Rosemary Tannock

University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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Publications (93)507.65 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: This is the second in a series of four empirical studies designed to develop International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF and Children and Youth version, ICF-CY) core sets for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The objective of this stage was to gather the opinions from international experts on which ability and disability concepts were considered relevant to functioning in ADHD. An email-based survey was carried out amongst international experts in ADHD. Relevant functional ability and disability concepts were extracted from their responses and linked to the ICF/-CY categories by two independent researchers using a standardised linking procedure. 174 experts from 11 different disciplines and 45 different countries completed the survey. Meaningful concepts identified in their responses were linked to 185 ICF/-CY categories. Of these, 83 categories were identified by at least 5 % of the experts and considered the most relevant to ADHD: 30 of these were related to Body functions (most identified: attention functions, 85 %), 30 to Activities and Participation (most identified: school education, 52 %), 20 to Environmental factors (most identified: support from immediate family, 61 %), and 3 to Body structures (most identified: structure of brain, 83 %). Experts also provided their views on particular abilities related to ADHD, naming characteristics such as high-energy levels, flexibility and resiliency. Gender differences in the expression of ADHD identified by experts pertained mainly to females showing more internalising (e.g. anxiety, low self-esteem) and less externalising behaviours (e.g. hyperactivity), leading to a risk of late- and under-diagnosis in females. Results indicate that the impact of ADHD extends beyond the core symptom domains, into all areas of life and across the lifespan. The current study in combination with three additional preparatory studies (comprehensive scoping review, focus groups, clinical study) will provide the scientific basis to define the ADHD ICF/-CY core sets for multi-purpose use in basic and applied research and every day clinical practice.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
  • Rosemary Tannock

    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: This is the first in a series of four empirical investigations to develop International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Sets for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The objective here was to use a comprehensive scoping review approach to identify the concepts of functional ability and disability used in the scientific ADHD literature and link these to the nomenclature of the ICF-CY. Systematic searches were conducted using Medline/PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC and Cinahl, to extract the relevant concepts of functional ability and disability from the identified outcome studies of ADHD. These concepts were then linked to ICF-CY by two independent researchers using a standardized linking procedure. Data from identified studies were analysed until saturation of ICF-CY categories was reached. Eighty studies were included in the final analysis. Concepts contained in these studies were linked to 128 ICF-CY categories. Of these categories, 68 were considered to be particularly relevant to ADHD (i.e., identified in at least 5 % of the studies). Of these, 32 were related to Activities and participation, 31 were related to Body functions, and five were related to environmental factors. The five most frequently identified categories were school education (53 %), energy and drive functions (50 %), psychomotor functions (50 %), attention functions (49 %), and emotional functions (45 %). The broad variety of ICF-CY categories identified in this study underlines the necessity to consider ability and disability in ADHD across all dimensions of life, for which the ICF-CY provides a valuable and universally applicable framework. These results, in combination with three additional preparatory studies (expert survey, focus groups, clinical study), will provide a scientific basis to define the ICF Core Sets for ADHD for multi-purpose use in basic and applied research, and every day clinical practice.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: Background: This multicenter, cluster-randomized, nonblinded study evaluated the effect of parental psychoeducation on medication persistence among children and adolescents with newly diagnosed attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods: Patients received standard medication alone or medication plus a parental psychoeducation program, and were followed for 12 months. The primary endpoint was time to withdrawal or termination of medication due to any cause. Secondary endpoints included change in ADHD symptom severity, functional outcome, program satisfaction, and safety. Results: A total of 208 patients completed the study, which was terminated early because recruitment had ceased. At 12 months, there was no significant difference between the psychoeducation and control groups in the proportion of patients who discontinued pharmacologic treatment (13.2% versus 14.3%, respectively; size effect -0.3, P=0.34; hazard ratio 0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.36–1.43). Psychoeducation was associated with a significantly greater improvement in ADHD symptoms but not in functional outcome. Parental satisfaction with psychoeducation was high, and satisfaction with pharmacologic treatment was significantly greater in the psychoeducation group. There were no safety concerns. Conclusion: No significant advantage for parental psychoeducation plus medication over medication alone in terms of time to medication withdrawal was observed. Psychoeducation had inconsistent but interesting effects on other outcomes.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
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    Rosemary Tannock
