. burgdorferi (19.9%) and B. henselae (37.1%) were relatively high, with the highest exposure in the Central Coast region for B. henselae. B. henselae DNA amplified in mountain lion samples was genetically similar to human-derived Houston-1 and domestic cat-derived U4 B. henselae strains at the gltA and ftsZ loci. The statewide seroprevalences of Y. pestis (1.4%), F. tularensis (1.4%), and A. phagocytophilum (5.9%), were comparatively low. Sera from Y. pestis- and F. tularensis-seropositive mountain lions were primarily collected in the Eastern and Western Sierra Nevada, and samples reactive to Y. pestis antigen were collected exclusively from adult females. Adult age (≥2 years) was a risk factor for B. burgdorferi exposure. Over 70% of tested animals were killed on depredation permits, and therefore were active near areas with livestock and human residential communities. Surveillance of mountain lions for these bacterial vector-borne and zoonotic agents may be informative to public health authorities, and the data are useful for detecting enzootic and peridomestic pathogen transmission patterns, particularly in combination with molecular characterization of the infecting organisms.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Vector borne and zoonotic diseases (Larchmont, N.Y.)
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate disease progression in sheep experimentally inoculated with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and determine the Anaplasma spp seroprevalence in sheep in free-ranging flocks in the Sierra Nevada foothills and Oregon Coast Range. 10 mature ewes seronegative for Anaplasma spp and 251 sheep from 8 flocks. 10 ewes received 1 of 3 treatments: A phagocytophilum Webster strain (n = 4), A phagocytophilum MRK strain (4), or human promyelocytic leukemia cells (control treatment [2]). Sheep were monitored for signs of clinical disease, and blood samples were obtained for serologic and PCR assay evaluation intermittently for 48 days. From a subsample of sheep from each of 8 free-ranging flocks, blood samples were obtained to determine Anaplasma spp seroprevalence. Sheep inoculated with A phagocytophilum developed subclinical or mild disease, whereas sheep inoculated with the control treatment did not develop any signs of disease. Only 2 ewes seroconverted; both had received the MRK strain. Anaplasma-specific DNA was detected in blood samples from 1 sheep in the Webster strain-inoculated group and 3 sheep in the MRK strain-inoculated group. Sheep seropositive for Anaplasma spp were detected in 5 of 8 flocks, and flocks in the Sierra Nevada foothills had higher within-flock seroprevalence (22%) than did flocks in the Oregon Coast Range (6.4%). Infection with A phagocytophilum in mature sheep generally resulted in subclinical disease. Higher Anaplasma spp seroprevalence in sheep in the Sierra Nevada foothills corresponded to the geographic distribution of anaplasmosis reported for dogs, horses, and humans.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · American Journal of Veterinary Research
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    ABSTRACT: Urban and agricultural land use may increase the risk of disease transmission among wildlife, domestic animals, and humans as we share ever-shrinking and fragmented habitat. American badgers (Taxidae taxus), a species of special concern in California, USA, live in proximity to urban development and often share habitat with livestock and small peridomestic mammals. As such, they may be susceptible to pathogens commonly transmitted at this interface and to anticoagulant rodenticides used to control nuisance wildlife on agricultural lands. We evaluated free-ranging badgers in California for exposure to pathogens and anticoagulant rodenticides that pose a risk to wildlife, domestic animals, or public health. We found serologic evidence of badger exposure to Francisella tularensis, Toxoplasma gondii, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, canine distemper virus, and three Bartonella species: B. henselae, B. clarridgeiae, and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. Badger tissues contained anticoagulant rodenticides brodifacoum and bromadiolone, commonly used to control periurban rodent pests. These data provide a preliminary investigation of pathogen and toxicant exposure in the wild badger population.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Journal of wildlife diseases
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    ABSTRACT: The fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which causes the disease chytridiomycosis, has been associated with declines and extinctions of montane amphibians worldwide. To gain insight into factors affecting its distribution and prevalence we focus on the amphibian community of the Klamath Mountains in northwest California. The Cascades frog (Rana cascadae), one of the most common amphibians in these mountains, experienced increased mortality as a result of Bd exposure in laboratory trials and has experienced recent, dramatic declines in other parts of California. We surveyed 112 sites in the Klamaths, all of which supported R. cascadae between 1999 and 2002, for amphibians and Bd to (1) determine the distribution of Bd, (2) evaluate changes in the distribution of R. cascadae, and (3) assess associations between potential biotic and abiotic drivers and Bd infection. Bd was widely distributed in the Klamath Mountains – we detected the pathogen at 64% of sites. R. cascadae was found at 79% of sites, and was often infected with Bd. These results suggest that Bd has not caused dramatic declines in R. cascadae in the Klamaths in recent years. Subadult R. cascadae had a higher Bd prevalence than other R. cascadae life stages (subadults: 36%, adults: 25%, metamorphs: 4%, larvae: 1%), and while the probability of infection decreased over the season for adults, it did not for subadults, suggesting that subadults may be more vulnerable to chytridiomycosis than other R. cascadae life stages. Bd prevalence in R. cascadae was highest early in the season at high-elevation sites, which may indicate that populations inhabiting high elevation sites may have a greater risk of being affected by chytridiomycosis. Three other common amphibian species also tested positive for Bd: Pacific chorus frog (Pseudacris regilla), western toad (Anaxyrus boreas), and rough-skinned newt (Taricha granulosa).
    Preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Biological Conservation

Publication Stats

3k Citations
299.87 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1998-2015
    • University of California, Davis
      • • School of Veterinary Medicine
      • • Department of Veterinary Medicine and Epidemiology
      • • Center for Vectorborne Diseases (CVEC)
      • • Center for Companion Animal Health (CCAH)
      Davis, California, United States
  • 2006
    • University of Florida
      Gainesville, Florida, United States
  • 1999
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Medicine
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States