[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rtt107 (regulator of Ty1 transposition 107; Esc4) is a DNA repair protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae that can restore stalled replication forks following DNA damage. There are six BRCT (BRCA1 C-terminal) domains in Rtt107 that act as binding sites for other recruited proteins during DNA repair. Several Rtt107 binding
partners have been identified, including Slx4, Rtt101, Rad55, and the Smc5/6 (structural maintenance of chromosome) protein complex. Rtt107 can reportedly be recruited to chromatin in the presence of Rtt101 and Rtt109 upon DNA
damage, but the chromatin-binding site of Rtt107 has not been identified. Here, we report our investigation of the interaction
between phosphorylated histone H2A (γH2A) and the C-terminal tandem BRCT repeats (BRCT5-BRCT6) of Rtt107. The crystal structures of BRCT5-BRCT6 alone and in a complex with γH2A reveal the molecular basis of the Rtt107-γH2A interaction. We used in vitro mutagenesis and a fluorescence polarization assay to confirm the location of the Rtt107 motif that is crucial for this interaction.
In addition, these assays indicated that this interaction requires the phosphorylation of H2A. An in vivo phenotypic analysis in yeast demonstrated the critical role of BRCT5-BRCT6 and its interaction with γH2A during the DNA damage response. Our results shed new light on the molecular mechanism by which
Rtt107 is recruited to chromatin in response to stalled DNA replication forks.
Preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spt6 is a highly conserved transcription elongation factor and histone chaperone. It binds directly to the RNA polymerase
II C-terminal domain (RNAPII CTD) through its C-terminal region that recognizes RNAPII CTD phosphorylation. In this study,
we determined the solution structure of the C-terminal region of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Spt6, and we discovered that Spt6 has two SH2 domains in tandem. Structural and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the second
SH2 domain was evolutionarily distant from canonical SH2 domains and represented a novel SH2 subfamily with a novel binding
site for phosphoserine. In addition, NMR chemical shift perturbation experiments demonstrated that the tandem SH2 domains
recognized Tyr1, Ser2, Ser5, and Ser7 phosphorylation of RNAPII CTD with millimolar binding affinities. The structural basis for the binding of the tandem SH2
domains to different forms of phosphorylated RNAPII CTD and its physiological relevance are discussed. Our results also suggest
that Spt6 may use the tandem SH2 domain module to sense the phosphorylation level of RNAPII CTD.
Preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In higher eukaryotes, the centromere is epigenetically specified by the histone H3 variant Centromere Protein-A (CENP-A). Deposition of CENP-A to the centromere requires histone chaperone HJURP (Holliday junction recognition protein). The crystal structure of an HJURP-CENP-A-histone H4 complex shows that HJURP binds a CENP-A-H4 heterodimer. The C-terminal β-sheet domain of HJURP caps the DNA-binding region of the histone heterodimer, preventing it from spontaneous association with DNA. Our analysis also revealed a novel site in CENP-A that distinguishes it from histone H3 in its ability to bind HJURP. These findings provide key information for specific recognition of CENP-A and mechanistic insights into the process of centromeric chromatin assembly.
Full-text · Article · May 2011 · Genes & development
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prp20p is the homolog of mammalian RCC1 (regulator of chromosome condensation 1) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which acts as the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Gsp1p (yeast Ran). Prp20p plays multiple roles in mRNA metabolism, nucleocytoplasmic transport and mitosis regulation. Prp20p also functions as a linker between chromatin and nuclear pore complex (NPC) which regulates the NPC-mediated boundary activity (BA). Prp20p contains an N-terminal nuclear localization signal (NLS) and a typical RCC1-like domain (RLD). Here we present the 1.9Å crystal structure of the RCC1-like domain of Prp20p, which exhibits a classical seven-bladed β-propeller. We also proved that the additional β-wedge in Prp20p is essential for the interaction between Prp20p and Gsp1p. Based on this structure, we built a complex model of Prp20p and Gsp1p which was optimized by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Our model reveals that Prp20p and RCC1 share similar Ran GTPase binding mode. In addition, we also studied the histone-binding property of Prp20p in vitro.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · Journal of Structural Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rtt106p is a Saccharomyces cerevisiae histone chaperone with roles in heterochromatin silencing and nucleosome assembly. The molecular mechanism by which Rtt106p
engages in chromatin dynamics remains unclear. Here, we report the 2.5 Å crystal structure of the core domain of Rtt106p,
which adopts an unusual “double pleckstrin homology” domain architecture that represents a novel structural mode for histone
chaperones. A histone H3-H4-binding region and a novel double-stranded DNA-binding region have been identified. Mutagenesis
studies reveal that the histone and DNA binding activities of Rtt106p are involved in Sir protein-mediated heterochromatin
formation. Our results uncover the structural basis of the diverse functions of Rtt106p and provide new insights into its