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    ABSTRACT: The recent publication of the latest version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) unleashed a torrent of dissatisfaction with and criticism of the ongoing use of a symptom-based classification system, based on descriptive phenotypical features. Thus, the ‘multiple memory systems’ framework proposed in the accompanying Annual Research Review by Goodman et al. (Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 55, 2014, XX) as a potential explanatory mechanism underlying several psychiatric disorders, is innovative and consistent with an emergent focus on transdiagnostic core mechanisms. In this commentary, I discuss the ‘merit and mire’ of the proposed framework, focusing on its potential for delineating neurobehavioral mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorders, with particular emphasis on one of the neurodevelopmental disorders, ADHD.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry
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    Sarah Gray · Steven Woltering · Karizma Mawjee · Rosemary Tannock
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    ABSTRACT: Background. The number of students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) enrolled in colleges and universities has increased markedly over the past few decades, giving rise to questions about how best to document symptoms and impairment in the post-secondary setting. The aim of the present study was to investigate the utility and psychometric properties of a widely-used rating scale for adults with ADHD, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-V1.1), in a sample of post-secondary students with ADHD. Methods. A total of 135 college students (mean age = 24, 42% males) with ADHD were recruited from Student Disability Services in post-secondary institutions. We compared informant responses on the ASRS administered via different modalities. First, students’ self-report was ascertained using the ASRS Screener administered via telephone interview, in which they were asked to provide real-life examples of behavior for each of the six items. Next, students self-reported symptoms on the 18-item paper version of the ASRS Symptom Checklist administered about 1–2 weeks later, and a collateral report using an online version of the 18-item ASRS Symptom Checklist. Students also completed self-report measures of everyday cognitive failure (CFQ) and executive functioning (BDEFS). Results. Results revealed moderate to good congruency between the 18-item ASRS-Self and ASRS-Collateral reports (correlation = .47), and between student self-report on the 6-item telephone-based and paper versions of the ASRS, with the paper version administered two weeks later (correlation = .66). The full ASRS self-report was related to impairment, such as in executive functioning (correlation = .63) and everyday cognitive failure (correlation = .74). Executive functioning was the only significant predictor of ASRS total scores. Discussion. Current findings suggest that the ASRS provides an easy-to-use, reliable, and cost-effective approach for gathering information about current symptoms of ADHD in college and university students. Collateral reports were moderately related to self-reports, although we note the difficulty in obtaining informant reports for this population. Use of a telephone interview to elicit behavioral descriptions for each item may be useful in future research that is required to specifically test the utility of the ASRS in, for example, documenting and confirming current reports of impairment due to ADHD symptoms and its positive and negative predictive power for diagnosis.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · PeerJ
  • Rachel J Gropper · Howell Gotlieb · Reena Kronitz · Rosemary Tannock
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of working memory (WM) training in college students with ADHD or learning disabilities (LD). Method: A total of 62 students (21 males, 41 females) were randomized to a 5-week intensive WM training program or a wait-list control group. Participants were evaluated before treatment, 3 weeks after completion, and at 2-month follow-up. The criterion measures were standardized tests of auditory-verbal and visual-spatial WM. Near transfer measures included other cognitive tasks; far transfer measures included academic tasks and behavioral rating scales. Results: Intent-to-treat analysis revealed that participants receiving WM training showed significantly greater improvements on the criterion WM measures and self-reported fewer ADHD symptoms and cognitive failures. The follow-up assessment indicated that gains in WM were maintained, as were improvements in cognitive failures. Conclusion: Computerized WM training is a feasible and possibly viable approach for enhancing WM in college students with ADHD or LD.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of Attention Disorders
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    Soyeon Kim · Zhongxu Liu · Daniel Glizer · Rosemary Tannock · Steven Woltering
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate neural and behavioural correlates of visual encoding during a working memory (WM) task in young adults with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). A sample of 30 college students currently meeting a diagnosis of ADHD and 25 typically developing students, matched on age and gender, performed a delayed match-to-sample task with low and high memory load conditions. Dense-array electroencephalography was recorded. Specifically, the P3, an event related potential (ERP) associated with WM, was examined because of its relation with attentional allocation during WM. Task performance (accuracy, reaction time) as well as performance on other neuropsychological tasks of WM was analyzed. Neural differences were found between the groups. Specifically, the P3 amplitude was smaller in the ADHD group compared to the comparison group for both load conditions at parietal-occipital sites. Lower scores on behavioural working memory tasks were suggestive of impaired behavioural WM performance in the ADHD group. Findings from this study provide the first evidence of neural differences in the encoding stage of WM in young adults with ADHD, suggesting ineffective allocation of attentional resources involved in encoding of information in WM. These findings, reflecting alternate neural functioning of WM, may explain some of the difficulties related to WM functioning that college students with ADHD report in their every day cognitive functioning.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Clinical neurophysiology: official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
