Bernard Keavney

The University of Manchester, Manchester, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (159)1303.2 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To identify genetic causes of intellectual disability (ID), we screened a cohort of 986 individuals with moderate to severe ID for variants in 565 known or candidate ID-associated genes using targeted next-generation sequencing. Likely pathogenic rare variants were found in ∼11% of the cases (113 variants in 107/986 individuals: ∼8% of the individuals had a likely pathogenic loss of function (LoF) variant, while ∼3% had a known pathogenic missense variant). Variants in SETD5, ATRX, CUL4B, MECP2 and ARID1B were the most common causes of ID. This study assessed the value of sequencing a cohort of probands to provide a molecular diagnosis of ID, without the availability of DNA from both parents for de novo sequence analysis. This modelling is clinically relevant as 28% of all UK families with dependent children are single parent households. In conclusion, to diagnose patients with ID in the absence of parental DNA, we recommend investigation of all LoF variants in known genes that cause ID and assessment of limited list of proven pathogenic missense variants in these genes. This will provide 11% additional diagnostic yield beyond the 10-15% yield from array CGH alone. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Human Mutation
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    ABSTRACT: Parent-of-origin (or imprinting) effects relate to the situation in which traits are influenced by the allele inherited from only one parent and the allele from the other parent has little or no effect. Given SNP genotype data from case-parent trios, the parent of origin of each allele in the offspring can often be deduced unambiguously; however, this is not true when all three individuals are heterozygous. Most existing methods for investigating parent-of-origin effects operate on a SNP-by-SNP basis and either perform some sort of averaging over the possible parental transmissions or else discard ambiguous trios. If the correct parent of origin at a SNP could be determined, this would provide extra information and increase the power for detecting the effects of imprinting. We propose making use of the surrounding SNP information, via haplotype estimation, to improve estimation of parent of origin at a test SNP for case-parent trios, case-mother duos, and case-father duos. This extra information is then used in a multinomial modeling approach for estimating parent-of-origin effects at the test SNP. We show through computer simulations that our approach has increased power over previous approaches, particularly when the data consist only of duos. We apply our method to two real datasets and find a decrease in significance of p values in genomic regions previously thought to possibly harbor imprinting effects, thus weakening the evidence that such effects actually exist in these regions, although some regions retain evidence of significant effects. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2015 · The American Journal of Human Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Our previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified two susceptibility loci for congenital heart disease (CHD) in Han Chinese. Here we identify additional loci by testing promising associations in an extended 3-stage validation consisting of 6,053 CHD cases and 7,410 controls. We find GW significant (P<5.0 × 10(-8)) evidence of 4 additional CHD susceptibility loci at 4q31.22 (rs1400558, upstream of EDNRA, Pall=1.63 × 10(-9)), 9p24.2 (rs7863990, close to SMARCA2, Pall=3.71 × 10(-14)), 12q24.13 (rs2433752, upstream of TBX3 and TBX5, Pall=1.04 × 10(-10)) and 20q12 (rs490514, in PTPRT, Pall=1.20 × 10(-13)). Moreover, the data from previous European GWAS supports that rs490514 is associated with the risk of CHD (P=3.40 × 10(-3)). These results enhance our understanding of CHD susceptibility.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Nature Communications
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    ABSTRACT: Lymphocytes contribute to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in several organ systems, but their relevance in ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is unknown. Our goal was to characterize lymphocyte dynamics in individuals after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI), assess the prognostic relevance of these cells, and explore mechanisms of lymphocyte-associated injury. Lymphocyte counts were retrospectively analyzed in 1,377 STEMI patients, and the prognostic relevance of post-PPCI lymphopenia was assessed by Cox proportional hazards regression. Blood from 59 prospectively recruited STEMI patients undergoing PPCI was sampled, and leukocyte subpopulations were quantified. Microvascular obstruction (MVO), a