Full-text · Article · Dec 2009 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Brd4 belongs to the BET family. It is a multifunctional protein involved in transcription, replication, the signal transduction pathway, and cell cycle progression. All of these functions are linked to its association with acetylated chromatin. With its tandem bromodomains, Brd4 avidly binds to diacetylated H4-AcK5/K12 and H3-AcK9/K14 peptides. Solution structure of the second bromodomain (BD) is reported in this research. In addition to the piD-helix, which is special for BET members, an incompact alphaZ' distinct from Brd2 BD2 is found, although they have identical sequences in this region. Both BD1 and BD2 bind to monoacetylated H4-AcK5 and H4-AcK12 peptides, but with subtle differences. An NMR perturbation study and mutational analysis identified the binding interface and revealed several residues important for binding specificity. By molecular dynamics simulations, a complex model composed of H4-AcK5/K12 and two molecules of BD2 is presented. Relaxation data and internal motions of BD2 are also discussed. Unlike Brd2 BD1, the two bromodomains of Brd4 are mainly monomeric in solution. They do not form heterodimers like TAFII250. It suggests that Brd4 should have its own mechanism to reinforce its chromatin association both in mitotic retention and related cellular regulation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leukemia-associated Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (LARG) is a RhoA-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) that can activate RhoA. The PDZ (PSD-95/Disc-large/ZO-1 homology) domain of LARG interacts with membrane receptors, which can relay extracellular signals to RhoA signal transduction pathways. Until now there is no structural and dynamic information about these interactions. Here we report the NMR structures of the LARG PDZ in the apo form and in complex with the plexin-B1 C-terminal octapeptide. Unobservable resonances of the residues in betaB/betaC and betaE/alphaB loops in apo state were observed in the complex state. A distinct region of the binding groove in the LARG PDZ was found to undergo conformational change compared with other PDZs. Analysis of the (15)N relaxation data using reduced spectral density mapping shows that the apo LARG PDZ (especially its ligand-binding groove) is flexible and exhibits internal motions on both picosecond to nanosecond and microsecond to millisecond timescales. Mutagenesis and thermodynamic studies indicate that the conformation of the betaB/betaC and betaE/alphaB loops affects the PDZ-peptide interaction. It is suggested that the conformational flexibility could facilitate the change of structures upon ligand binding.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Zonula occludens proteins (ZOs), including ZO1/2/3, are tight junction-associated proteins. Each of them contains three PDZ
domains. It has been demonstrated that ZO1 can form either homodimers or heterodimers with ZO2 or ZO3 through the second PDZ
domain. However, the underlying structural basis is not well understood. In this study, the solution structure of the second
PDZ domain of ZO2 (ZO2-PDZ2) was determined using NMR spectroscopy. The results revealed a novel dimerization mode for PDZ
domains via three-dimensional domain swapping, which can be generalized to homodimers of ZO1-PDZ2 or ZO3-PDZ2 and heterodimers
of ZO1-PDZ2/ZO2-PDZ2 or ZO1-PDZ2/ZO3-PDZ2 due to high conservation between PDZ2 domains in ZO proteins. Furthermore, GST pulldown
experiments and immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that interactions between ZO1-PDZ2 and ZO2-PDZ2 and their self-associations
indeed exist both in vitro and in vivo. Chemical cross-linking and dynamic laser light scattering experiments revealed that both ZO1-PDZ2 and ZO2-PDZ2 can form
oligomers in solution. This PDZ domain-mediated oligomerization of ZOs may provide a structural basis for the polymerization
of claudins, namely the formation of tight junctions.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2008 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MEKK3 is a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase that participates in various signaling pathways. One of its functions is to activate the ERK5 signal pathway by phosphorylating and activating MEK5. MEKK3 and MEK5 each harbors a PB1 domain in the N-terminus, and they form a heterodimer via PB1-PB1 domain interaction that was reported to be indispensable to the activation of MEK5. Using NMR spectroscopy, we show here that a prolyl isomerization of the Gln38-Pro39 bond is present in MEKK3 PB1, which is the first case of structural heterogeneity within PB1 domains. We have solved the solution structures of both isomers and found a major difference between them in the Pro39 region. Residues Gly37-Leu40 form a type VIb beta-turn in the cis conformation, whereas no obvious character of beta-turn was observed in the trans conformation. Backbone dynamics studies have unraveled internal motions in the beta3/beta4-turn on a microsecond-millisecond time scale. Further investigation of its binding properties with MEK5 PB1 has demonstrated that MEKK3 PB1 binds MEK5 PB1 tightly with a Kd of about 10(-8) M. Mutagenesis analysis revealed that residues in the basic cluster of MEKK3 PB1 contributes differently to the PB1-PB1 interaction. Residues Lys 7 and Arg 5 play important roles in the interaction with MEK5 PB1. Taken together, this study provides new insights into structural details of MEKK3 PB1 and its binding properties with MEK5 PB1.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BRD7 is an important protein tightly associated with Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Overexpression of BRD7 inhibits NPC cell growth and cell cycle by transcriptionally regulating the cell cycle related genes. BRD7 contains a bromodomain that is found in many chromatin-associated proteins and in nearly all known nuclear histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and plays an important role in chromatin remodeling and transcriptional activation. Here, we report the solution structure of BRD7 bromodomain determined by NMR spectroscopy, and its binding specificity revealed by NMR titration with several acetylated histone peptides. We find that BRD7 bromodomain contains the typical left-handed four-helix bundle topology, and can bind with weak affinity to lysine-acetylated peptides derived from histone H3 with K9 or K14 acetylated and from histone H4 with K8, K12 or K16 acetylated. Our results show that BRD7 bromodomain lacks inherent binding specificity when binding to histones in vitro.