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    ABSTRACT: In the study of health and quality of life in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), it is of paramount importance to include assessment of functioning. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) provides a comprehensive, universally accepted framework for the description of functioning in relation to health conditions. In this paper, the authors outline the process to develop ICF Core Sets for ADHD. ICF Core Sets are subgroups of ICF categories selected to capture the aspects of functioning that are most likely to be affected in specific disorders. The ICF categories that will be included in the ICF Core Sets for ADHD will be determined at an ICF Core Set Consensus Conference, wherein evidence from four preliminary studies (a systematic review, an expert survey, a patient and caregiver qualitative study, and a clinical cross-sectional study) will be integrated. Comprehensive and Brief ICF Core Sets for ADHD will be developed with the goal of providing useful standards for research and clinical practice, and to generate a common language for the description of functioning in ADHD in different areas of life and across the lifespan.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
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    Steven Woltering · Zhongxu Liu · Alan Rokeach · Rosemary Tannock
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    ABSTRACT: Inhibitory control allows individuals to suppress prepotent responses and resist irrelevant stimuli, and is thought to be a core deficit in Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Whereas numerous studies have investigated neural mechanisms underlying inhibitory control deficits in children with ADHD, less is known about underlying mechanisms in young adults with ADHD. This study explores the neural correlates of inhibitory control in college students with ADHD - a population that, despite comparatively high educational attainment, still shows marked functional impairments in academic, social, and occupational functioning. Participants were 54 college students with ADHD and 29 typically developing peers. Specifically the fronto-centrally located N2 and the centro-parietal P3 event-related potential (ERP) components were hypothesized to show decreased amplitudes for the ADHD group due to their known association with inhibitory control. Dense array electroencephalography (EEG) data was collected during a Go/nogo task. Results show lower accuracy rates for the ADHD group and significant reductions in P3 amplitude as well as a trend for reduced N2 amplitude in nogo trials where subjects successfully inhibited a response. Notably, nogo N2 and P3 amplitudes correlated with the number of ADHD symptoms: namely, smaller amplitudes were associated with more symptoms. We conclude that when compared to their typically developing peers, relatively high functioning adults with ADHD still show a deviant neural signature. These results contribute to the growing literature of adult ADHD and increase our understanding of the neural correlates of inhibitory control associated with ADHD.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Neuropsychologia
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    Soyeon Kim · Zhongxu Liu · Daniel Glizer · Rosemary Tannock · Steven Woltering
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To investigate neural and behavioural correlates of visual encoding during a working memory (WM) task in young adults with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Methods A sample of 30 college students currently meeting a diagnosis of ADHD and 25 typically developing students, matched on age and gender, performed a delayed match-to-sample task with low and high memory load conditions. Dense-array electroencephalography was recorded. Specifically, the P3, an event related potential (ERP) associated with WM, was examined because of its relation with attentional allocation during WM. Task performance (accuracy, reaction time) as well as performance on other neuropsychological tasks of WM was analyzed. Results Neural differences were found between the groups. Specifically, the P3 amplitude was smaller in the ADHD group compared to the comparison group for both load conditions at parietal-occipital sites. Lower scores on behavioral working memory tasks were suggestive of impaired behavioural WM performance in the ADHD group. Conclusions Findings from this study provide the first evidence of neural differences in the encoding stage of WM in young adults with ADHD, suggesting ineffective allocation of attentional resources involved in encoding of information in WM. Significance These findings, reflecting alternate neural functioning of WM, may explain some of the difficulties related to WM functioning that college students with ADHD report in their every day cognitive functioning.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013
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    Steven Woltering · Jessica Jung · Zhongxu Liu · Rosemary Tannock
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    ABSTRACT: Background Among the most robust neural abnormalities differentiating individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) from typically developing controls are elevated levels of slow oscillatory activity (e.g., theta) and reduced fast oscillatory activity (e.g., alpha and beta) during resting-state electroencephalography (EEG). However, studies of resting state EEG in adults with ADHD are scarce and yield inconsistent findings. Methods EEG profiles, recorded during a resting-state with eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions, were compared for college students with ADHD (n = 18) and a nonclinical comparison group (n = 17). Results The ADHD group showed decreased power for fast frequencies, especially alpha. This group also showed increased power in the slow frequency bands, however, these effects were strongest using relative power computations. Furthermore, the theta/beta ratio measure was reliably higher for the ADHD group. All effects were more pronounced for the eyes-closed compared to the eyes-open condition. Measures of intra-individual variability suggested that brains of the ADHD group were less variable than those of controls. Conclusions The findings of this pilot study reveal that college students with ADHD show a distinct neural pattern during resting state, suggesting that oscillatory power, especially alpha, is a useful index for reflecting differences in neural communication of ADHD in early adulthood.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Behavioral and Brain Functions
  • Rosemary Tannock
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    ABSTRACT: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is currently undergoing revision that will lead to a fifth edition (DSM-5) in 2013. This article first provides a brief synopsis of the DSM-5 administrative structure, procedures, and guiding principles to enhance understanding of how changes are made in the DSM. The next two sections (on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and learning disorders, respectively) highlight the major concerns and controversies surrounding the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for these two disorders and provide a rationale for the proposed changes to the criteria, along with a commentary on the empirical evidence on which the proposed changes were based.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Journal of Learning Disabilities
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Youths with coexisting learning disabilities (LD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for poor academic and social outcomes. The underlying cognitive deficits, such as poor working memory (WM), are not well targeted by current treatments for either LD or ADHD. Emerging evidence suggests that WM might be improved by intensive and adaptive computerized training, but it remains unclear whether this intervention would be effective for adolescents with severe LD and comorbid ADHD. Methods: A total of sixty 12- to 17-year olds with LD/ADHD (52 male, 8 female, IQ > 80) were randomized to one of two computerized intervention programs: working memory training (Cogmed RM) or math training (Academy of Math) and evaluated before and 3 weeks after completion. The criterion measures of WM included auditory-verbal and visual-spatial tasks. Near and far transfer measures included indices of cognitive and behavioral attention and academic achievement. Results: Adolescents in the WM training group showed greater improvements in a subset of WM criterion measures compared with those in the math-training group, but no training effects were observed on the near or far measures. Those who showed the most improvement on the WM training tasks at school were rated as less inattentive/hyperactive at home by parents. Conclusions: Results suggest that WM training may enhance some aspects of WM in youths with LD/ADHD, but further development of the training program is required to promote transfer effects to other domains of function.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry
  • Kathleen Peets · Rosemary Tannock
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the errors and self-corrections in narrative abilities of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and ADHD plus Language Impairments (LI). Forty-five subjects comprising three groups of 15 (ADHD, ADHD +LI and Comparison Group [CG]) generated a narrative based on a wordless picture-book. The ADHD group showed a lower verbal output and detected errors later than the other two groups. The ADHD group had fewer errors than the ADHD+LI group, who had a higher rate of grammatical errors. The ADHD group also had fewer utterances associated with the pictures depicting the central narrative. Findings indicate that the ADHD+LI group's difficulties are confined to language and are distinct from those of ADHD, contrary to the theory of a double-deficit.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2011 · Revista de Logopedia, Foniatria y Audiologia
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    C Popovich · C Dockstader · D Cheyne · R Tannock
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    ABSTRACT: We used magnetoencephalography to investigate the effect of directed attention on sensorimotor mu (8-12 Hz) response (mu reactivity) to non-painful electrical stimulation of the median nerve in healthy adults. Mu desynchronization in the 10-12 Hz bandwidth is typically observed during higher-order cognitive functions including selective attentional processing of sensorimotor information (Pfurtscheller, Neuper, & Krauz, 2000). We found attention-related sex differences in mu reactivity, with females showing (i) prolonged mu desynchrony when attending to somatosensory stimuli, (ii) attentional modulation of the mu response based on whether attention was directed towards or away from somatosensory stimuli, which was absent in males, and (iii) a trend for greater neuronal excitability of the primary somatosensory region suggesting greater physiological responsiveness to sensory stimulation overall. Our findings suggest sex differences in attentional control strategies when processing somatosensory stimuli, whose salience may be greater for females. These sex differences in attention to somatosensory stimuli may help elucidate the well-documented sex biases in pain processing wherein females typically report greater sensitivity to experimental and clinical pain.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2010 · Neuropsychologia
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    Orly Rubinsten · Rosemary Tannock
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    ABSTRACT: Math anxiety, defined as a negative affective response to mathematics, is known to have deleterious effects on math performance in the general population. However, the assumption that math anxiety is directly related to math performance, has not yet been validated. Thus, our primary objective was to investigate the effects of math anxiety on numerical processing in children with specific deficits in the acquisition of math skills (Developmental Dyscalculia; DD) by using a novel affective priming task as an indirect measure. Participants (12 children with DD and 11 typically-developing peers) completed a novel priming task in which an arithmetic equation was preceded by one of four types of priming words (positive, neutral, negative or related to mathematics). Children were required to indicate whether the equation (simple math facts based on addition, subtraction, multiplication or division) was true or false. Typically, people respond to target stimuli more quickly after presentation of an affectively-related prime than after one that is unrelated affectively. Participants with DD responded faster to targets that were preceded by both negative primes and math-related primes. A reversed pattern was present in the control group. These results reveal a direct link between emotions, arithmetic and low achievement in math. It is also suggested that arithmetic-affective priming might be used as an indirect measure of math anxiety.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2010 · Behavioral and Brain Functions

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2009 · American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Slowed speed of processing and impaired rapid temporal processing (RTP) have been proposed to underlie specific language impairment (SLI), but it is not clear that these dysfunctions are unique to SLI. We considered the contribution of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which frequently co-occurs with language impairments, to performances on processing tasks. School-aged children who had SLI without concurrent ADHD (n=14), ADHD without concurrent SLI (n=14), and typical development (TD, n=28) performed two nonverbal speeded tasks and one auditory RTP task. RTP impairments were found in many children with SLI and ADHD, and some children with TD. Children with ADHD demonstrated slower processing speed than children with SLI or TD. Overall, findings questioned the uniqueness of these processing dysfunctions to language impairments and the validity of the behavioural paradigms traditionally used to estimate processing dysfunctions. Accounts of SLI should be further scrutinized by considering the influence of other disorders. LEARNING OUTCOMES: Readers will (1) become familiar with areas of overlap between SLI and ADHD, (2) understand some of the confounds associated with behavioural measures of processing speed in children, and (3) recognize the value in testing models of language disorders by including participants with other types of disorders.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · Journal of Communication Disorders
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    C Dockstader · D Cheyne · R Tannock
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have shown evidence of somatosensory deficits in individuals with attentional difficulties yet relatively little is known about the role of attention in the processing of somatosensory input. Neuromagnetic imaging studies have shown that rhythmic oscillations within the human somatosensory cortex are strongly modulated by somatosensory stimulation and may reflect the normal processing of such stimuli. However, few studies have examined how attention influences these cortical oscillations. We examined attentional effects on human somatosensory oscillations during median nerve stimulation by conducting time-frequency analyses of neuromagnetic recordings in healthy adults. We found that selective attention modulated somatosensory oscillations in the alpha, beta, and gamma bands that were both phase-locked and non-phase-locked to the stimulus. In the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), directing the subject's attention toward the somatosensory stimulus resulted in increased gamma band power (30-55 Hz) that was phase-locked to stimulus onset. Directed attention also produced an initial suppression (desynchrony) followed by enhancement (synchrony) of beta band power (13-25 Hz) that was not phase-locked to the stimulus. In the secondary somatosensory cortex (SII), directing attention towards the stimulus increased phase-locked alpha (7-9 Hz) power approximately 30 ms after onset of phase-locked gamma in SI, followed by a non-phase-locked increase in alpha power. We suggest that earlier phase-locked oscillatory power may reflect the relay of input from SI to SII, whereas later non-phase-locked rhythms reflect stimulus-induced oscillations that are modulated by selective attention and may thus reflect enhanced processing of the stimulus underlying the perception of somatosensory events.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · NeuroImage

Publication Stats

5k Citations
507.65 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1999-2015
    • University of Toronto
      • • Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
      • • Department of Applied Psychology and Human Development
      • • Ontario Institute for Studies in Education
      • • Institute of Medical Sciences
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      • • Hospital for Sick Children
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 1989-2014
    • SickKids
      • • Community Health Systems Resource Group
      • • Program in Neurosciences and Mental Health (NMH)
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2002
    • AstraZeneca
      Tukholma, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 2001
    • Mount Saint Vincent University
      Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    • Toronto Western Hospital
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    • University of Canterbury
      • Department of Psychology
      Christchurch, Canterbury, New Zealand
  • 1995
    • Childcare Resource and Research Unit
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada