Publications (4)17.25 Total impact
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been hypothesized that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), secreted by ileal L cells, plays a key-role in the resolution of type 2 diabetes after bariatric operations whose common feature is an expedite nutrient delivery to the hindgut. Ileal transposition (IT), an operation that permits L-cell stimulation by undigested food, was employed to verify this theory. IT was carried out in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) type 2 diabetic rats and in euglycemic Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, food-intake, body weight, pancreas morphology, and function were evaluated to track the effects of IT on diabetes. Intact GLP-1 secretion and gene expression pattern of the transposed ileum were investigated to verify the molecular bases of the hindgut action. In GK rats, IT significantly improved glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and acute insulin response without affecting body weight and food intake. Immunohistochemistry revealed remodeled islets strictly resembling that of euglycemic rats and signs of beta-cell neogenesis starting with exocrine structures. GLP-1 secretion in GK transposed rats was characterized by a more sustained response to oral glucose compared with nontreated rats. Gene expression of Proglucagon, Proconvertase 1/3 (PC1/3), and Chromogranin A in the transposed ileum significantly enhanced. Effects on glucose metabolism and pancreas morphology were not observed in the euglycemic rats as a consequence of the glucose-dependent action of GLP-1. This study gives strong evidences for the crucial role of the hindgut in the resolution of diabetes after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (GBP) and biliopancreatic diversion (BPD). Moreover, these findings confirm at the preclinical level that IT is a surgical procedure of possible relevance in the therapy of type 2 diabetes in non-overweight and mildly obese patients.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Surgical operations which shorten the intestinal tract between the stomach and the terminal ileum result in an early improvement in type 2 diabetes, and one possible explanation is the arrival of undigested food in the terminal ileum. This study was designed to evaluate the role of the distal ileum in the improvement of glucose control in type 2 diabetic patients who underwent bariatric surgery. An ileal transposition (IT) to the jejunum was performed in lean diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats. The IT was compared to sham-operated diabetic rats and a control group of diabetic rats. Non-diabetic controls were age-matched Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, which underwent IT and no operation. Food intake and body weight were measured. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed 10 days before the operation and 10 days, 30 days and 45 days after the surgery. GLP-1 and insulin were measured during the OGTT 45 days after surgery. An insulin tolerance test (ITT) was performed 50 days after surgery. Glucose tolerance improved in the IT diabetic group compared with both the sham-operated animals and control diabetic group 30 days and 45 days after surgery (P=0.029 and P=0.023, respectively). Insulin sensitivity, as measured by an ITT, was not significantly different between diabetic groups and the normal groups respectively after surgery. No differences in basal glucose and glucose tolerance were noted between non-diabetic operated animals and control non-diabetic rats. No differences were recorded between the diabetic rat groups and the non-diabetic rats in terms of weight and food intake. GLP-1 levels were significantly higher in the IT diabetic group compared with the sham-operated rats (P=0.05). Ileal transposition is effective in inducing an improvement in glucose tolerance in lean diabetic rats without affecting weight and food intake. The possible mechanism underlying the early improvement of diabetes after bariatric surgery may be due to the action of the terminal ileum through an insulin-independent action.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article discusses different aspects concerning classification/nomenclature, biochemical properties and pathophysiological roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which are pivotal to interpret the concept of oxidative stress. In vitro studies in both the prokaryotes and eukaryotes clearly demonstrate that exogenous or constitutive and inducible endogenous sources of ROS together with cofactors such as transition metals can damage virtually all the biomolecules. This adverse chemistry is at the origin of structural and metabolic defects that ultimately may lead to cell dysfunction and death as underlying mechanisms in tissue degeneration processes. The same biomolecular interpretation of aging has been proposed to embodies an oxidative stress-based process and oxidative stress may virtually accompany all the inflammatory events. As a consequence, ROS have proposed to play several roles in the pathogenesis of chronic-degenerative conditions, such as athero-thrombotic events, neurodegeneration, cancer, some forms of anemia, auto-immune diseases, and the entire comorbidity of uremia and diabetes. Nowadays, the chance to investigate biochemical and toxicological aspects of ROS with advanced biomolecular tools has, if needed, still more emphasized the interest on this area of biomedicine. These technological advancements and the huge information available in literature represent in our time a challenge to further understand the clinical meaning of oxidative stress and to develop specific therapeutic strategies.