component of I/R injury, was assessed using MRI. In the retrospective cohort, lymphopenia was associated with a lower rate of survival at 3 years (82.8% vs. 96.3%, lowest vs. highest tertile; hazard ratio 2.42). In the prospective cohort, lymphocyte counts fell 90 minutes after reperfusion, primarily due to loss of T cells. CD8+ T cells decreased more than CD4+ T cells, and effector subsets exhibited the largest decline. The early decrease in effector T cell levels was greater in individuals that developed substantial MVO. The drop in T cell subsets correlated with expression of the fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 (r2 = 0.99, P = 0.006). Serum fractalkine concentration peaked at 90 minutes after reperfusion, coinciding with the T cell count nadir. Lymphopenia following PPCI is associated with poor prognosis. Our data suggest that fractalkine contributes to lymphocyte shifts, which may influence development of MVO through the action of effector T cells. Not applicable. British Heart Foundation (FS/12/31/29533) and National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) Newcastle Biomedical Research Centre.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · The Journal of clinical investigation
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    ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified genetic variants in a number of chromosomal regions that are associated with atrial fibrillation (AF). The mechanisms underlying these associations are unknown, but are likely to involve effects of the risk haplotypes on expression of neighbouring genes. To investigate the association between genetic variants at AF-associated loci and expression of nearby candidate genes in human atrial tissue and peripheral blood. Right atrial appendage (RAA) samples were collected from 122 patients undergoing cardiac surgery, in 12 of whom left atrial appendage samples were also available. 22 patients had a history of AF. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 405 patients undergoing diagnostic cardiac catheterisation. In order to tag genetic variation at each of nine loci, a total of 367 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped using the Sequenom platform. Total expression of 16 candidate genes in the nine AF-associated regions was measured by quantitative PCR. The relative expression of each allele of the candidate genes was measured on the Sequenom platform using one or more transcribed SNPs to distinguish between alleles in heterozygotes. We tested association between the SNPs of interest and gene expression using total gene expression (integrating cis and trans acting sources of variation), and allelic expression ratios (specific for cis acting influences), in atrial tissue and peripheral blood. We adjusted for multiple comparisons using a Bonferroni approach. In subsidiary analyses, we compared the expression of candidate genes between patients with and without a history of AF. Total expression of 15 transcripts of 14 genes and allelic expression ratio of 14 transcripts of 14 genes in genomic regions associated with AF were measured in right atrial appendage tissue. 8 of these transcripts were also expressed in peripheral blood. Risk alleles at AF-associated SNPs were associated in cis with an increased expression of PITX2a (2.01-fold, p=6.5x10(-4)); and with decreased expression of MYOZ1 (0.39 fold; p=5.5x10(-15)), CAV1 (0.89 fold; p=5.9x10(-8)), C9orf3 (0.91 fold; 1.5x10(-5)), and FANCC (0.94-fold; p=8.9x10(-8)) in right atrial appendage. Of these five genes, only CAV1 was expressed in peripheral blood; association between the same AF risk alleles and lower expression of CAV1 was confirmed (0.91 fold decrease; p=4.2x10(-5)). A history of AF was also associated with a decrease in expression of CAV1 in both right and left atria (0.84 and 0.85 fold, respectively; p=0.03), congruent with the magnitude of the effect of the risk SNP on expression, and independent of genotype. The analyses in peripheral blood showed association between AF risk SNPs and decreased expression of KCNN3 (0.85-fold; p=2.1x10(-4)); and increased expression of SYNE2 (1.12-fold; p=7.5x10(-24)); however, these associations were not detectable in atrial tissue. We identified novel cis-acting associations in atrial tissue between AF risk SNPs and increased expression of PITX2a/b; and decreased expression of CAV1 (an association also seen in peripheral blood), C9orf3 and FANCC. We also confirmed a previously described association between AF risk variants and MYOZ1 expression. Analyses of peripheral blood illustrated tissue-specificity of cardiac eQTLs and highlights the need for larger-scale genome-wide eQTL studies in cardiac tissue. Our results suggest novel aetiological roles for genes in four AF-associated genomic regions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic cardiac diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality. Although animal models have been created to provide some useful insights into the pathogenesis of genetic cardiac diseases, the significant species differences and the lack of genetic information for complex genetic diseases markedly attenuates the application values of such data. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) from patient-specific specimens and subsequent derivation of cardiomyocytes offers novel avenues to study the mechanisms underlying cardiac diseases, to identify new causative genes and to provide insights into the disease aetiology. In recent years, the list of human iPSC-based models for genetic cardiac diseases has been expanding rapidly, although there are still remaining concerns on the level of functionality of iPSC derived cardiomyocytes and their ability to be used for modelling complex cardiac diseases in adults. The current review focuses on the development of cardiomyocyte induction from pluripotent stem cells, the recent progress in heart disease modelling using iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes and the challenges associated with understanding complex genetic diseases. To address these issues we examine the similarity between iPSC derived cardiomyocytes and their ex vivo counterparts and how this relates to the method used to differentiate the pluripotent stem cells into a cardiomyocyte phenotype. We progress to examine categories of congenital cardiac abnormalities that are suitable for iPSC based disease modelling. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2015 AlphaMed Press.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Stem Cells
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    ABSTRACT: Aims This study aims to evaluate temporal changes in stroke complications and their association with mortality and MACE outcomes in a national cohort of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) in England and Wales. Methods and results A total of 426 046 patients who underwent PCI in England and Wales between 2007 and 2012 in the British Cardiovascular Intervention Society (BCIS) database were analysed. Statistical analyses were performed evaluating the rates of stroke complications according to the year of PCI and multiple logistic regressions were used to evaluate the odds of 30-day mortality and in-hospital major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; a composite of in-hospital mortality, myocardial infarction or re-infarction, and revascularization) with stroke complications. Four hundred and thirty-six patients (0.1%) sustained an ischaemic stroke/TIA complication and 107 patients (0.03%) sustained a haemorrhagic stroke complication. Ischaemic stroke/TIA complications increased non-linearly from 0.67 (95% CI 0.47–0.87) to 1.14 (0.94–1.34) per 1000 patients between 2007 and 2012 (P = 0.006), whilst haemorrhagic stroke rates decreased non-linearly from 0.29 (0.19–0.39) to 0.15 (0.05–0.25) per 1000 patients in 2012 (P = 0.009). Following adjustment for baseline clinical and procedural demographics, ischaemic stroke was independently associated with both 30-day mortality (OR 4.92, 3.06–7.92) and in-hospital MACE (OR 3.11, 1.83–5.27). An even greater impact on prognosis was observed with haemorrhagic complications (30-day mortality: OR 13.87, 6.37–30.21), in-hospital MACE (OR 13.50, 6.30–28.92). Conclusions Incident ischaemic stroke complications have increased over time, whilst haemorrhagic stroke complications have decreased, driven through changes in clinical, procedural, drug-treatment, and demographic factors. Both ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes are rare but devastating complications with high 30-day mortality and in-hospital MACE rates.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · European Heart Journal
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    Full-text · Dataset · Apr 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Background Truncus arteriosus (TA) is characterised by failure of septation of the outflow tract into aortic and pulmonary trunks and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Although ranked among the least common congenital heart defects, TA provides an excellent model for the role of individual genes in cardiac morphogenesis as exemplified by TBX1 deficiency caused by point mutations or, more commonly, hemizygosity as part of the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. The latter genetic lesion, however, is only observed in a proportion of patients with TA, which suggests the presence of additional disease genes. Objective To identify novel genes that cause Mendelian forms of TA. Methods and results We exploited the occurrence of monogenic forms of TA in the Saudi population, which is characterised by high consanguinity, a feature conducive to the occurrence of Mendelian phenocopies of complex phenotypes as we and