No preview · Article · Jul 2007 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Brd2 is a transcriptional regulator and belongs to BET family, a less characterized novel class of bromodomain-containing proteins. Brd2 contains two tandem bromodomains (BD1 and BD2, 46% sequence identity) in the N-terminus and a conserved motif named ET (extra C-terminal) domain at the C-terminus that is also present in some other bromodomain proteins. The two bromodomains have been shown to bind the acetylated histone H4 and to be responsible for mitotic retention on chromosomes, which is probably a distinctive feature of BET family proteins. Although the crystal structure of Brd2 BD1 is reported, no structure features have been characterized for Brd2 BD2 and its interaction with acetylated histones.
Here we report the solution structure of human Brd2 BD2 determined by NMR. Although the overall fold resembles the bromodomains from other proteins, significant differences can be found in loop regions, especially in the ZA loop in which a two amino acids insertion is involved in an uncommon pi-helix, termed piD. The helix piD forms a portion of the acetyl-lysine binding site, which could be a structural characteristic of Brd2 BD2 and other BET bromodomains. Unlike Brd2 BD1, BD2 is monomeric in solution. With NMR perturbation studies, we have mapped the H4-AcK12 peptide binding interface on Brd2 BD2 and shown that the binding was with low affinity (2.9 mM) and in fast exchange. Using NMR and mutational analysis, we identified several residues important for the Brd2 BD2-H4-AcK12 peptide interaction and probed the potential mechanism for the specific recognition of acetylated histone codes by Brd2 BD2.
Brd2 BD2 is monomeric in solution and dynamically interacts with H4-AcK12. The additional secondary elements in the long ZA loop may be a common characteristic of BET bromodomains. Surrounding the ligand-binding cavity, five aspartate residues form a negatively charged collar that serves as a secondary binding site for H4-AcK12. We suggest that Brd2 BD1 and BD2 may possess distinctive roles and cooperate to regulate Brd2 functions. The structure basis of Brd2 BD2 will help to further characterize the functions of Brd2 and its BET members.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2007 · BMC Structural Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein modifiers are involved in diverse biological processes and regulate the activity or function of target proteins by covalently conjugating to them. Although ubiquitin and a number of ubiquitin-like protein modifiers (Ubls) in eukaryotes have been identified, no protein modifier has been found in prokaryotes; thus, their evolutionary origin remains a puzzle. To infer the evolutionary relationships between the protein modifiers and sulfur carrier proteins, we solved the solution NMR structure of the Urm1 (ubiquitin-related modifier-1) protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Both structural comparison and phylogenetic analysis of the ubiquitin superfamily, with emphasis on the Urm1 family, indicate that Urm1 is the unique "molecular fossil" that has the most conserved structural and sequence features of the common ancestor of the entire superfamily. The similarities of 3D structure and hydrophobic and electrostatic surface features between Urm1 and MoaD (molybdopterin synthase small subunit) suggest that they may interact with partners in a similar manner, and similarities between Urm1-Uba4 and MoaD-MoeB establish an evolutionary link between ATP-dependent protein conjugation in eukaryotes and ATP-dependent cofactor sulfuration.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2006 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using far and near-UV CD, ANS fluorescence and 2D NMR spectroscopy, an acid-induced partly folded state (A state) at extremely low pH for hUBF HMG Box1 was identified and characterized. As compared to the native state (N), the A state has similar secondary structure, less compact pack with larger amounts of exposed hydrophobic surface, and narrower chemical shift dispersion in (1)H-(15)N HSQC spectrum, which implies that it is a molten globule (MG)-like species. On the other hand, substantial tertiary contacts and cooperative thermal denaturing transition indicate that the A state is closer-relative to the classic MG-to the native folded state. In addition, when the solution pH is adjusted to neutrality, the protein in the A state refolds to the native state easily. All these data suggest that the A state of hUBF HMG Box1 could represent a potential folding intermediate on protein folding pathway.
No preview · Article · May 2005 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta