[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
To present outcomes following an operative approach of extracranial carotid artery aneurysm (ECAAs) based on anatomic types and associated kinks.
This study represents retrospective analysis of anatomic type based approach to operative repair of 84 patients with ECAA from 1994 to 2011, 28 (33.3%) with associated kinking. Patients were followed for neurological ischemic events, hematoma, cranial nerve injury, myocardial infarction, neurological, and overall mortality. The results are presented as early, within 30 days after the surgery, and long term during the follow-up.
In the early postoperative period, there were no strokes or mortalities, cranial nerve injury rate was 2.4% while 1 patient had myocardial infarction (1.2%). During the follow-up, 4 patients (4.8%) had stroke, out of which 2 patients died (2.3%), while overall mortality was 4.6%. The average 5-year survival rate was 96 ± 3%.
Excellent outcomes can be obtained with surgical repair of ECAA, which should be tailored to the anatomic types and presence of kinks.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · American journal of surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: He aim of this paper was to investigate the incidence of and the indications for conversion to general anesthesia (GA) in a large single-center series of patients undergoing carotid surgery under cervical plexus block (CPB).
With IRB approval we retrospectively analyzed the medical records of all patients who underwent carotid surgery under CPB from November 2007 to October 2010. Cervical plexus was blocked at both the superficial and deep levels. An intraluminal shunt was inserted in patients who demonstrated signs of inadequate cerebral perfusion upon carotid clamping (CC). Propofol was given to patients reporting pain or discomfort throughout the procedure. The primary outcomes were the number and percentage of conversions to GA as well as the indications for this intervention. The secondary outcome was the incidence of partial cervical block failure, defined as the need for supplemental propofol administration for pain relief during surgery.
In total, 1464 carotid surgical procedures were performed under CPB in 1305 consecutive patients during the investigated period. Conversion to GA was required in 17 (1.2%) patients. The most common reason for conversion to GA was persisting neurological deterioration upon CC and intraluminal shunt insertion, which was recorded in 8/17 (47.1%) procedures. Other indications to convert were systemic toxicity of local anesthetics, pain, general discomfort and restlessness during surgery, and acute myocardial infarction.
Cervical plexus block for carotid surgery is associated with a low rate of conversions to GA. Neurological deterioration upon carotid clamping and local anesthetic toxicity are identified as the most common indications for such intervention.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · The Journal of cardiovascular surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Graft infection is rightly considered one of the severest complications of vascular reconstruction. Treatment is non-standardized and associated with high mortality and morbidity rates. The choice of therapeutic modality depends upon variety of factors. One increasingly used option is in situ replacement of the infected prosthesis with the arterial allograft.
The aim of this prospective nonrandomized study was to evaluate the effectiveness and durability of fresh arterial allograft as in situ substitute for the infected vascular prosthesis.
During period of 2002-2005, 18 patients with the synthetic vascular graft infection underwent partial or complete prosthesis removal and secondary in situ reconstruction using the fresh arterial allograft, preserved under hypothermic conditions in buffered saline solution with an addition of antibiotics.
In 14 male and 4 female patients, mean-aged 62 years, 8 aortic and 10 peripheral arterial infected prostheses were partially or completely replaced with the allograft. Operative mortality was 27.8% and amputation rate was 22.2%. Systemic sepsis at initial presentation and highly virulent nature of causative microorganisms were identified as significant negative prognostic factors (chi2 test, p < 0.05). During the long-term follow-up (mean 47 months), allograft aneurysm developed in three patients, requiring allograft explantation, followed in two cases by tertiary prosthetic reconstruction.