others have shown. Indeed, we demonstrate in two multiplex consanguineous families that we are able to map TA to regions of autozygosity in which whole-exome sequencing revealed homozygous truncating mutations in PRKD1 (encoding a kinase derepressor of MAF2) and NRP1 (encoding a coreceptor of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFA)). Previous work has demonstrated that Prkd1−/− is embryonic lethal and that its tissue-specific deletion results in abnormal heart remodelling, whereas Nrp1−/− develops TA. Surprisingly, molecular karyotyping to exclude 22q11.2 deletion syndrome in the replication cohort of 17 simplex TA cases revealed a de novo hemizygous deletion that encompasses PRDM1, deficiency of which also results in TA phenotype in mouse. Conclusions Our results expand the repertoire of molecular lesions in chromatin remodelling and transcription factors that are implicated in the pathogenesis of congenital heart disease in humans and attest to the power of monogenic forms of congenital heart diseases as a complementary approach to dissect the genetics of these complex phenotypes.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Journal of Medical Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Objective We investigate adoption of the TRA in different age groups and study the relationship between age and access site related outcomes in a national cohort of patients undergoing PCI in the UK. Background Previous studies have reported conflicting data on radial access site adoption between different age groups, with age an independent predictor of failure of procedures undertaken through the radial approach. Methods Age and access site related outcomes (based on transradial (TRA) and transfemoral (TFA) access) were studied in 469,983 PCI procedures undertaken in the UK from 2006-2012 in the age groups; <60, 60-<70, 70-<80 and ≥80 in the British Cardiovascular Intervention Society database. Results We studied access site practice in 469,983 patients who underwent PCI procedures in the United Kingdom. TRA utilization increased from 17.5%to 65.6% in the age group <60, and 16.6% to 54.5% in the age group ≥80 between 2006-2012. TRA was independently associated with decreased 30 day mortality in all age groups (<60: OR 0.64; 95% CI 0.54-0.74, P<0.0001; 60 to <70: OR 0.65; 95% CI 0.57-75, P<0.0001,70 to <80: OR 0.58 (0.52-0.65, P<0.0001 and ≥80: OR 0.65 (0.57-0.73, P<0.0001). Conclusions Adoption of the TRA for PCI has occurred least in older patients in the UK despite similar associations between TRA use and decreased 30-day mortality observed in all age groups. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. Copyright © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
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    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
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    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Circulation Research
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    ABSTRACT: Background The ZFHX3 gene, located in Chromosome 16q22.3, codes for a transcription factor which is widely expressed in human tissues. Genome-wide studies have identified associations between variants within the gene and Kawasaki disease and atrial fibrillation. ZFHX3 has two main transcripts that utilise different transcription start sites. We examined the association between genetic variants in the 16q22.3 region and expression of ZFHX3 to identify variants that regulate gene expression.ResultsWe genotyped 65 single-nucleotide polymorphisms to tag genetic variation at the ZFHX3 locus in two cohorts, 451 British individuals recruited in the North East of England and 310 mixed-ancestry individuals recruited in South Africa. Allelic expression analysis revealed that the minor (A) allele of rs8060701, a variant in the first intron of ZFHX3, was associated with a 1.16-fold decrease in allelic expression of both transcripts together, (p¿=¿4.87e-06). The minor (C) allele of a transcribed variant, rs10852515, in the second exon of ZFHX3 isoform A was independently associated with a 1.36-fold decrease in allelic expression of ZFHX3 A (p¿=¿7.06e-31), but not overall ZFHX3 expression. However, analysis of total gene expression of ZFHX3 failed to detect an association with genotype at any variant. Differences in linkage disequilibrium between the two populations allowed fine-mapping of the locus to a 7 kb region overlapping exon 2 of ZFHX3 A. We did not find any association between ZFHX3 expression and any of the variants identified by genome wide association studies.Conclusions ZFHX3 transcript levels are regulated in a transcript-specific fashion by independent cis-acting transcribed polymorphisms. Our results demonstrate the power of allelic expression analysis and trans-ethnic fine mapping to identify transcript-specific cis-acting regulatory elements .
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · BMC Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Rationale: There is mounting evidence of a higher incidence of coronary heart disease in cytomegalovirus-seropositive individuals. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether acute myocardial infarction triggers an inflammatory T-cell response that might lead to accelerated immunosenescence in cytomegalovirus-seropositive patients. Methods and results: Thirty-four patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention were longitudinally studied within 3 months after reperfusion (Cohort A). In addition, 54 patients with acute myocardial infarction and chronic myocardial infarction were analyzed in a cross-sectional study (Cohort B). Cytomegalovirus-seropositive patients demonstrated a greater fall in the concentration of terminally differentiated CD8 effector memory T cells (TEMRA) in peripheral blood during the first 30 minutes of reperfusion compared with cytomegalovirus-seronegative patients (-192 versus -63 cells/μL; P=0.008), correlating with the expression of programmed cell death-1 before primary percutaneous coronary intervention (r=0.8; P=0.0002). A significant proportion of TEMRA cells remained depleted for ≥3 months in cytomegalovirus-seropositive patients. Using high-throughput 13-parameter flow cytometry and human leukocyte antigen class I cytomegalovirus-specific dextramers, we confirmed an acute and persistent depletion of terminally differentiated TEMRA and cytomegalovirus-specific CD8(+) cells in cytomegalovirus-seropositive patients. Long-term reconstitution of the TEMRA pool in chronic cytomegalovirus-seropositive postmyocardial infarction patients was associated with signs of terminal differentiation including an increase in killer cell lectin-like receptor subfamily G member 1 and shorter telomere length in CD8(+) T cells (2225 versus 3397 bp; P<0.001). Conclusions: Myocardial ischemia and reperfusion in cytomegalovirus-seropositive patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention leads to acute loss of antigen-specific, terminally differentiated CD8 T cells, possibly through programmed cell death-1-dependent programmed cell death. Our results suggest that acute myocardial infarction and reperfusion accelerate immunosenescence in cytomegalovirus-seropositive patients.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Circulation Research
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    ABSTRACT: Statins are one of the most potent drugs in delaying age-related inflammatory changes in the arterial vessel wall, slowing down the progression of atherosclerosis. Statins have also been shown to abrogate telomere-attributed cardiovascular risk. The goal of our study was to explore a potential effect of atorvastatin on telomerase activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and T-lymphocytes (T cells). Methods and Results Treatment with pharmacologically relevant concentrations (0.1-0.3 μM) of atorvastatin resulted in a 6-fold increase of telomerase activity (TA) (p<0.0001) in human and mouse PBMCs and CD4 T cells, translating into moderate proliferation of T lymphocytes. In contrast, high doses of atorvastatin (2 - 5 μM) or the addition of LDL cholesterol completely inhibited proliferation, thereby abrogating telomerase activity. The proliferative effect of atorvastatin was ablated by the absense of the catalytic subunit of telomerase, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT). Using transgenic GFP-mTert reporter mice, we observed a decrease in telomerase-positive lymphocytes from 30% to 15% during the first 5 months of age (p<0.01). This suggests that the decrease in immune cell turnover during normal development and maturation is mirrored by a reduction in telomerase activity in lymphocytes in-vivo. Conclusion Atorvastatin and cholesterol have opposing effects on telomerase in mononuclear cells and T-lymphocytes. Our study suggests a link between cholesterol metabolism and telomere-related cardiovascular risk.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Atherosclerosis