Substitution of the infected prosthesis with the arterial allograft could be successful if used selectively--for less virulent and localized infections of extracavitary grafts. Close follow-up is mandatory for timely diagnosis of late homograft lesions and its eventual replacement with more durable prosthetic material.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Srpski arhiv za celokupno lekarstvo
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aneurysm of the persistent sciatic artery is a rare cause of limb ischemia, which is a challenge for both diagnosis and treatment. After successful diagnosis adequate treatment may require skills in open and endovascular surgery. We present a patient with the aneurysm of the persistent sciatic artery treated by bypass procedure with PTFE graft using posterior approach. We named this procedure "dorsal bypass". Detailed explanation of clinical presentation, diagnosis and the surgical procedure is given in this paper.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The infection in vascular surgery is a nightmare of every vascular surgeon. There are numerous ways of treatment but neither one is definitive. We present the case of the patient with infectious limb following aortobifemoral reconstruction treated by partial graft extirpation and with re-implantation of the superficial femoral artery into deep femoral artery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endovascular aortic/aneurysm repair (EVAR) was introduced into clinical practice at the beginning of the nineties. Its fast development had a great influence on clinicians, vascular surgeons and interventional radiologists, educational curriculums, patients, industry and medical insurance. The aim of this paper is to present the contribution of clinicians and industry to the development and advancement of endovascular aortic repair over the last 20 years. This review article presents the development of EVAR by focusing on the contribution of physicians, surgeons and interventional radiologists in the creation of the new field of vascular surgery termed hybrid vascular surgery, and also the contribution of technological advancement by a significant help of industrial representatives--engineers and their counselors. This article also analyzes studies conducted in order to compare the successfulness of EVAR with up-to-now applied open surgical repair of aortic aneurysms, and some treatment techniques of other aortic diseases. During the first two decades of its development the EVAR method was rapidly progressing and was adopted concurrently with the expansion of technology. Owing to large randomized studies, early and long-term results indicate specific complications of this method, thus influencing further technological improvement and defining risk patients groups in whom the use of the technique should be avoided. Good results are insured only in centers, specialized in vascular surgery, which have on their disposal adequate conditions for solving all complications associated with this method.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Srpski arhiv za celokupno lekarstvo
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The increased number of carotid endarterectomies performed worldwide in recent years is associated with a greater need for carotid restenosis evaluation. Carotid restenosis rate ranges from 0.6% to 3.6% in symptomatic patients and from 8.8% to 19% in asymptomatic patients. Carotid angioplasty and stenting is a preferable therapeutic choice for carotid restenosis treatment, but whenever it is not technically feasible (tortuosities of supra-aortic branches, calcifications, pathological elongation, or very extensive lesions), redo surgical treatment is indicated. The aim of our study was to examine outcome of redo surgical treatment in patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid restenosis, in whom carotid angioplasty could not be done, and its impact on early and late morbidity and mortality.
The study included 52 patients who were surgically treated for significant carotid restenosis from January 2000 to December 2008 in two high-volume vascular surgery university clinics. Surgical techniques included redo eversion endarterectomy, standard endarterectomy with Dacron patch closure, and Dacron tubular graft interposition. The patients were followed for significant events (transient ischemic attack, stroke, cranial nerve injuries, surgical site hematoma, the occurrence of carotid re-restenosis, or occlusion), and mortality after 1 month, 6 months, 1 year, and annually afterward.
In the early postoperative period (within 30 days), there were no lethal outcomes. Transient ischemic attack was diagnosed in four patients (7.6%), minor stroke in two patients (3.8%), and cranial nerve injury in four patients (7.6%). After 4 years, three patients died (5.7%), two due to a fatal myocardial infarction (3.8%) and one after a major stroke (1.9%); four patients (7.6%) had ipsilateral stroke; and graft occlusion was verified in one patient (1.9%).
Carotid angioplasty might be a primary option for carotid restenosis treatment, but whenever it cannot be performed, redo surgical treatment is indicated, owing to its acceptable rate of early and late postoperative complications.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Annals of Vascular Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Horseshoe kidney is the most common congenital kidney anomaly, occurring in 0.15-0.25% of all newborns. A medial fusion of the kidneys, mostly anteriorly to the aorta, is the main characteristic of this anomaly. The co-existence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and horseshoe kidney is rare, occurring only in 0.12% of patients. The aim of this paper is to define the optimal management of patients with AAA associated with the horseshoe kidney.
This paper presents the analysis of patients operated at the Clinic for Vascular and Endovascular Surgery of the Clinical Center of Serbia in Belgrade due to AAA associated with the horseshoe kidney as well as the analysis of the previously published literature data regarding this topic.
Between 1985 and 2011, data were collected retrospectively on 25 patients with the horseshoe kidney who underwent aortic surgery. Out of them, 6 patients had aortoiliac occlusive disease and 19 patients had aortic aneurysm. More detailed analysis of the aneurysmatic group was performed. Among them there were 16 male and three female patients, with the average age of 63.8 (50-76) years. Two patients had type IV of thoracoabdomial aortic aneurysm (TAA) according to Crawford-Saffi classification, while 17 had infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms. There were 15 elective and four urgent procedures due to aneurismal rupture. The presence of the horseshoe kidney was detected in 16 patients before surgery (84.2%) by means of Duplex ultrasonography, angiography, computed tomography and intravenous urography. Multiple renal arteries were presented in 12 (63.2%) cases. A transperitoneal approach was used in 16 cases with abdominal aortic aneurysm, while left retroperitoneal approach with partial extrapleural removal of the 11th rib was performed in two cases of thoracoabdominal aneurysm and in one patient with AAA. In 18 cases, kidney tissue transection was successfully avoided with vascular graft placement beneath the horseshoe kidney. In one case only, the division of the renal isthmus was performed. In all 12 cases with detected anomalous renal arteries, their reattachment into vascular graft has been performed. Two patients (10.5%) died during perioperative period. One of them had ruptured type IV TAA. Seventeen patients who survived were followed from one to twenty years (mean 6.6 years). During the follow up period we lost track of 4 patients. In this period there were no signs of graft occlusion, or renal failure.
Repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm in the presence of the horseshoe kidney is a truly particular surgical challenge. It is associated with three main problems: choice of the surgical approach; the procedure regarding kidney isthmus preservation as well as recognition and reattachment of all significant anomalous renal arteries.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · International angiology: a journal of the International Union of Angiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intramural haematoma (IMH) and penetrating aortic ulcers (PAU) are the frequent cause of acute aortic syndrome that is disclosed with a rising frequency due to the development of new diagnostic methods. Different symptoms contribute to clinical misdiagnosis, while changeable locations and unpersuasive diameter can lead the radiologists to underestimate such changes. The outcome of PAU and IMH differs, and for the time being there are no data on prognostic factors. The diversity of symptoms and disease course is presented in four cases with different manifestations, treatment and outcome.
Two patients with IMH were treated conservatively due to the process extensiveness and its morphology. One patient had a complete restitution, while the other had progression of the disease. Other two patients with PAU were treated by surgery (stent graft implantation) according to the morphology and diameter of the aorta.
IMH and PAU should be suspected in patients with unclear clinical presentation (back and abdominal pains). Although outcome and complications of these diseases are well known, their incidence has not been fully studied. Endovascular treatment is less invasive and followed by a potentially lower rate of complications. However, usage of this method is justifiable only in patients with associated complications.
Full-text · Article · May 2011 · Srpski arhiv za celokupno lekarstvo
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One of the rare forms of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture is the rupture into great abdominal veins such as the inferior vein cava (IVC), the iliac veins, or the left renal vein, with the formation of direct or indirect aorto-caval fistula (ACF). The purpose of the present study was to summarize 20 years of experience at a single referral center for vascular surgery in a developing country, and to discuss the clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment options, and outcome of patients with spontaneous aorto-venous fistulas (AVF) caused by ruptured aortic aneurysms.
Retrospective database review identified 50 patients treated in our institution for aorto-venous fistulas (AVF) caused by spontaneous AAA rupture in the 20 years 1991-2010. Pulsating abdominal mass and low back pain were the leading symptoms on admission in our patients. Signs of shock, congestive heart failure, or pelvic and lower extremity venous hypertension were present in 48%, 26%, and 75% of the patients, respectively. Diagnosis of AVF was based on physical examination, duplex ultrasonography, conventional angiography, or multislice computed tomography (MSCT). In 40% of the patients the presence of AVF has not been recognized before surgery. All patients were treated with open surgery.
After proximal and distal bleeding control the fistula was closed with direct suture (92%) or patch angioplasty (8%). Aortic reconstruction followed with tubular (22%) or bifurcated (78%) synthetic graft. Six (12%) patients died. The causes of death were excessive intraoperative blood loss, myocardial infarction, left colon gangrene and multiple organ failure.
Spontaneous AVFs caused by aneurysmal rupture are not uncommon, and they require prompt surgical or endovascular treatment. Routine use of multislice CT in patients with acute aortic syndrome is probably the best way to the correct diagnosis of aorto-venous fistulas and planning of the optimal treatment.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · World Journal of Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the proof of the convergence of sequences of approximations derived by the regularized method of linearization, the Kuhn-Tucker
theorem with bounded sequences of Lagrange multipliers is applied to sequences of Tikhonov functions. This paper demonstrates
that in the case of three existing forms of constrains: (i) functional inequalities strict at some point, (ii) linear functional
inequalities, and (iii) a linear operator equality, there exist bounded sequences of Lagrange multipliers of the Kuhn-Thucker
theorem applied to the sequences of Tikhonov functions.
No preview · Article · Apr 2011 · Mathematical Notes
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most recent publications have shown that the recombinant form of activated factor VII (rFVIIa; NovoSeven, Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsværd, Denmark) induces excellent hemostasis in patients with severe intractable bleeding caused by trauma and major surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of rFVIIa on the treatment of intractable perioperative bleeding in vascular surgery when conventional hemostatic measures are inadequate.
There were two groups of patients: the NovoSeven group (group N), 10 patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (RAAAs) and 14 patients operated on due to thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (TAAAs); the control group (group C), 14 patients with RAAAs and 17 patients with TAAAs. All patients suffered intractable hemorrhage refractory to conventional hemostatic measures, while patients from group N were additionally treated with rFVIIa.
Postoperative blood loss was significantly lower in group N treated with rFVII (P < .0001). Postoperative administration of packed red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma, and platelets was lower in patients from group N, (P < .0001). Successful hemorrhage arrest was reported in 21 patients (87.5%) treated with rFVIIa, and in 9 patients (29.03%) in group C (P < .001). Thirty-day mortality in these two groups significantly differed. The mortality rate was 12.5% (3 patients) in group N and 80.65% (25 patients) in group C (P < .0001).
Our findings suggest that rFVIIa may play a role in controlling the intractable perioperative and postoperative bleeding in surgical patients undergoing a repair of RAAAs and TAAAs. Certainly, prospective randomized trials are necessary to further confirm the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of rFVIIa in these patients.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · Journal of vascular surgery: official publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery [and] International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aortic diseases associated with renal anomalies can present special challenges during surgery of the abdominal aorta. The aim of this paper is evaluation of morbidity and definition of optimal management according to the clinical histories of 30 patients with horseshoe and ectopic kidneys who underwent surgical procedures on the abdominal aorta over a 20-year period. Twenty-two of them had horseshoe kidney and eight had ectopic kidney. Indications for surgery included aortic aneurysms in 25 patients and aortoiliac occlusive disease in 5. Preoperative diagnostics were performed in all cases by means of computed tomography and angiography (except in the cases with ruptures) associated with duplex ultrasonography. In patients with ectopic kidney a Carrel patch technique was used for the reimplantation of the renal arteries into the body of the bifurcated (four cases) or tubular (four cases) Dacron graft in five (62.5%) cases whereas aortorenal bypass with Dacron graft was obtained in three cases (37.5%). Sixteen patients from the horseshoe kidney group required renal revascularization (reimplantation using Carrel patch in 10 patients and aortorenal bypass using Dacron graft in 6 patients). Two patients, both with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms died after the operation. In other cases the average follow up period was 6.2 years (6 months to 17 years). In one case control, angiography after 6 months revealed an occluded left renal artery that was reimplanted by Carrel patch but without repercussions on the renal function. Aortic surgery in patients with renal anomalies can be safely performed without increased mortality.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to identify factors influencing surgical treatment outcome following upper extremity arterial injuries.
This 15-year study (January 1992 to December 2006) included 167 patients with 189 civilian, iatrogenic or military upper extremity arterial injuries requiring surgical intervention. Patient data were prospectively entered into a vascular trauma database and retrospectively analysed.
The most frequently damaged vessel was the brachial artery (55% of injuries), followed by the axillary (21.7%), antebrachial (21.2%) and subclavian (2.1%) arteries. Three primary amputations (1.8%) were performed because of extensive soft-tissue destruction and signs of irreversible ischaemia on admission. Seven secondary amputations (4.2%) were due to graft failure, infection, anastomotic disruption or the extent of soft-tissue and nerve damage. Fasciotomy was required in 9.6% of cases. Operative mortality was 2.4% (four deaths). Early graft failure, compartment syndrome, associated skeletal and brachial plexus damage and a military mechanism of injury were found to be significant risk factors for limb loss (p<0.01).
Although careful physical examination should diagnose the majority of upper extremity arterial injuries, angiography is helpful in detailing their site and extent. Prompt reconstruction is essential for optimal results. Nerve trauma is the primary cause of long-term functional disability.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has been introduced into clinical practice at the beginning of the 90's of the last century. Because of economic, political and social problems during the last 25 years, the introduction of this procedure in Serbia was not possible. Objective The aim of this study was to present preliminary experiences and results of the Clinic for Vascular Surgery of the Serbian Clinical Centre in Belgrade in endovascular treatment of thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms. Methods The procedure was performed in 33 patients (3 female and 30 male), aged from 42 to 83 years. Ten patients had a descending thoracic aorta aneurysm (three atherosclerotic, four traumatic - three chronic and one acute as a part of polytrauma, one dissected, two penetrated atherosclerotic ulcers), while 23 patients had the abdominal aortic aneurysm, one ruptured and two isolated iliac artery aneurysms. The indications for EVAR were isthmic aneurismal localisation, aged over 80 years and associated comorbidity (cardiac, pulmonary and cerebrovasular diseases, previous thoracotomy or multiple laparotomies associated with abdominal infection, idiopatic thrombocitopaenia). All of these patients had three or more risk factors. The diagnosis was established using duplex ultrasonography, angiography and MSCT. In the case of thoracic aneurysm, a Medtronic-Valiant (R) endovascular stent graft was implanted, while for the abdominal aortic aneurysm Medtronic-Talent (R) endovascular stent grafts with delivery systems were used. In three patients, following EVAR a surgical repair of the femoral artery aneurysm was performed, and in another three patients femoro-femoral cross over bypass followed implantation of aortouniiliac stent graft. Results During procedure and follow-up period (mean 1.6 years), there were: one death, one conversion, one endoleak type 1, six patients with endoleak type 2 that disappeared during the follow-up period, one early graft thrombosis. No other complications, including aneurysm expansion, collapse, deformity and migration of the endovascular stent grafts, were registered. Conclusion According to all medical and economic aspects, we recommend EVAR to treat acute traumatic thoracic aortic aneurysm, as well as in elderly and high-risk patients with abdominal or thoracic aneurysms, when open surgery is related to a significantly higher mortality and morbidity.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2009 · Srpski arhiv za celokupno lekarstvo