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    ABSTRACT: Guidelines advocate using B-type natriuretic peptides in the diagnostic work-up of suspected heart failure (HF). Their main role is to limit echocardiography rates by ruling out HF/LV dysfunction where peptide level is low. Recommended rule-out cut points vary between guidelines. The utility of B-type natriuretic peptides in the very old (85+) requires further investigation, with optimal cut points yet to be established. We examined NT-proBNP's utility, alone and in combination with history of myocardial infarction (MI), as a rule-out test for LV dysfunction in very old people with limiting dyspnoea. Design: Cross-sectional analysis. Setting: Population-based sample; North-East England. Participants: 155 people (aged 87-89) with limiting dyspnoea. Measures: Dyspnoea assessed by questionnaire. Domiciliary echocardiography performed; LV systolic/diastolic function graded. NT-proBNP measured (Roche Diagnostics). Receiver operating characteristic analyses examined NT-proBNP's diagnostic accuracy for LV dysfunction. AUC for LVEF less than or equal to 50% was poor (0.58, 95% CI 0.49-0.65), but good for LVEF less than or equal to 40% (0.80, 95% CI 0.73-0.86). At ESC cut point (125ng/l), few cases of systolic dysfunction were missed (NPV 94-100%, depending on severity), but echocardiography (88%) and false positive rates (56-81 per 100 screened) were high. At NICE cut point (400ng/l), echocardiography (51%) and false positive rates (33-45) were lower; exclusionary performance was good for LVEF less than or equal to 40% (1 case missed per 100 screened, 15% of cases; NPV 97%), but poor for LVEF less than or equal to 50% (16 cases missed per 100 screened, 45% of cases; NPV 68%). Incorporating isolated moderate/severe diastolic dysfunction into target condition increased the proportion of cases missed (lower NPV), whilst improving case detection. Incorporating MI history as an additional referral prompt slightly reduced the number of cases missed at expense of higher echocardiography and false positive rates. High echocardiography rates and poor exclusionary performance for mild degrees of systolic dysfunction and for diastolic dysfunction limit NT-proBNP's utility as a rule-out test for LV dysfunction in very old people with limiting dyspnoea. Incorporating MI history as an additional echocardiography prompt yields no overall benefit compared to using NT-proBNP level alone.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
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    ABSTRACT: Motivation: During the past 4 years, whole-exome sequencing has become a standard tool for finding rare variants causing Mendelian disorders. In that time, there has also been a proliferation of both sequencing platforms and approaches to analyse their output. This requires approaches to assess the performance of different methods. Traditionally, criteria such as comparison with microarray data or a number of known polymorphic sites have been used. Here we expand such approaches, developing a maximum likelihood framework and using it to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of whole-exome sequencing data. Results: Using whole-exome sequencing data for a panel of 19 individuals, we show that estimated sensitivity and specificity are similar to those calculated using microarray data as a reference. We explore the effect of frequency misspecification arising from using an inappropriately selected population and find that, although the estimates are affected, the rankings across procedures remain the same. Availability and implementation: An implementation using Perl and R can be found at busso.ncl.ac.uk (Username: igm101; Password: Z1z1nts). Contact: Darren.Houniet@ogt.com; mauro.santibanez-koref@newcastle.ac.uk
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Bioinformatics
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    ABSTRACT: Alternative splicing-the production of multiple messenger RNA isoforms from a single gene-is regulated in part by RNA binding proteins. While the RBPs transformer2 alpha (Tra2α) and Tra2β have both been implicated in the regulation of alternative splicing, their relative contributions to this process are not well understood. Here we find simultaneous-but not individual-depletion of Tra2α and Tra2β induces substantial shifts in splicing of endogenous Tra2β target exons, and that both constitutive and alternative target exons are under dual Tra2α-Tra2β control. Target exons are enriched in genes associated with chromosome biology including CHEK1, which encodes a key DNA damage response protein. Dual Tra2 protein depletion reduces expression of full-length CHK1 protein, results in the accumulation of the DNA damage marker γH2AX and decreased cell viability. We conclude Tra2 proteins jointly control constitutive and alternative splicing patterns via paralog compensation to control pathways essential to the maintenance of cell viability.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Nature Communications
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    ABSTRACT: Background Around one third of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Whilst the prevalence of LV dysfunction is known to increase with age, the prevalence of LV dysfunction in different age groups in the PCI setting is not known and the effect of age on the prognostic value of LV function in the PCI setting has not been examined.Methods The relationship between LV function and 30-day mortality in patients undergoing PCI in different age groups (<60 years, 60 to <70 years, 70 to <80 years and ≥80 years) was studied in 246,840 patients in the UK between 2006 and 2011.ResultsPrevalent LV dysfunction in patients undergoing PCI increased with age; 25,106/83,161 (30.2%: <60 years), 24,114/76,895 (31.4%: 60 to <70 years), 23,580/64,711 36.4% (70 to <80 years) and 9,851/22,073 (44.6%) in patients aged 80 or over (P < 0.0001). Poor LV function was independently associated with increased risk of 30-day mortality outcomes in all age groups (OR 5.65:95% CI 4.21-7.58, age <60 years; OR 5.07: 95% CI 3.91-6.57, age 60 to <70 years; OR 4.50: 95% CI 3.64-5.57, 70 to <80 years and OR 4.83:95% CI 3.79-6.15, age ≥80 years).Conclusions Our analysis suggests that worsening LV function is an important independent predictor of worse 30-day mortality outcomes across all age groups and underscores the need for a measure of LV function in all patients for accurate risk stratification prior to PCI. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2014 · European Heart Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Rare variants in certain transcription factors involved in cardiac development cause Mendelian forms of congenital heart disease. The purpose of this study was to systematically assess the frequency of rare transcription factor variants in sporadic patients with the cardiac outflow tract malformation tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Methods and Results We sequenced the coding, 5′UTR, and 3′UTR regions of twelve transcription factor genes implicated in cardiac outflow tract development (NKX2.5, GATA4, ISL1, TBX20, MEF2C, BOP/SMYD1, HAND2, FOXC1, FOXC2, FOXH, FOXA2 and TBX1) in 93 non-syndromic, non-Mendelian TOF cases. We also analysed Illumina Human 660W-Quad SNP Array data for copy number variants in these genes; none were detected. Four of the rare variants detected have previously been shown to affect transactivation in in vitro reporter assays: FOXC1 p.P297S, FOXC2 p.Q444R, FOXH1 p.S113T and TBX1 p.P43_G61del PPPPRYDPCAAAAPGAPGP. Two further rare variants, HAND2 p.A25_A26insAA and FOXC1 p.G378_G380delGGG, A488_491delAAAA, affected transactivation in in vitro reporter assays. Each of these six functionally significant variants was present in a single patient in the heterozygous state; each of the four for which parental samples were available were maternally inherited. Thus in the 93 TOF cases we identified six functionally significant mutations in the secondary heart field transcriptional network. Significance This study indicates that rare genetic variants in the secondary heart field transcriptional network with functional effects on protein function occur in 3–13% of patients with TOF. This is the first report of a functionally significant HAND2 mutation in a patient with congenital heart disease.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · PLoS ONE

Publication Stats

5k Citations
1,303.20 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013-2015
    • The University of Manchester
      Manchester, England, United Kingdom
    • Academisch Medisch Centrum Universiteit van Amsterdam
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2014
    • Masaryk University
      • Centre for Biomedical Image Analysis
      Brünn, South Moravian, Czech Republic
  • 2001-2014
    • Newcastle University
      • • Institute of Genetic Medicine
      • • Institute for Ageing and Health
      • • School of Mathematics and Statistics
      Newcastle-on-Tyne, England, United Kingdom
  • 2003-2008
    • The Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
      Newcastle-on-Tyne, England, United Kingdom
  • 1996-2007
    • University of Oxford
      • Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
  • 2006
    • University of Newcastle
      Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia
  • 1995-2000
    • Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust
      • • Department of Cardiovascular Medicine
      • • Nuffield Department of Medicine
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom